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[2019年整理]跨文化交际全部课件.ppt

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2019年整理 2019 整理 文化 交际 全部 课件
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Session 1 Culture, Communication, Intercultural Communication,Importance of Intercultural Communication,Why did you choose this course? Chances for IC are caused by globalization Spurring development of transportation and communication systems (shortened touring time, television networks, the internet, international film industry) Cultural migration between nations (multiculturalism) New economic arena (multinational corporations) Ever-increasing world population (finite natural resources, pollution, international conflicts),Warming up,Make a list of images from your home culture and try to explain what they express about who the people of your culture are and what their relationship is to people from other cultures. Which image do you prefer? Which do you think are the images that most truly express how people feel about themselves and the world?,Lecture Outline,definition,,,,Intercultural communication,culture,,,characteristics,,,,communication,functions,,,,definition,elements,mode,characteristics,,definition,forms,elements,right attitudes,,,1. What is culture?,More deeply: what the behavior and customs mean to the people who are following them,On the surface: customs and behavior,In a word: Culture is all about meanings Hall: Culture is everything and everywhere,Sir Edward Tylor’s definition in 1871 (first use of this term): “that complex whole which includes knowledge, belief, art, morals, law, custom, and any other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of society”,Kroeber and Kluckhohn (1952) ---- Culture: A Critical Review of Concepts and Definitions (listing more than 300 definitions),Culture consists of patterns, explicit and implicit, of and for behavior acquired and transmitted by symbols, constituting the distinctive achievement of human groups, including their embodiment in artifacts; the essential core of culture consists of traditional (i.e. historically derived and selected) ideas and especially their attached values; culture systems may, on the one hand, be considered as products of action, on the other as conditioning elements of further action.,Porter & Samovar The deposit(沉淀物) of knowledge, experience, beliefs, values, attitudes, meanings, hierarchies, religion, notions of time, roles, spatial relations, concepts of the universe, and material objects and possessions acquired by a group of people in the course of generations through individual and group striving. ----Intercultural Communication: A Reader,Basic functions of culture,Culture makes all things easy. - by providing meaning to events, objects and people --- making life less confusing - by providing us with structure --- the skills and rules necessary to adapt to our world,A culture can also be understood as a particular way to satisfy our human needs. Let’s follow Abraham Maslow!,,,,,,,ADAPTIVE,LEARNED,transmitted,INTEGRATED,symbolic,CULTURE IS…,The Characteristics of Culture,,,unconscious,Subject to change,1) Culture is learned consciously or unconsciously: (enculturation) **through Proverbs, Folktales, Myths, and legends **through Art e.g. Beijing Opera **through Mass Media,,,,Behaviour Traditions Artefacts – buildings, clothes, art etc.,Beliefs Attitudes Perceptions Values,way of doing things(10%),way of thinking(90%),2) Most part of culture is unconscious Culture as an iceberg,explicit,tacit,Can you tell which of the following are above the water and which are below?,What people eat What people wear What games children play How to use time How to introduce people How to participate in ceremonies Rules for gestures Rules for facial expressions and eye contact Etiquette Work speed What is right or wrong, beautiful or ugly, clean or dirty, good or bad, etc. Car parking,Case Study Richard, an engineer from the United States, was invited to take tea with one of his British colleagues while he was in England. This was a purely social, relaxed occasion. Tea was served along with sugar and cream. As he helped