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[2019年整理]跨文化交际culture.ppt

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2019年整理 2019 整理 文化 交际 culture
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Unit 1: Culture,Teaching Objectives,1.To understand the definitions of culture. 2. To know about the metaphors of culture. 3. To learn about the characteristics of culture.,Warm – up Questions,1. How did Chinese and American perceive Parents’ beating their own child differently? To show respect to the other or give the face to the other Illegal as the child abuse,2. What is a good friend in Chinese and American culture? Be loyal to each other and never betray even to lie Be honest and constructive and helpful,3. How did Sunwukong in A Journey to the West represent the traditional Chinese values and ethics? Warmhearted, compassionate, perseverant Bad-tempered, violent,Definition of Culture,Culture is ubiquitous, multi-dimensional and all-pervasive, as we have it almost anywhere and anytime. So what is culture? It is estimated that there are more than 164 definitions of culture. We are trying to examine the three ingredients of culture to reach an consensus (pg. 5-6).,Three Ingredients,artifacts behavior concepts (beliefs, values, world views…) e.g. Whereas the money is considered an artifact, the actual spending and saving of the money is behavior. Then the value placed on it is a concept.,From Anthropologic Perspective,Culture is “the civilizations and achievements of a particular time or people.“ This is an anthropologist's definition.,,,,,From Intellectual Perspective,According to the Concise Oxford Dictionary, culture is “the arts and other manifestations of human intellectual achievement regarded collectively“. It refers to intellectual perspective, such as music, art, exhibition, dance, etc. When you talk about Picasso, Beethoven, etc., you are talking about culture.,,,,,From Psychological Perspective,Culture is an observable pattern of behavior which distinguishes the members of one category of people from another.,,From Intercultural Communication Perspective,Culture is a learned set of shared interpretations about beliefs, values, and norms, which affect the behavior of a relatively large group of people.,Summary,Culture involves at least three components: the material and spiritual products people produce what they do what they think,Metaphors for Culture,By examining the metaphors for culture, we are going to figure out the prominent characteristics of culture. The Cultural Iceberg The Culture Onion,The aspects of culture that are explicit, visible, taught.,The aspects of culture that are intangible and not taught directly.,Just as an iceberg which has a visible section above the waterline and a larger invisible section below the waterline, culture has some aspects that are observable and others that can only be suspected and imagined. Also like an iceberg, the part of culture that is visible is only a small part of a much bigger whole. It is said nine-tenth of culture is below the surface. (pg. 7),Mongolians are very serious and composed in their expressions. In the city, this is beginning to change slightly. You’ll see a number of my students smiling. But this is not traditional. When I first came here, my friends asked me why Americans smile so much. They felt that Americana smile even at people they don’t like and that quite insincere. Lisa Buchwalder,Kimono; Saki; Tatami the Beatles,,Greetings,Work to live Live to work,Culture in the outer layer: A particular symbol is chosen gives a good idea of the culture of that instance. Heroes are chosen as examples for people in a particular group. Culture in the middle layer: The things one is supposed to do in certain situations or at certain moments of the day, the week or the year. Culture in the inner nucleus layer: At the centre of the onion lie the values, the reasons why we do. These values are the core of the culture, but more difficult to observe and to know, even in one’s own culture.,Culture can be imagined as an onion, consisting of multiple layers.,Characteristics of Culture,Culture is shared. All communications take place by means of symbols.,,,,,,,Why can the picture on the money prove the man is the Sultan of Brunei? Why does the image on money usually symbolize?,Culture is learned. Culture is learned, not inherited. It derives from one’s social environment, not from one’s genes. Enculturation(文化习得): all the activities of learning one’s culture are called enculturation.,An American boy was born in the united States, but grew up in China, as his parents were doing business in China. He finished his primary school and junior school in China. At school he studied and played with his Chinese classmates and spoke mandarin. But he spoke English with his parents at home. What troubled his parents most was that his thinking and behaviors were just identical to a Chinese boy’s, which often made his communication with his parents difficult.,Culture is dynamic. (pg. 6) Culture is subject to change. It’s dynamic rather than static, constantly changing and evolving under the impact of events and through contact with other cultures. Acculturation(文化适应): the process which adopts the changes brought about by another culture and develops an increased similarity between the two cultures.,Culture is ethnocentric(文化中心主义). Ethnocentric is the belief that your own cultural background is superior. Inferior complex and foreign things worshipping mentality The foreign moon is rounder. Miss American’s dream,Ethnocentrism Why does the fact of calling Asia the east actually manifest the Eurocentric ethnocentrism? How do we deal with ethnocentrism?,
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