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《新编英语教学教材》-第4册地课文.doc

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-_《新编英语教程》(修订版)第四册 Unit 1 [见教材P1]This year it’s going to be different  今年会有所不同Will Stanton (U.S.)威尔.斯坦顿(美国)①New Year’s resolutions are like anything else—you get out of them what you put in. ②Judging from results of other years, I had never put enough in, but this year was going to be different. ③I read books on self-improvement before I wrote my list. ④Find some beauty in everything.... Make the other fellow feel important.... About thirty like that. ⑤Pretty clearly, anyone who followed my collection of rules would be blessed with a richer life, boundless love from his family, and the admiration of the community. ⑥I could hardly wait until New Year’s Day. ①新年计划和其他任何事物一样——你付出多少,你就收获多少。②从往年的结果来看,我就从来没有付出过,但是今年将有所不同。③我读了一些关于自我提高的书,并作了记录:要发现各种事物的美;要让对方感觉到自己受到尊重,……大约有三十条。④很显然,任何人,只要遵循我搜集的这些规则,都会享有更加丰富的人生,都会从家庭中获得无尽的关爱,都会受到社区居民的尊重。⑤我几乎迫不及待地要过新年了。 ①When I came downstairs Maggie, my wife, was at the kitchen sink. ②I tiptoed over and kissed her on the back of the neck. (Resolution No. 1: Be spontaneous in showing affection.) ③She shrieked and dropped a cup. ④ “Don’t ever sneak up on me like that again!” she cried. ①我下了楼梯,妻子Maggie正在厨房的洗涤槽旁边。②我蹑手蹑脚地走了过去,朝她的后颈吻了一下。(新年计划的第一条:要主动表示关心。)③她尖叫一声,把一个茶杯摔倒地上,对我大声嚷道“再也不要悄悄地走到我身后啦!” ①“You’re looking lovely this morning,” I said. (A sincere compliment is worth its weight in gold. )①“你今天上午看起来非常可爱,”我说。(新年计划:真诚的赞美像金子一样宝贵。)①“Look,” she said, “it wasn’t my idea to stay out until four a.m.” “要知道,”她说,“并不是我想要在外边待到凌晨四点的。”①I took some aspirin and coffee into the living room. ②I’d just started reading the paper when Sammy, our five-year-old, came in. ③He was wearing the watch he’d received for Christmas. ④“Say, Dad,” he said, “what makes a watch run?” ①我拿了一些阿司匹林和咖啡来到客厅。②我刚要开始读报,就在这时,五岁的儿子Sammy进来了。③他正戴着手表,那是他收到的圣诞礼物。④他说:“爸爸,是什么让这个表转起来的呢?” ①In the old days I would have told him to ask his mother. ②Instead, I got a pencil and drew a sketch of the escapement mechanism. (Always encourage your child’s curiosity.) ③It took about fifteen minutes, and Sammy wandered off several times, but I kept calling him back.④ “There,” I said, “that’s what makes your watch run.” ①要是在以前,我会让儿子去问他妈妈,而这次我拿了一支铅笔,给他画了一张手表的擒纵结构图。(新年计划:要时刻鼓励孩子的好奇心。)②画图大约用了十五分钟,在此期间Sammy有几次走开,但我都把他叫了回来。③“你看,”我说,“就是这个让表转起来的。” “Then how come it doesn’t?” he asked. “那表为什么又停了呢?”他又问道。①His brother Roy walked by. ②“You have to wind it,” said Roy.③ Sammy wound it and held it to his ear. ④He smiled. ⑤“Roy sure is smart,” he said. ①这时他的哥哥Roy经过。②“你要给表上发条才行,”Roy说。③Sammy 上了发条,又拿到耳朵上听。④他笑了,说:“Roy真聪明。”①Our daughter Gretchen came in with her doll, Mrs. Robinson. ②“Good morning, Gretchen,” I said. “Happy New Year, Mrs. Robinson.” (Meet your child at his own level. ) ①我们的女儿Gretchen抱着她的玩偶Robinson夫人进来了,我说:“早上好,Gretchen;新年快乐,Robinson夫人。”②(新年计划:要在孩子的层面上和他们交流。)①“It isn’t either happy,” said Gretchen. “Mrs. Robinson is sick. Probably a coronary.”①“她一点都不快乐,”Gretchen说,“Robinson夫人病了,可能得了冠状动脉血栓症。”