himself to some sugar and cream, he sensed he had done something wrong. Can you tell what went wrong?,“Help yourself” VS. “Be my guest”,Oct. 5, 2005 21st Century Changing Tastes “This July China Daily reported severe obesity affects 16 to 20 per cent China’s young urbanites.” “A major study released by Centre for Public Nutrition and Development last September found as income increases, energy intake increases. But a high percentage of that extra energy comes from fat. And grains and potatoes were eaten less.”,3) Culture is subject to change,4) Culture is transmitted from generation to generation 5) Culture is based on symbols 6) Culture is integrated 7) Culture is adaptive (acculturation),,Linell Davis: five metaphors (to be more easily understood),Culture is like an iceberg some is visible (history, literature, customs) most is invisible (feelings and attitudes) Culture is our software physical selves as the hardware, become human when programmed with the software of culture Culture is like the water a fish swims in notice everything except the water Culture is the story we tell ourselves about ourselves people tell stories to tell who they are and stories also change to adapt to changing circumstances Culture is the grammar of our behavior people learn their cultural grammar unconsciously and apply them automatically in order to behave appropriately in any society,Mainstream culture, co-culture or subculture?,When we talk about culture, we mainly refer to mainstream culture. Co-culture Vs subculture,2. What is Communication?,It comes from the Latin word “communicare”, it means to give or to exchange. Now, the most common meaning of “communication” is to give or exchange information or ideas. Communication is our ability to share our ideas and feelings. (the basis of all human contact) Communication is a dynamic, systematic process in which meanings are created and reflected in human interaction with symbols. (J.T.Wood),Elements of communication,Context Participants Messages (meanings, symbols, encoding and decoding) Channels Noise (external noise, internal noise, semantic noise) feedback,Linear Model of Communication,Sender,Receiver,Channel (message),encoding,decoding,noise,Is this an effective model of communication?,Mode of Communication,Interactive Model of Communication,Sender Receiver,Sender Receiver,encoding,decoding,noise,Feedback is essential to good communication,decoding,encoding,,,message / channel,message / channel,,,Transactional Model of Communication,Sender Receiver,Sender Receiver,encoding,decoding,noise,We continually influence each other through communication,decoding,encoding,,,message / channel,message / channel,Fields of Experience,Relationship Dimensions,,,,,Characteristics of communication,1) Communication is dynamic,Communication is an ongoing activity. It is not fixed. A word or action does not stay frozen when you communicate; it is immediately replaced with yet another word or action.,Characteristics of communication,2) Communication is interactive A interactive view holds that communicators are simultaneously sending and receiving messages at every instant that they are involved in conversations.,Characteristics of communication,3) Communication is irreversible,Communication is an irreversible process. We can never undo what has already been done. Although we may try to qualify, negate, or somehow reduce the effects of our message, once it has been sent and received, the message itself cannot be reversed.,Characteristics of communication,4) Communication is contextual.,All communication takes place within a setting or situation called a context. By context, we mean the place where people meet, the social purpose for being together, and the nature of the relationship. Thus the context includes the physical, social, and interpersonal settings.,6. Intercultural Communication,Samovar & Porter Intercultural communication is communication between people whose cultural perceptions and symbol systems are distinct enough to alter the communication event. intercultural communication refers to any communication between two members of any cultural communities.,Intercultural Communication