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江苏高考.英语语法专栏评论预习复习计划考点汇总.doc

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江苏 高考 英语语法 专栏 评论 预习 复习计划 考点 汇总
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-_江苏高考英语语法专题复习知识点汇总一、冠词The Article知识要点:冠词是一种虚词,放在名词的前面,帮助说明名词的含义。冠词分不定冠词(The Indefinite Article)和定冠词(The definite Article)两种。a (an) 是不定冠词,a用在辅音之前:如a book, a man; an用在元音之前,如:an old man, an hour, an interesting book等。the是定冠词。一、不定冠词的用法1、指人或事物的某一种类(泛指)。这是不定冠词a (an)的基本用法。如:She is a girl. I am a teacher. Please pass me an apple.2、指某人或某物,但不具体说明何人或何物。如:He borrowed a story-book from the library.A Li is looking for you. 一位姓李的同志正在找你。3、表示数量,有“一”的意思,但数的概念没有one强烈。如:I have a mouth, a nose and two eyes.4、用于某些固定词组中。如:a bit, a few, a little, a lot of, a piece of, a cup of, a glass of, a pile of, a pair of, have a good time, for a while, for a long time等。5、用在抽象名词前,表具体的介绍——a + 抽象名词,起具体化的作用。如:This little girl is a joy to her parents. 这女孩对她父母来说是一个乐趣。It is a pleasure to talk with you. 跟您交谈真是一件愉快的事情。It is an honour to me to attend the meeting. 参加这个会,对我来说是一种荣誉。二、定冠词的用法:1、特指某(些)人或某(些)事物。这是定冠词the的基本用法。如:Beijing is the capital of China.The pen on the desk is mine.2、指谈话双方都知道的人或事物。如:Where is the teacher?Open the window, please.3、指上文提过的人或事物(第二次出现)。如:There was a chair by the window. On the chair sat a young woman with a baby in her arms.The baby was thin.4、用在世界上独一无二的事物前。如:the earth, the moon, the sun.5、用在序数词和形容词最高级前。(副词最高级前的定冠词可省略)如:He is always the first to come to school.Bob is the tallest in his class.6、用在某些专有名词前(由普通名词构成的专用名词)。如:the Great Wall, the Summer Palace, the Science Museum, the Children’s Palace, the Party等。7、用在一些习惯用语中。如:on the day, in the morning (afternoon, evening), the day after tomorrow, the day before yesterday, the next year, by the way等。8、用在江河湖海、山脉前。如:the Yellow River, the Pacific Ocean, the Alps, the Himalayas9、用在报刊、杂志前。如:the People’s Daily, the Evening Paper, the Times 泰晤士报。10、表示某一家人要加定冠词。如:The Browns are at home to receive visitors today. 布朗一家今天要接待客人。11、用在形容词前,表某一类人。如:the poor, the wounded, the living, the dead, the rich, the sick等。12、定冠词可以表示一事物内部的某处。如:The driver always sits in the front of the bus(car).三、零冠词(即不用冠词):1、专用名词和不可数名词前。如:China, America, Grade One, Class Two, milk, oil, water, paper, science等。2、名词前已有作定语用的this, that, my, your, some, any等代词。如:Go down this street.3、复数名词表示一类人或事物时。如:We are students.I like reading stories.4、节日、日期、月份、季节前。如:Teachers’ Day, Children’s Day, National Day, in summer, in July等。Today is New Year’s Day.It is Sunday.March 8 is Women’s Day.5、在称呼语或表示头衔的名词前,尤其作表语、宾补时。如:What’s the matter, Granny?We elected him monitor.6、在某些习惯用语中的名词前。如:at noon, at night, at first, at last, at most, at least, by bus(train, air, sea), in bed, in time, in front of, go to school, go to bed, go to college, on foot, at table, in ink, in pencil等。7、在三餐饭和球类运动前。如:She goes to school after breakfast every morning.We are going to play football.We usually have lunch at school.8、科目前不加。如:We learn Chinese, maths, English and some other subjects. 