①“Why don’t you take her to see Dr. Sammy?” I suggested. “He can use his new doctor’s kit.”①“你为什么不带她去看Sammy医生呢?”我建议,“他会用他的新医药箱给她看病。”①The phone rang, and I answered it. ②It was a friend of our daughter Kit. ③“Happy New Year, Marilyn,” I said. “What have you been doing over the holidays?” (Show an interest in your children's friends.) ④ She said she hadn’t been doing anything much. ⑤ “Come now, a pretty girl like you,” I said jovially—“I’ll bet the fellows are swarming around ....What’s that? Yes, of course you can speak to Kit. Certainly.” ①电话铃响了,我接听了电话,是我女儿Kit的一个朋友打来的。②“新年快乐,Marilyn,”我说,“假期里,你一直在做什么呢?”(新年计划:要多多关注你孩子的朋友。)③她说没做什么。④“得了吧,像你这样漂亮的女孩子,”我很轻松地说到,“我敢说你身边追求你的男孩子成群成队的…… 什么?好的,你当然可以和Kit通话。”①Kit was in her room with the record player going very loud. ②I rapped on the door. ③She called out something, and I went in. ④She was in her pajamas. ⑤“I didn’t say you could come in!” she yelled, grabbing a robe and holding it in front of her. ⑥At fourteen, she has become extremely aware of being female. ①Kit正在自己的房间,唱片机的声音非常响。②我敲敲她的房门,她咕咕哝哝不知道说了些什么,于是我就进去了。③她正穿着睡衣。④“我没有说你可以进来!”她大声喊道,随手抓起一件浴巾搭在胸前。⑤小丫头十四岁了,已经完全意识到了自己的性别。 ①“I’m sorry. I couldn’t understand you,” I said apologetically.② To ease the situation, I picked up her brand-new sweater from the floor and put it over a chair. ①“很抱歉,我刚才没有明白你的意思,”我向她道歉。②为了缓解尴尬气氛,我捡起了她掉在地上的新毛衣,搭在了椅子上。 ① “I was going to pick it up,” she said defensively. “You don’t always put your things away.” ①“我正要捡起来的,”她解释说,“你也不总是收拾东西的。”①There was a series of shrieks down the hall. ②I found Gretchen in tears. ③Roy and Sammy were about to perform open-heart surgery on Mrs. Robinson with a scout knife. ④“She told us Mrs. Robinson was sick,” Roy said.①走廊那头传来几声尖叫,我走过去(译者加注),发现Gretchen正在大哭。②原来Roy和Sammy正要拿一把童子军佩刀给她的玩偶Robinson夫人做开胸手术。③“她对我们说Robinson夫人生病了,”Roy说。①I suggested that they carve something for their mother- like a salad spoon.(Encourage creativity in the young. ) ①我建议Roy和Sammy用刀给他们的妈妈刻点东西,比方说一把沙拉勺子。(新年计划:要鼓励孩子们的创造力。)①In the kitchen, Maggie wanted to know what was wrong with Gretchen. ②“Mrs. Robinson had a coronary,” I told her. ①厨房里,Maggie想知道Gretchen出了什么事。②“Robinson夫人得了冠状动脉血栓症,”我告诉她。 ①“I know you’re not feeling your best after last night,” she said, “but I’m getting a little tired of these smart remarks. Would you mind taking the garbage out?” ①“我知道你从昨天晚上到现在心情都不好(气都不顺),”她说,“但是我现在有点讨厌这些花言巧语了。你介意把这些垃圾送出去吗?” ①“I’d be happy to,” I said. (The most trivial chore can prove rewarding if approached with zest.) ①“我很乐意效劳,”我说。(新年计划:如果满腔热情,即使是最琐碎的小事也可能会非常有意义。) ① “Do you have to be so sarcastic?” she said. ①“你非得这样挖苦人吗?”她说。①It seemed that my resolutions weren’t working the way the books had said. ②I didn’t quit, though. ③I helped the boys build a snowman------only Sammy got his feet wet and Roy lost his mittens and they went inside. ④I played jacks with Gretchen, but she said I didn’t do it right. ⑤I struck up a conversation with Kit, trying to establish some kind of rapport. ⑥I touched on hippies, pop music, dating, morality and so on. ⑦She contributed very little. ⑧Anybody else would have thrown in the sponge, but I kept trying. ⑨For example, Maggie always dreads taking down the Christmas tree, so I thought I’d do it for her. (Take over one of your wife’s chores, she’ll love you for it. ) ①似乎我制定的这些新年计划并没有像书本上讲的那样有效,但是我没有放弃。