Vs Cross-cultural Communication,Cross-cultural communication the similarities and differences in value orientations, affective dispositions, relationship management, communicative styles (psychological process) Intercultural communication the penetration by a member of one culture into another culture (practical significance),International communication Interracial communication Interethnic communication Intracultural communication,Forms of Intercultural Communication,a. International communication,International communication takes place between nations and governments rather than individuals; it is quite formal and ritualized(仪式化) .,United Nations Conference,,b. Interracial communication,Interracial communication occurs when the sender and the receiver exchanging messages are from different races.,,c. Interethnic communication,Ethnic groups usually form their own communities in a country or culture. These groups share a common origin or heritage that is apt to influence family names, language, religion, values, and the like.,,d. Intracultural communication,It is defined as communication between or among members of the same culture.,,Discussion: Discuss the following cases of communication and decide to what extent they are intercultural.,Communication between A Chinese and an American, A Canadian and a South African, A male and a female A father and a son A person from Beijing and one from Tibet, A first-generation Chinese American and a third-generation one, A student form Hong Kong and a teacher from Xi’an A software technician and a farmer, etc,,任何人与人之间的交际都应该被视为跨文化交际。 --Singer Samovar & Porter: 西方人-亚洲人 最大分歧 意大利人-沙特阿拉伯人 美国人-希腊人 美国人-德国人 美国人-操法语加拿大人 盎格鲁撒克逊血统的美国白人-拘留地的印第安人 盎格鲁撒克逊血统的美国白人-美国黑人 美国人-英国人 美国人-操英语加拿大人 美国城市居民-美国乡村居民 天主教徒-浸礼教徒 主张男性权力者-主张男女平等者 异性恋者-同性恋者 环境保护者-房地产开发商 最小分歧,,,What we focus on in this course is communication between cultures beyond country boundaries.,7.Elements of Intercultural Communication,Perceptions (beliefs, values, attitudes, world views, social organizations) Verbal processes (the ways in which cultures employ symbols to portray things and experiences) Nonverbal processes (share thoughts and feelings by way of bodily behavior, time and space) Contextual elements (business, education and health care, tourism and personal relationships),What was wrong?,Case Study While visiting Egypt, Richard, an engineer from the United States, was invited to a spectacular dinner at the home of an Egyptian friend. As he was leaving their home, making effort to thank them for their dinner, he noticed their picture and made a compliment by saying “What beautiful frames your pictures are in!” However he sensed something wrong. His sincere compliment was obviously misunderstood.,,埃及习俗礼仪-社交礼仪 握手礼---禁忌是不要用左手 拥抱礼---力度适中 亲吻礼---根据交往对象不同分为: 吻面礼,一般用于亲友之间,尤其是女性之间。 吻手礼,向尊长表示谢意或是向恩人致谢时使用。 飞吻礼,多见于情侣之间。,,埃及习俗礼仪-服饰礼仪 在大中城市埃及人的打扮已于国际接规,但是,老年人着装较为保守,奇装异服埃及人通常不问津。 注意如果送礼品给埃及朋友一定记住,图案千万不要是星星、猪、狗、猫及熊猫的图案,因为有悖民族习俗。 埃及习俗礼仪-餐饮礼仪 埃及人爱吃羊肉、鸡肉、鸭肉、土豆、豌豆、南瓜、洋葱、茄子和胡萝卜。他们习惯用自制的甜点招待客人,客人若是谢绝一点也不吃,会让主人失望也失敬于人。,,埃及习俗礼仪-习俗禁忌 国花:莲花 国兽:猫 国石:橄榄石 喜欢的颜色:绿色和白色 讨厌的颜色:黑色、蓝色 喜欢的数字:5、7 其他:喜欢葱认为它代表真理;忌讳针,是骂人的话;要会给小费,否则寸步难行;与人交谈注意:男士不要主动与妇女攀谈;不要夸人身材苗条;不要称道埃及人家中的物品,人家会以为你是索要此物;不要与埃及谈论宗教纠纷,中东政局及男女关系。,What is the correct attitude?,The communicator cannot stop at knowing that the people he is working with have different customs, goals, and thought patterns from his own. … He must be able to work with them and within them, neither losing his own values in the confrontation nor protecting himself behind a wall of intellectual detachment. (Adapted from L.M.Barna, “Stumbling Blocks in Intercultural Communication”, 1992),,Session 2,Cultural Diversity,Right attitude in this global village,Appreciate similarities, Accept differences,We are alike, We are different,Warm-up: Read the following sayings aloud, and think it over: what do they mean to you?,Human beings draw close to one another by their common nature, but habits and customs keep them apart. ---- Confucian saying,性相近,习相远 --论语,God gave to every people a cup, cup of clay, and from this cup they drank life… They all dipped in the water, but their cups were different. ---- R. Benedict,上帝给了每个人一个杯子、一杯粘土,并且人们从这个杯子里面啜饮人生.