二、名词Nouns知识要点:一、名词的种类:1、专有名词:1)China, Japan, Beijing, London, Tom, Jack(不加冠词)2)the Great Wall, the Yellow River, the People’s Republic of China, the United States等。(由普通名词构成的专有名词,要加定冠词。)2、普通名词:1)不可数名词注意:不可数名词前一般不加冠词,尤不加不定冠词:若加a(an)则使之具体化了。如:have a wonderful time. ‚不可数名词作主语,谓语动词用第三人称单数形式。 ƒ不可数名词一般无复数形式。部分物质名词在表不同类别时,可用复数形式。如:fishes, newspapers, waters, snows……|| | | 各种各样的鱼 各种报纸 河湖、海水 积雪 „有些抽象名词也常用复数,变为可数的具体的事物。如:times时代,works著作,difficulties困难 …在表数量时,常用“of”词组来表示。如:a glass of milk, a cup of tea, two pieces of paper….2)可数名词:可数名词除用复数形式表一类之外,一般都要加冠词:A birdcaufly. The frog is a kind of hibernating animal. Vegetables sold at this shop are usually fresh.‚有复数形式:a)规则变化——加“s”或“es”(与初中同,略)b)不规则变化——child (children), foot (feet), tooth (teeth), man (men), woman (women), mouse (mice), goose (geese), Englishman (Englishmen),phenomenon(phenomena)…注意:c)单、复数同形:sheep, deer, Chinese, Japanese, fish(同一种鱼)……。如, a sheep, two sheep d)只用复数形式: thanks, trousers, goods, clothes, socks, shoes,… e)形复实单:physics, politics, maths, news, plastics(塑料),means. f)形单实复:people (人民,人们),the police, cattle等 g)集合名词如:family, public, group, class等。当作为整体时,为单数;当作 为整体中的各个成员时,为复数。如: My family is a big one. My family are music lovers. h)复合名词变复数时,a)只把复合名词中的主体各词变为复数形式。如: sister(s)-in-law嫂子,弟妹;step-son (s)继子;editor (s) -in-chief总编辑。 b)如没有主体名词则在最后一个词的后面加“s”。如:grown-up(s)成年人,go-between(s)中间人 c)woman, man作定语时,要与被修饰的名词的数一致。如:a man servant—men servants, a woman doctor—women doctors二、名词的所有格:1、表有生命的东西(人或动物)的名词所有格,一般在名词后加“’s”。如:Mike’s bag, Children’s Day, my brother’s room, women’s rights…注意:1)名词复数的词尾是-s或-es,它的所有格只在词后加“s”。如:Teachers’ Day, the workers’ rest-home(工人疗养院),the students’ reading-room 2)复合名词的所有格,在后面的词后加“’s”。如:her son-in-law’s photo(她女婿的照片);anybody else’s book(其他任何人的书) 3)如果一样东西为两人或两人以上共有,则在最后的一个名词后面加“’s”; 如果不是共有,则每个词后都要加“’s”。如:Jane and Helen’s room. 珍妮和海伦的房间(共有). Bill’s and Tom’s radios. 比尔的收音机和汤姆的收音机(不共有) 4)表地点(店铺,某人的家等)的名词所有格后面,一般省去它所修饰的名词。如: the tailor’s (裁缝铺) the doctor’s (诊所) Mr Brown’s (布朗先生的家) 5)有些表时间、距离、国家、城镇的无生命的名词,也可加“’s”表所有格。 如:half an hour’s walk (半小时的路程) China’s agriculture (中国的农业)2、表示无生命的东西的名词一般与of构成词组,表示所有格。如:the cover of the book3、表示有生命的东西的名词也可以用of,特别是名词较长,有较多的定语时。如:the story of Dr Norman BethuneDo you know the name of the boy standing at the gate?4、“of词组+所有格”的用法:在表示所属物的名词前有冠词、数词、不定代词或指示代词(如:a, two, some, a few, this, that, these, those等)时,常用“of词组+所有格”的形式来表示所有关系。如:a friend of my father’s 我父亲的一位朋友。some inventions of Edison’s 爱迪生的一些发明those exercise-books of the students’ 学生们的那些练习本。三、主谓一致Agreement知识要点:在英语的句子中,谓语动词的形式应与主语的人称和数保持一致。如何判定,则要看句子的意思。多数情况下,根据句子的主语形式就能判定,但有的则要看整句的意思,及强调的内容。下面我们就常用的、易混的几种情况作一下解释。1、以单数名词或代词、不定式、动名词短语或从句作主语时,谓语动词要用单数形式。如:1)The book is on the table.2)He is reading English.3)To work hard is necessary.(It is necessary to work hard.)4)How you get there is a problem.2、复数主语跟复数动词。如:Children like to play toys.3、在倒装句中,动词的数应和它后面的主语的数一致。如以here,there开头,be 动词与后面第一个名词一致。如:1)There is a dog near the door.2)There were no schools in this area before liberation.3)Here comes the bus.4)On the wall were two famous paintings.5)Here is Mr Brown and his children.4、and连接两个或两个以上的并列主语时,谓语动词用复数。