②我帮儿子们堆了一个雪人,只是Sammy把鞋子弄湿了,而Roy把他的连指手套弄丢了,最后他们都回室内了。③我和Gretchen一起玩抛石子游戏,但是她说我的玩法不对。④我还和Kit一起聊天,试图在父女之间建立某种良好关系。⑤我谈到了嬉皮士、流行音乐、约会、道德、等等,然而她很少说话。⑥要是换了别人,早就放弃了,但是我没有。⑦例如,Maggie总是很害怕拆卸圣诞树,所以我觉得我应该替她做这件事。⑧(新年计划:帮妻子做一件家务,她会因此更加爱你。) ①I was about two thirds done when Maggie came in. ②“Oh, no!” she cried. “I wanted it left up for the party tonight. Can’t you just sit and watch a football game? Please? It’s what you usually do on New Year’s.” ①当我做到大约三分之二的时候,Maggie进来了。②“哦,不要!”她大声嚷道,“我留着它,就是为了给今天晚上的派对用的。你能不能坐下来看看球赛呀?求求你了,那才是你新年时最喜欢做的事呀!” ①“ This year is different,” I said. “今年将有所不同,”我说。①“㈠Yes, isn’t it?” She shook her head. “㈡I swear I don’t know. ㈢The kids have been impossible all day. ㈣I found the boys whittling on my best salad spoon, and then they had the nerve to say you suggested it. ㈤And Kit has been in a poisonous mood. ㈥She said that Marilyn phoned and you didn’t tell her. ㈦And that you cross-examined Marilyn about her boyfriends.” ①“㈠是吗?”她摇了摇头。“㈡我得说我不知道今年有什么不同,孩子们一整天都不正常,我发现儿子们在一点点地削我那把最好的沙拉勺子,而且他们居然说是你建议他们那样做的。㈢Kit的情绪也很不好,她说Marilyn打电话来,你没有告诉她,而且你还盘问Marilyn关于男朋友的事。”① “Hold it!” I said. “I was only making small talk.” ② By now the kids were in the room, drawn by the commotion. ①“不要说了!”我说,“我只是和她闲聊了几句。”②这时孩子们都来到了这个房间,他们都是被我们的吵闹声吸引过来的。 ① “You never bothered with small talk before. Why start now?”①“可是你以前从来都不费心和孩子们闲聊的呀。为什么现在开始了呢?”①“Because it’s New Year’s,” I said. ②I explained to the assembled gathering about the books and the resolutions and what I’d been trying to accomplish. ③Silence. ④The kids stood there looking uneasily at each other. ⑤“A man wants to improve himself,” I said. “He wants to be a better husband, a better father-----”   ①“因为这是我制定的新年计划,”我说。②我把全家人召集到一起,给他们解释我看过的那些书,我制定的新年计划,以及我想要达到的目标。③他们都沉默了。④孩子们坐在那里,惶恐不安地互相看着。⑤“一个男人想要提升自己,”我说,“他想要做一个更称职的丈夫,一个更称职的爸爸……” ① “㈠We all want to be better,” Maggie said. “㈡Except that when you’re so considerate it doesn’t seem natural. ㈢If the kids do something and you get mad, they know where they stand.㈣But when you’re so even-tempered—” ①“㈠我们都想变得更好,”Maggie说,“㈡只是你一下子变得这么体贴,好像很不自然。㈢如果孩子们做了什么事情,你暴跳如雷,那他们就会知道自己错了。㈣但是,你一下子脾气变得这么好,……”① “㈠Yeah,” Kit said. “㈡You didn’t say a word about my clothes on the floor. ㈢You just smiled. ㈣It made me sick.”①“㈠对呀,”Kit说,“㈡以前我的衣服掉在地上,你一句话都不说,而你现在只是笑一笑,这让我很不舒服。” Roy said, “I been in more trouble today ....” Roy说:“今天我也感到很别扭。” Gretchen said, “I think it was better when you didn’t play jacks.”Gretchen说:“我觉得你还是没有和我一起玩抛石子游戏时,更好一些。” “And yelled,” Sammy said, “and said ‘damitall’.” “还有大喊大叫,”Sammy也说,“还有你骂人。” ① “㈠All right,” I snarled. “I make every effort to be a good father, and this is the thanks I get. ㈡The fact is, you don’t deserve the father you’ve got. " ①“㈠好啦,”我很生气地说到,“我尽一切努力想做一个好爸爸,但这就是我得到的结果。㈡事实上,你们不配有我这样的爸爸。”①I was illustrating my points with gestures.②“㈠You’re the ones who’d better start making resolutions. ㈡Like doing your homework, cleaning your rooms, letting the spoons alone. ㈢And when I tell you to do something, jump!” ①我连说带比划地解释我的观点。