他们都是浸在水里面的,只是他们的杯子不一样而已 ----本尼迪克特,Joke appreciation for cultural diversity,A young lady’s miniskirt was accidentally torn open by a young man. Please decide where they come from according to their responses to this incident.,Joke appreciation for cultural diversity,1. Before the man saying sorry, the woman bowed down and said in a tender voice: sorry, it is all my fault. It is all the bad quality of my skirt. I am sorry for the trouble I have brought to you.,Japan,Over-courtesy and male-dominated,Joke appreciation for cultural diversity,2. Before the man saying sorry, the woman gave him a name-card and said: “This is my lawyer’s phone number. He will talk with you about your sex harassment. See you in the court.”,America,A place where law talks!,Joke appreciation for cultural diversity,3. Before the man saying sorry, the woman covered the torn part of the skirt with a newspaper in hand and shyly said: “Sir, can you send me home? It is not very far from here.” Then the young man put his coat on the girl and called a taxi to send her home.,England,Gentle and conservative,Joke appreciation for cultural diversity,4. Before the man saying sorry, the woman gurgled and put her hand on the man’s shoulder: “Sir, if you do not mind, you can buy me a red rose to show your apology.” Then the man bought her a rose and they went to a hotel together to study more about the skirt.,France,Friendly and romantic,Joke appreciation for cultural diversity,5. Before the man saying sorry, the woman flew into rage and gave the man a box on the face: “ni ge shao, xiang qi lao niang doufu, lao zi da si ni.” Then she took out a mobile phone and dialed number and a gang of people came. The whole thing developed into a riot.,Wuhan,hot and irritable,Joke appreciation for cultural diversity,6. The man felt very embarrassed and made a sincere apology to the girl. But the beautiful girl smiled and said: _______________________________,Thailand,Ladyboy, sheman,Don’t worry, Sir. I am a man, too”.,Why is one culture different from another?,On the surface Perception (how we sense the world) Belief (what we believe as true) Value (a system of criteria known as rules and guideposts),Why is one culture different from another?,More deeply World view (religion) - Spiritual and psychological needs of people (life and death, creation of universe, relationship between humans and nature) - Social aspects of a culture (origin of society and groups within the society, relationship of individuals and groups to one another) Family (gender roles, individualism-collectivism, age, social skills) History (government, community, political system, key historical heroes, geography),What does cultural diversity mean?,Cultural patterns - conditions that contribute to the way in which a people perceive and think about the world - the manner in which they live in that world Some cautions The value of the culture may not be the value of all individuals within that culture. It is useful to visualize each cultural pattern as a point on a continuum rather than one of only two possible responses. The patterns are interrelated with a host of other values and do not operate in isolation. Common cultural patterns must be limited to the dominant culture in each country.,Significance of studying cultural diversities,When we study cultural differences, we mainly refer to the deep structure of culture (below the iceberg) Although culture is subject to change, the deep structure of a culture is resistant to change. The comparison and contrast of different cultures help understand one’s own culture and other cultures, which will ultimately enhance the effect of intercultural communication.,How to classify different cultures?,Culture patterns,Kluckhohn and Strodtbeck’s Value Orientation,Hofstede’s Dimensions of Cultural Variability,Edward T Hall’s Context - Culture Theory,,,,Human Nature,Man-nature,Time,Activity,Social Relationship,,,,,,,Individualism Vs Collectivism,Uncertainty Avoidance,Power Distance,Masculinity Vs Femininity,,,,,,High-Context,Low-Context,,,,1. Model by Kluckhohn,5 basic questions that need answering at the root of any culture: 1) What is the character of innate human nature? 