如果主语后跟有with, together with, except, but, perhaps , like, including, as well as, no less than, more than, rather than等引起的短语,谓语动词仍与短语前的主语的形式保持一致。如:1)Jane, Mary and I are good friends.2)He and my father work in the same factory.3)His sister, no less than you, is wrong.4)The father, rather than the brothers, is responsible for the accident.5)He, like you and Xiao Liu is very diligent.6)Every picture except these two has been sold.7)Alice with her parents often goes to the park on Sundays.8)Alice as well as her friends was invited to the concert.9)Nobody but Mary and I was in the classroom at that time.5、并列主语如果指的是同一个人、同一事物或同一概念时,谓语动词用单数,and后面的名词没有冠词。如:1)The writer and worker is coming to our school tomorrow.这位工人作家明天要来我们学校。2)Bread and butter is their daily food. 面包和黄油是他们每日的食品。3)The writer and the worker are coming to our school tomorrow.那位作家和那位工人明天将来我们学校。(两个人)6、and连接的并列单数名词前如有each, every, no, many a修饰时,谓语动词要用单数形式。如:1)Every boy and girl has been invited to the party.所有的孩子都被邀请参加这次聚会。2)No teacher and no student is absent today.今天没有老师和学生缺席。3)Many a student is busy with their lessons.许许多多的学生都忙着复习他们的功课。7、each, either, one, another, the other, neither作主语时,谓语动词用单数形式。如:1)Each takes a cup of tea.2)Either is correct.3)Neither of them likes this picture.8、由every, some, any, no构成的合成代词作主语时,谓语动词用单数形式。如:1)Is everyone here?2)Nothing is to be done. 没有什么要干的事儿了。9、关系代词who, that, which等在定语从句中作主语时,其谓语动词的数应与句中先行词的数一致。如:1)Those who want to go please sign their names here.2)Anyone who is against this opinion may speak out.3)He is one of the students who were praised at the meeting.10、表示时间、距离、价格、度量衡等的复数名词或短语作为一个整体看待时,其谓语动词常用单数形式。如:1)Three years is not a long time.2)Ten dollars is what he needs.3)Five hundred miles is a long distance.11、复数形式的专有名词作为整体看待(如人名、地点、国家、组织、书籍、报刊等),动词用单数形式。如:1)The United States is in North America.2)The United Nations has passed a resolution(决议)。3)“The Arabian Nights”(《天方夜谭》)is an interesting book.12、有些集体名词如family, team, group, class, audience(听众,观众),government等作主语时,如看作是一个整体,谓语动词则用单数形式;如强调各个成员时,谓语动词要用复数形式。如:1)My family is going to have a long journey.我家要进行一次长途旅行。2)My family are fond of music. 我家人都喜欢音乐。3)The class has won the honour. 这班获得了荣誉。4)The class were jumping for joy. 全班同学都高兴得跳了起来。13、all, more, most, some, any, none, half, the rest等作主语时,既可表示复数意义,也可表示单数意义,谓语动词要根据实际情况而定。如:1)All of the apple is rotten. 整个苹果都烂了。2)All of the apples are rotten. 所有的苹果都烂了。3)Most of the wood was used to make furniture (家具)。14、the + 形容词(或分词)作主语时,常指一类人,谓语动词用复数形式。如指的是抽象概念,谓语动词则用单数形式。如:1)The young are usually very active. 年轻人通常是很活跃的。2)The wounded are being taken good care of here now. 现在伤病员们在这里受到了很好照顾。15、or, either…or…, neither…nor…, whether…or, not only…but (also)连接的是主语,谓语动词与后一个主语一致。如:1)Either you or I am going to the movies.2)Not only you but also he is wrong.16、不可数名词没有复数形式,作主语时,谓语动词用单数形式。如:1)Water is a kind of matter.2)The news at six o’clock is true.17、集合名词如:people, police ,cattle等作主语,谓语动词用复数形式。如:1)The police are searching for him.2)The cattle are grassing (吃草)。18、population当人口讲时,谓语动词用单数形式;当人们讲时,谓语动词用复数。