②“㈠你们最好也制定自己的新年计划。㈡比方说,写作业,打扫房间,不要乱动勺子。㈢还有,我让你们做什么,你们要马上去做。”①I reached out to steady a lamp [I had brushed with my sleeve]. ②“Furthermore-----” ③At this moment, I realized suddenly that the atmosphere had changed. ④ The kids were sprawled on the floor, relaxed. ⑤ I turned to Maggie. ①我伸手去扶我用袖子不小心撞倒的台灯。②“还有,…”③就在这时,我突然发现家里的气氛一下子全变了,孩子们乱七八糟地坐在地板上放松着。④我转向Maggie,问她。 ① “Why is everybody smiling? What’s the big joke?”“为什么都在笑?有什么好笑的呢?” ① “No joke, ”she said. “We’re just happy to have you back again. ”“没什么,”她说,“我们只是很高兴,你又做回了原来的自己。”结束Unit 2[见教材P21] Englishes英语的文体      Randolph Quirk (U.S.) 伦道夫.夸克(英国) ①Of course a scale of styles exists in all our use of English. ②Each of us works not just with one English but with many Englishes, and the wider the range of our life and the more various the contacts we have, the wider and suppler must be our command over a range of English styles, each of witch we know how to use consistently. ③A haphazard knowledge of several styles may be worse than useless if we do not know the type of occasion on which each is appropriate, or if we do not know when we are sliding from one to another. ④We do not say, “It was extremely gracious of you to invite me, Lady Jones, and I’ve had bags of fun ”,because “bags of fun” does not mix with “extremely gracious”, and because to use an expression like “bags of fun,” we should need to know Lady Jones well enough to be addressing he by first name. ①毫无疑问,我们使用的英语中存在程度不同的文体差异。②我们每个人工作中使用的不是一种英语文体,而是多种文体。③我们的生活圈子越大,接触的范围越广,那么我们对各种文体的驾驭也就必须更加灵活广泛,我们要知道怎样做到文体运用前后一致。④如果不知道每种问题所适用的情景类型,或者不知道文体在悄悄地转换,那么我们只是草草了解几种文体,其后果与其说是无用,还不如说是更糟糕。⑤我们通常不会说,“It was extremely gracious of you to invite me, Lady Jones, and I have had bags of fun,” 因为bags of fun 不能与extremely gracious搭配。⑥另外,我们要使用bags of fun这样的词语,那我们就应该和Lady Jones 非常熟悉,可以直呼其名才可以。  ①It is not—we must never tire of insisting—that bags of fun can be labelled “bad” or “slovenly” English, “a lazy substitute for thought”. ②“Bags of fun” is no more a lazy substitute for thought in its appropriate setting than is “extremely gracious”in the setting that is appropriate for this expression. ③As we have seen repeatedly, it is the height of naivety to go round with a single yardstick, measuring English as “good” or “bad”. ④Take the opening suggested earlier for an informal letter: “My dear Frank, it was awfully nice to get your note the other day.” ⑤Here are the words that would greatly pleased the receiver with their warmth and friendliness, yet they include awfully, get and nice, three words which have been condemned so often that many people cannot write them without having a slight feeling of guilty. ⑥They have been called “slovenly” and even “meaningless”. ⑦Such an attitude is plainly ridiculous and can do nothing but harm to the good use of English.①这并不是说——我们绝对不能厌倦这种坚持——bags of fun是“糟糕的”或“错误的”英语表达式,它也不是“胡乱想出来的表达式”。②如果在适当的情境中,bags of fun 就不是胡乱想出来的,就像这里使用地非常恰当的extremely gracious一样。③正如我们一再看到的,处处用一把标尺来衡量英语表达式是“好”是“坏”,这种做法幼稚之极。