2) What is the relation of man to nature? 3) What is the temporal focus? 4) What is the mode of human activity? 5) What is the mode of human relationship?,1) = Human nature orientation 人性取向 2) = Man-nature orientation 人天取向 3) = Time orientation 时间取向 4) = Activity orientation 行为取向 5) = Social orientation 人际取向,Limitations of Kluckhohn’s model,Not everyone in a culture has the same basic values. Cultures change over time. The concept of basic values is itself a generalization,Case study,During the American Civil War, a very hungry young man fell down in front of a farm gate. The farmer gave him food but in return he asked the young man to move a pile of wood in his yard – in fact it was not at all necessary to move the wood. When the young man left, the farmer moved the wood back to its original place. Seeing all this, the farmer’s son was confused.,,,,,Why did the farmer do that? What values are reflected in this story?,Save face and dignity of the young man accept --- earn,Individualistic value system,2. Model by G. Hofstede (1984),Hofstede’s work was one of the earliest attempts to use extensive statistical data to examine cultural values. During the 1980s, he surveyed over a hundred thousand workers in multinational organizations in forty countries. Each country was assigned a rank of one through forty in each category, depending on how it compared to the other country.,Hofstede’s Four Cultural Value System,individualism-collectivism Uncertainty avoidance power distance masculinity-femininity,2.1 Individualism vs. Collectivism,Individualistic cultures “I” consciousness independence, competition, negative face need Collectivist cultures “We” consciousness, interdependence, group harmony, positive face need Strong influence on social relationships The concept of ingroups and outgroups Rules Vs relationships, strangers Vs associates All people and cultures have both individual and collective dispositions.,Ranking of Individualism,,Case study: At the negotiating table, differences in this dimension can clearly cause serious conflict. Americans too often expect their Japanese counterparts to make decisions right at the negotiating table, and the Japanese are constantly surprised to find individual members of the American team promoting their own positions, decisions, and ideas, sometimes openly contradicting one another.,America—individualism Japan—collectivism,2.2 Uncertainty Avoidance,It involves the extend to which a culture would avoid or tolerate uncertainty. High uncertainty avoidance cultures think of the uncertainty inherent in life as a continuous hazard that must be avoided. They try to avoid uncertainty and ambiguity by providing stability for their members, establishing more formal rules. (a higher level of anxiety and stress) Low uncertainty avoidance cultures more easily accept the uncertainty inherent in life and are not as threatened by deviant people and ideas, so they tolerate the unusual. They prize initiative and more willing to take risks, more flexible. (less tense, more relaxed),不确定性规避的核心就是认为未来不可知。虽然可能每个人都在预测未来,但是没有人能够丝毫无误地预知下一刻、下一天、下一年或下十年会发生什么事情。美霍夫斯泰德用不确定性规避一词来“界定一种程度,一种当人们遇到混乱不清、难以预测的情况时所感到的不安程度。通过对严格的行为方式的遵循和对绝对真理的信仰,他们尽力避免这些情况。”,不确定性规避,高度不确定性规避文化为了避免不确定性和模糊性,常常向其成员提供稳定性,制定正式的规则,不容忍偏离观点和行为,寻求共识,并相信绝对的真理。他们感到的焦虑和压力较高:人们认为生活中的不确定性会持久为患,因此必须避免。为了增强生活的有序性,他们非常需要成文的规则、计划、规范、典礼和仪式。具有强烈不确定性规避倾向的国家有葡萄牙、希腊、秘鲁、比利时和日本,高度不确定性规避,相反,人们发现像瑞典、丹麦、爱尔兰、挪威、美国、芬兰和荷兰等国家,比较容易接受生活中的不确定性,不为偏离的人或主张所困扰,因此他们对不寻常性的容忍度比较强。他们喜欢上进,不喜欢等级关系。他们乐于冒险,灵活性强,认为规则越少越好,他们对专家的依赖性不强,而更多地相信自己。整体而言,低度不确定性规避文化心态较为放松。