④我们以一封平信的开头为例,My dear Frank, it was awfully nice to get your note the other day。⑤这其中有些词很能让人感觉到温暖和友谊,但是,其中的awfully,get和 nice三个词常常受到批评,我们许多人在用时内心不可能没有一点内疚。⑥它们被看作是“邋遢的”、甚至是“没有意义的”用法,这样的态度完全荒谬,这只会有害于我们正确使用英语。  ①But it would be equally ridiculous to reverse the judgement just as flatly. ②It is the type of judgement that is wrong: it is not merely that the judgement is faulty in this particular instance. ③If we were studying a review and found the comment “This is an awfully nice book,” our reaction to the words in this situation might well be to call them slovenly and meaningless. ④We do not want merely polite noises in a review: we want some precise observations about the book’s content and quality.⑤ Equally, however, we should disapprove of the English used if we were greeted by a party with the words, “I apprehend an atmosphere of spontaneous delight with your arrival,” whereas “Awfully nice to see you here” would strike us as just right.. ①但是,如果完全改变这种判断,也同样荒谬。②错的是判断的类型,也就是说,并不只是在这个特定情景中的判断错了。③假设我们研究一则英语书评,发现其中有这样的句子“This is an awfully nice book”,面对这个情境中使用的这些词,我们的反映很可能是认为这些词很草率,也没有意义。④我们不想看到书评中只有华丽的语言,我们更想看到的是对书的内容和质量所作的点评。⑤同样,如果在一个舞会上,有朋友这样和我们打招呼时,说“I apprehend an atmosphere of spontaneous delight with your arrival,”那我们也不会赞同这样的说法,但是我们完全接受“Awfully nice to see you here”这样的表达方式。结 束 [见教材P32]美国英语和英国英语是两种语言,还是一种语言?              作者:伦道夫.夸克(英国);阿尔伯特.马克沃达特(美国) American Voice: 美国与英国地理相隔,这种状况将会导致北美洲总有一天会出现一种新的语言,它不同于英国未来的语言,就像现代荷兰语、丹麦语和瑞典语不同于德语,以及它们彼此之间互不相同一样。Quirk: 嗯,Albert(简称Al),这是Noah Webster对英语的未来所持有的观点。现在看来,的确如此,鉴于语言变化的速度,那一天的到来已经为时不远了。尽管如此,在我看来,Webster提出的那些词现在似乎还没有成为现实的迹象。毕竟,Webster是在1800左右写到这些词的,而现在是一百六十多年以后,我们在很轻松地聊这个话题。Marckwardt: 当然了,Randolph;但是公平地来说,Webster在1828年的时候已经修正了他在这个问题上的观点,他说我们两个国家在本质上讲的是相同的语言,而且他还指出,这一点非常重要,我相信你也会赞同,他说我们两个国家有必要将这些相同永远保持下去。Quirk:是的,的确如此。从那以后,这一直是我们两个国家中那些有责任感的公民的共同目标,但是,我发现———其实我一直都有发现———世界上许多地方的教师很担心英语的这两种变体,他们不知道应该教授哪一种。你遇到过这样的问题吗?Marckwardt: 嗯,是的,这也是我所不赞成的。现在人们似乎都在很严肃地看待My Fair Lady中讲到的那个笑话,它说到有些美国人已经多年不讲英语了。Quirk:是的,但是如果你说你在讲英语,那为什么你们国家的一些人却不承认这一事实,而谈论“美语”(the American Language)呢?毕竟,The American Language 是H.L.Mencken那本很有名的书的名字。Marckwardt: 嗯,我不知道他们不承认这一事实。记得,Menchen是在1919年给他的那本书命名的。那时,第一次世界大战刚刚结束,那也许是美国人有史以来第一次那么大规模地了解到英国人讲的英语和美国人讲的英语是两种不同的变体。就像Webster早期的观点一样,Mencken认为这两种变体正渐行渐远,但是就像Webster一样,Mencken大约在1936年时对这个问题又有了新的观点。Quirk:但是,他的书名没有变化,如果你不把你们那种形式的英语叫做the American Language的话,那么当你想把你们的语言和我们这种变体加以区分时,你怎么称呼它呢 ?Marckwardt: 我个人总是倾向于使用the American English这个词,我认为the American English 是一种变体(variety),而不是方言(dialect)。称其为一种变体更恰当,因为毕竟在我们两国的语言中有很多种方言,所以称其为“方言”可能会误导他人。Quirk:我完全赞同这种处理方式。有件事让我很困惑,就是Americanism(美式英语用法)这个词。你知道,我们在英国常常说到这个词,在你们美国,这被看作是一个不礼貌的,或者表示优越感的词吗 ?Marckwardt: 一点也不,我们在美国把那些美国独有的用法称作是Americanism,而且美国词典中也是这样标注的。Quirk:Al,我可以再问你一个问题吗?当你们说American English时,你们也把the English of Canada和 the English of the United States都包括在内吗 ?Marckwardt: American这个词总是给美国人带来很多麻烦。你知道,我们实际上是只用American这一个词来指代美国的人和物,但与此同时,这个词也可以指整个美洲大陆,因此虽然the English of Canada和 the English of the United States之间有一些差异,但是并不很多,所以我们用American English这个词来涵盖两者,或者涵盖整个北美洲的英语似乎也完全可以。现在我来问你一个类似的问题,你们在英国怎么称呼你们的那种英语变体呢?Quirk:嗯,对于我们来说,这个问题好像也不那么容易,而且毫无疑问也没有那么多的共识。毕竟,我们不像你们那样有实际动机非要找到一个专门的术语。English这个词和不列颠诸岛上人口最稠密的地区England是一致的。而且,你知道的,当你们美洲殖民地独立以后,我们并没有成为一个新的民族,而且对于很多英国人来说,这个问题根本就不存在,我们的语言就叫做英语。Marckwardt: 嗯,我们的也是。Quirk:但是,我现在很高兴地要说,近年来,我们逐渐意识到世界上有多种英语变体,我们英国人的视野也更加开阔,而且我认为我们英国人中说British English的也更加普遍。你知道,我们也存在着命名问题,British这个词本身就提出了一个问题,因为它与英联邦(the Commonwealth)常常联系在一起,因此British English可以指受英国政治影响之下的任何一种形式的英语。反过来,我认为这个问题正逐渐得到解决,因为我们现在越来越多地说到“澳大利亚英语”、“新西兰英语”、“印度英语”,等等。这就使得British English可以非常清楚地指代the English of the British Isles。Marckwardt: 现在,你们用什么来指称一个英国特有的用法呢?我们用Americanism,你们会说某个用法属于Briticism吗 ?Quirk:不,这个词非常少用。我认为Briticism或Anglicism可能只对于研究英语的语言学家有价值,而对于普通的英国人来说,这样的两个词只会让他们茫然。他们甚至会认为Briticism这个概念会让人有点儿不舒服。Marckwardt: 我完全可以理解。但是现在我们绝对不可以让这场关于如何称呼这两种英语变体的讨论失控。很显然,我们不想给人造成这样的印象:我们这两种英语之间只有差异。Quirk:事实上会的,尤其是当其他所有人似乎在讨论这个问题时,他们往往只关注差异。Marckwardt: 是的,我不知道为什么会是这样。我认为这些差异非常小,所以对于英国人和美国人来说,唯一值得关注的就是两者之间的差异,而不是相似之处。当然,无论多小,差异都是非常重要的。我们以人际称呼为例,我们两个已经相识十几年了,如果我们以除名字之外的任何方式来称呼对方的话,都会显得非常别扭,非常做作。Quirk:嗯,我认为,从某种程度上说,那是对的。说实话,我认为如果我们是在做与综艺节目有关的事情时,那么BBC会允许我们自主决定以名字称呼彼此。但是在一个教育性的,更为严肃的节目,就像我们现在这样的,我认为BBC还是希望我们仅仅以姓氏相称,就是Marckwardt和Quirk。在这方面,你怎么看?Marckwardt: 在美国,我认为如果是在非常重要的场合,我们以“教授”相互称呼对方;如果在不太正式的场合,我们会说“先生”,但是在这两种场合,我们也都可以称呼姓氏。但是,在美国仅仅用姓氏相称会导致一种非常错误的印象,会令我们显得很疏远。Quirk:对于这种状况,我并不感到吃惊,因为在英国也是如此。只用姓氏相称,许多人都容易误解。我认为主要在伦敦和英国南部地区以姓氏相称被看作是礼貌随和的表现,所以你看在这个方面,英国用法和美国用法之间并没有明显的不同,许多用法是相互重叠的。美国人使用trade这个词,随之在英美之间出现了一个轻微的,但是又让很多人困惑的差异。当听到一个美国朋友说他在某家商店或其他地方trade时,我明显感到短暂的惊异。在我们看来,这就像是说他正在把物品卖给商家而不是购买。无论如何,给人的感觉就是他绝不仅仅是在柜台与柜台之间徘徊买东西,几乎就像是他在和商家讨价还价。Marckwardt:这恰恰就是我们对这个词的用法。毕竟,美国在整个十九世纪都是一个边缘国家,大片国土还没有开发,因此有些地方没有银行,也可能没有最基本的商业机构———shops,就像你们所说的。对于店主来说,在这些地方做生意的唯一方式就是接受顾客所能够提供的农副产品、手工制品或野物,然后作为回报,把一定量的让顾客感兴趣的任何商品交给他们。所以,你看,to trade逐渐和to shop获得了完全相同的意义,因为那就是人们曾经的支付方式。Quirk:是的,你知道,英国人所说的to trade与普通的购物客有明显的不同。Marckwardt:是的,这就是为什么人们在批发店门口看到的Sold Only To the Trade这样的英国英语表达式让许多美国人感到不解的原因。Quirk:是的,你非常了解这个表达式的意义,对吧?它的意思是说本店只向其他商家出售商品,事实上它的意思完全等同于美国人所说的Wholesale Only,当然我们在英国也用这种表达式。Marckwardt:最近,我在英国一个分类广告上看到有职位招聘一栏,上边写到Shop and Store Staff。 Quirk:哦,那有什么好奇怪的呢?你们美国不也是既有Shop也有Stores吗?难道不是吗?Marckwardt:是的,这两个词在美国的用法很不同。泛泛地讲,我们所说的store就是你们所说的shop。在美国,一个商人如果想让他的店显得优雅脱俗,他会把他的store称作是shop。但是,和你们一样,我们通常不用store这个词来指称一个只存货不售货的地方。你看我们两种英语变体之间在这里存在很多重叠之处。Quirk:我想我有必要在这里强调一下:虽然我们英国人在表达“shop”的意义时,向美国人那样越来越多地使用了“store”,但是与此同时我们并没有舍弃store这个词的旧用法,我们依然用它来指称那个只做批发而不做零售的地方。顺便说一下shop的其他用法,你知道,我们在英国用shop这个词表示“一个制造产品的地方”,例如machine shop,workshop,the shop floor;当然,我们还说shop stewards。Marckwardt:嗯,是的。我们美国英语中shop的用法和你们的完全相同。但是,在节目结束之前,有一点我们应该提一下,那就是:在美国英语和英国英语两种用法之间的重叠也非常重要,它们并不是简单的分裂。Quirk:一点没错。Marckwardt:好的,我们下次将详细讨论这两种变体之间的一致性和差异性分别达到了什么程度。结束Unit 3[见教材P44] Salvation  拯 救  Langston Hughes(U.S.)    兰斯顿.休斯(美国)①I was saved from sin when I was going on thirteen. ②But not really saved. ③It happened like this. ④There was a big revival at my Auntie Reed’s church. ⑤Every night for weeks there had been much preaching singing, praying, and shouting, and some very hardened sinners had been brought to Christ, and the membership of the church had grown by leaps and bounds. ⑥Then just before the revival ended, they held a special meeting for children, “to bring the young lambs to the fold.” ⑦My aunt spoke of it for days ahead. ⑧That night I was escorted to the front row and placed on the mourners’ bench with all the other young sinners, who had not yet been brought to Jesus.