,低度不确定性规避,Ranking of Uncertainty Avoidance,*A low score means the country can be classified as one that does not like uncertainty.,The lower score, the higher uncertainty avoidance.,2.3 Power Distance,High PD Culture: People who hold power and people who are affected by power are significantly far apart Vertical, hierarchical (everybody has a rightful place) E.g. India, Brazil, Singapore, Greece, Venezuela, Mexico, etc. Low PD Culture: The power holders and people affected by the power holders are significantly closer Horizontal (inequality in society should be minimized) E.g. Austria, Finland, Denmark, Norway, New Zealand, etc.,,2.4 Masculinity vs. Femininity,Cultures high in the masculinity dimension focus on achievement, power, and possessions, regarding work as more central to one’s life, differing gender roles more than feminine culture. (performance society) Cultures high in the femininity dimension value interpersonal relationships, nurturance, compassion, and quality of life. (welfare society),Ranking of Masculinity,*A low score means the country can be classified as one that favors Masculinity.,Limitations of Hofstede’s model,Because the people Hofstede surveyed were middle managers in large multinational organizations, most of his findings are work related. Many important countries and cultures were not included in his study. ( no Arab countries, South Africa representing Africa, no information about mainland China) He emphasizes national culture, so it is not possible to know the layers of culture within nations.,3. Edward T. Hall's Model,Human communication is dependent on the context in which it occurs. Communicative contexts include the physical, sociological, and psychological environments. High- and Low-context cultures,High-context Culture:,In high-context messages, meaning is not necessarily contained in words. Information is provided through gestures, the use of space, and even silence. Meaning is also conveyed through status (age, sex, education, family background, title, and affiliation). Examples of high-context cultures include Chinese, Japanese, Middle Easterners, etc.,Low-context Culture:,In low-context messages, the majority of the information is vested in the explicit code. Examples of low-context cultures include English, North American, German, etc.,例子: 一个德国人,一个美国人,一个日本人到同一家餐厅,都点了一个汉堡,结果由于厨师的疏忽把三个汉堡中的肉都烤糊了,问,三个人会对此说什么?,,德国人会直接批判这个糊了的肉, 批评这个厨师,美国人会说,虽然肉的口味不太好, 但是面包,沙拉,香葱的味道还不错,日本人会说,面包,沙拉,香葱的味道不错。 是啊,至于肉,你自己揣测去吧。 这就是高语境!,,High-Context Cultures Japanese Chinese Korean African American Native American Arab Greek Latin Italian English French American Scandinavian German German-Swiss Low-Context Cultures,,How high-context and low-context affect intercultural communication,Lack of enough data, people from low-context cultures often feel uncomfortable with the vagueness and ambiguity and will ask very blunt, unappropriate questions, which will make high-context culture members become impatient and irritated. People in high-context cultures perceive low-context people less credible. Conflicts are differently perceived and responded to. high-context: discreetly and subtly Low-context: directly spell it out,Session 3,Intercultural Verbal Communication,What sets humankind apart from other animals is______________ ____________________________ ______________________,Language is important to human activity because it is how we reach out to make contact with others. 人类区别于动物的最大特征是创造和使用语言的能力。,the ability to build and manipulate language and other symbolic codes,What is language?,Language is a set of symbols and the rules for combining those symbols that are used and understood by a large community to people. A language is a symbolic code of communication consisting of a set of sounds (phonetics) with understood meanings and a set of rules (grammar) for constructing messages. 语言是人类特有的用来表情达意的工具,有语音、词汇和语法构成。,Cultural Literacy: Turkey (Case study),An American magazine editor was hosting a group of Chinese when one of them said, “Please explain what is a turkey.” The editor launched into a lengthy explanation of the ungainly American bird that has become the centerpiece at American Thanksgiving tables. Then, of course, he had to explain about the American holiday, Thanksgiving. The Chinese waited patiently and then replied, “Well, I still don’t understand what is meant when you Americans say ‘Come on, you turkey. Let’s get moving.’”,bird/a person considered inept or undesirable,Turkey,1 (a) [C] large bird reared to be eaten, esp at Christmas 吐绶鸡; 火鸡. (b) [U] its flesh as food (食用的)火鸡肉: ★ a slice of roast turkey 一片烤火鸡肉. 2 [C] (US sl 俚) failure; flop 失败; 失败的人或事物: ★ His last movie was a real turkey. 他最后的那部影片一塌糊涂.,T
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