①我,快十三岁的时候,被上帝从罪恶中拯救出来,但事实上并不是真的被拯救了。②事情的经过是这个样子的,那一年我姑妈Reed所在的教会有一场大型的福音布道会。③一连几个星期,每天晚上都有很多场布道。④人们唱着赞美歌,祈祷,欢呼,一些罪孽深重的人皈依了上帝,教会的人数迅速增加。⑤就在布道会结束之前,他们专门为儿童举行了一场,这是“要把年幼的羔羊带到上帝的羊圈里”。 ⑥姑妈几天之前就对我说了那件事。⑦那天晚上我被人送到教堂的前排,和其他有罪的孩子一起被安排坐在忏悔椅上,他们也都还没有皈依上帝。①My aunt told me that when you were saved you saw a light, and something happened to you inside! ②And Jesus came into your life! ③And God was with you from then on! ④She said you could see and hear and feel Jesus in your soul. ⑤I believed her. ⑥I have heard a great many old people say the same thing and it seemed to me they ought to know. ⑦So I sat there calmly in the hot, crowed church, waiting for Jesus to come to me.①姑妈对我说,你被上帝拯救时,会看到光明,内心深处也会发生变化!②耶稣会进入你的生命,从此以后上帝与你同在。③她说你可以在灵魂深处看到、听到并感受到耶稣的存在。④我相信姑妈讲的话,也听到很多老人说过同样的话。⑤我觉得,他们应该知道这些。⑥所以,即使教堂里很热很挤,但我还是静静地坐在那里,等待着耶稣降临上。①The preacher preached a wonderful rhythmical sermon, all moans and shouts and lonely cries and dire pictures of hell, and then he sang a song about the ninety and nine safe in the fold, but one little lamb was left out in the cold. ②Then he said: “Won’t you come? Won’t you come to Jesus? Young lambs, won’t you come?” ③And he held out his arms to all of us young sinners there on the mourners’ bench. ④And the little girls cried. ⑤And some of them jumped up and went to Jesus right away. ⑥But most of us just sat there. ①牧师的布道很奇妙,又很有节奏,到处都是痛苦的呻吟、欢呼和孤寂的哭泣声,场面像地狱一样阴森可怕。②然后,他唱了一首歌,内容大概是已经有九十九只羔羊安全地进入了羊圈,但是还有一只被留在外边。③于是他说:“你不进来吗?你不想来到耶稣的身边吗?”④说着,他向我们这些坐在长椅上的有罪的孩子们伸出了双臂。⑤小女孩们哭了,其中有些从长椅子上跳了下来,马上就到上帝那里去了,但是我们大多数人还是坐在那里。①A great many old people came and knelt around us and prayed, old women [with jet-black faces and braided hair], old men [with work-gnarled hands]. ②And the church sang a song about the lower lights are burning, some poor sinners to be saved. ③And the whole building rocked with prayer and song. ①很多老人走了过来,跪在我们周围祈祷。②他们之中有上了年纪的妇女,梳着辫子,脸色黝黑;还有上了年纪的男人,双手粗糙,关节肿大。③与此同时,整个教会的人都在唱着歌,说“微弱的灯光正在燃烧,可怜的罪人即将得救”。④整个教堂都回荡着祈祷声和歌声。①Still I kept waiting to see Jesus.但是,我依然没有看到耶稣。① Finally all the young people had gone to the altar and were saved, but one boy and me. ②He was a rounder’s son named Westley. ③Westley and I were surrounded by sisters and deacons praying. ④It was very hot in the church, and getting late now. ⑤Finally Westley said to me in a whisper: “God damn! I’m tired o’sitting here. Let’s get up and be saved.” ⑥So he got up and was saved.①最后,除我和另一个男孩外,所有有罪的孩子都走向了圣坛,得到了拯救。②这个男孩是一个无业游民的儿子,名字叫Westley。③我们俩的周围都是祈祷的修女和执事。④教堂里很热,时间也不早了。⑤最后Westley小声对我说:“见鬼!我不想坐在这了,我们站起来去得到拯救吧。”⑥于是他站了起来,获得了上帝的拯救。①Then I was left all alone on the mourners’ bench. ②My aunt came and knelt at my knees and cried, while prayers and songs swirled all around me in the little church. ③The whole congregation prayed for me alone, in a mighty wail of moans and voices. ④And I kept waiting serenely for Jesus, waiting, waiting ------but he didn’t come. ⑤I wanted to see him, but nothing happened to me. ⑥ Nothing!⑦ I wanted something to happen to me, but nothing happened. ①这时悔罪者的长椅上只剩下了我一个人。②姑妈过来了,跪在我的膝盖旁边哭了起来,这时整个小教堂的祈祷声和歌声都萦绕着我。③整个教堂的人只为我一个人祈祷,呻吟声和说话声汇成了一股强大的气势。④我依然在等待着耶稣的降临,我等啊等,但是耶稣就是没有到来。⑤我期待看到耶稣的降临,但是什么都没有发生,什么都没有!⑥我希望我的身上能发生一些变化,但实际上什么也没有发生。①I heard the songs and the minister saying: “㈠Why don’t you come? ㈡My dear child, why don’t you come to Jesus? ㈢Jesus is waiting for you. ㈣He wants you. ㈤Why don't you come? ㈥Sister Reed, what is this child’s name?” ①我听到了歌声,听见牧师说:“你为什么不来呢?我亲爱的孩子,为什么不来到耶稣的身边呢?耶稣正在等候你,他需要你,你为什么不来呢?Reed修女,这个孩子叫什么名字?”“Langston,” my aunt sobbed.“Langston,”姑妈呜咽着说。“Langston, why don’t you come? Why don’t you come and be saved? Oh, Lamb of God! Why don’t you come?”“Langston, 你为什么不来呢?为什么不得到上帝的拯救呢?哦,上帝的羔羊啊,你为什么不来呢?”①Now it was really getting late. ②I began to be ashamed of myself, holding everything up so long. ③I began to wonder what God thought about Westley, [who certainly hadn’t seen Jesus either, but who was now sitting proudly on the platform, swinging his knickerbockered legs and grinning down at me, surrounded by deacons and old women on their knees praying]. ④God had not struck Westley dead for taking his name in vain or for lying in the temple. ⑤So I decided that maybe to save further trouble, I’d better lie, too, and say that Jesus had come, and get up and be saved.①天真的很晚了,我开始为自己感到羞愧,把事情耽搁了这么久。②我开始想上帝是怎么看待Westley的,他肯定没有见到耶稣,但是他现在却很得意地坐在圣坛上。③他穿着灯笼裤,晃着两条腿,正咧着嘴对着我笑,而周围都是跪着祈祷的教会执事和老太太。④上帝并没有因为Westley玷污他的名字和他在教堂里撒谎,就把他赐死,所以我决定为了省掉更多的麻烦,我最好也撒谎,就说耶稣已经降临了,然后就站起来得到拯救。So I got up.①于是,我站了起来。①Suddenly the whole room broke into a sea of shouting, as they saw me rise. ②Waves of rejoicing swept the place. ③Women leaped in the air. ④My aunt threw her arms around me. ⑤The minister took me by the hand and led me to the platform.①人满看见我站起来之后,整个教堂突然爆发出巨大的欢呼声,到处洋溢着喜悦。②女人们欢呼雀跃,姑妈张开双臂紧紧地抱住了我,然后牧师拉着我的手走向圣坛。①When things quieted down, in a hushed silence, punctuated by a few ecstatic “Amens”, all the new young lambs were blessed in the name of God. ②Then joyous singing filled the room.①这时,一切安静下来,只有人们欢喜若狂地祷念“阿们”的声音断断续续打破沉寂,所有得到新生的羔羊们都接受了上帝的祝福。②欢乐的歌声充满了大厅的各个角落。①That night, for the last time in my life but one —— for I was a big boy twelve years old ----- I cried. ②I cried, in bed alone, and couldn’t stop. ③I buried my head under the quilts, but my aunt heard me. ④She woke up and told my uncle I was crying because the Holy Ghost had come into my life, and because I had seen Jesus. ⑤But I was really crying because I couldn’t bear to tell that I had lied, that I had deceived everybody in the church, that I hadn’t seen Jesus, and that now I didn’t believe there was a Jesus any more, since he didn’t come to help me. ①那天晚上,我哭了,那是我一生中的倒数第二次哭,毕竟我已经是十二岁的大孩子了。②我一个人在床上不停地哭,我把头埋在被子里,但还是被姑妈听到了。③她醒了,对姑父说,我哭是因为圣灵已经降临到我的生命中,而且我还看到了耶稣。④但是,我哭的真正原因是我不忍告诉她我撒谎了,我欺骗了教堂里所有的人,我并没有看见耶稣降临,还有我再也不相信有耶稣的存在了,因为他根本没有来帮助我。                                                  结  束拯
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