如:1)The population of China is larger than that of Japan.2)One third of the population here are workers.19、the number of + 名词复数,是表示“…的数字”,作主语时,谓语动词用单数形式;a (large / great) number of + 名词复数,表示许多,作主语时;谓语动词用复数形式。1)The number of the students in our school is increasing year after year.2)A number of students have gone for an outing.20、means, politics, physics, plastics等作主语时,谓语动词用单数形式。四、虚 拟 语 气虚拟语气分三种情况来掌握:1、虚拟条件句。2、名词性虚拟语气。3、虚拟语气的其他用语。一、虚拟条件句:条件状语从句是非真实情况,在这种情况下要用虚拟语气。1、条件从句与现在事实不一致,其句型为:If 主语+过去时,主语+should(could, would, 或might)+动词原形,如:If I were you, I would study hard.If it rained, I would not be here now.2、条件从句与过去事实不一致,句型为:If 主语+had+过去分词,主语+should(could, would, 或might)+have+过去分词,如:If the doctor had come last night, the boy would have saved.If I had not studied hard, I would have failed in the exam last term.3、条件从句与将来事实不一致,句型为:+do,主语+should(could…)+ 原形 do 过去时(与现在事实条件句一样)。If it should rain tomorrow, we would stay at home.If I were to go to the moon one day, I could see it with my own eyes.If you missed the film to night, you would feel sorry.注意问题:1、If条件句中绝对不可出现“would”。2、根据句中的时间状语,有时可能出现“混合虚拟”的情况,即主句可能是现在的情况,条件句也许是发生在过去的情况,但都是遵守上述句型。3、在条件句中如果出现were, had, should可省去if,将主语与这些词倒装,例如:Had the doctor come last night, the boy would have saved.Were I to go to the moon one day, I would see it with my own eyes.Should it rain tomorrow, we would stay at home.二、名词性虚拟语气:在表示命令、建议 要求、惊叹时的名词性从句中需用虚拟语气,基本句型:主语+(should)+动词原形,如:Mother insisted that John go to bed at 9 o’clock.(宾语从句)We suggested that the meeting should not be held.It was required that the crops should be harvested at once.(主语从句)The suggestion that he be invited was rejected.(同位语从句)That is their demand that their wages be increased.(表语从句)注意:在这种句子中绝不出现“would”“must”“could”等。三、虚拟语气在一些特殊词中的使用或含蓄条件句:1、wish后的宾语从句:与现在愿望不一致 主语+过去时;与过去愿望不一致 主语+had+过去分词;与未来愿望不一致 主语+would(could)+原形。I wish I were you.I wish I had visited the white House when I was in the states.I wish I met you tomorrow at the party.2、It’s time句型:当It’s time后用that从句时应该为:主语+should+原形 或 主语+过去时,例如:It’s time that you went to school. 或It’s time that you should go to school.3、If only引起的感叹句相当于“How I wish+宾语从句”If only he could come! 他要能来就好了。If only I had known the answer! 我要早知答案就好了。4、would rather, as if(though)引导的句子也需使用虚拟,表示过去的情况用过去完成时,表示现在与将来的情况用过去时,如:I’d rather you posted the letter right away.I’d rather you had returned the book yesterday.She loves the children as if they were hers.Alan talked about Rome as if he had been there.5、without, but, but for, otherwise引起的短语或句子常暗含着含蓄条件。Without you, I would never know him.But for your cooperation, we wouldn’t have done the work so well.But that she was afraid, she would have said no.I would be most glad to help you, but I’ am busy now.I would have come to the party yesterday, but I was working.I am busy now, otherwise I would do you the favor!五、倒装句 英语的基本句型是主语 + 谓语。如果将主语与谓语调换, 称倒装句。倒装句分全倒装句和半倒装句。一、 全倒装: 主语与谓语交换位置不需任何助动词, 叫全倒装。全倒装有以下三种 情况:1、当here, there, out, in, up, down等副词放在句首时, 句子需全倒装:There goes the bell! 铃响了!There lived an old man.Here comes the bus.注意: ①在这种情况下倒装仅限于不及物动词或be动词, 像go, come, mush等。②主语如果是代词时不需倒装如Away he went. 他走远了。2、方位状语在句首, 如:In front of the house stopped a police car.Nearby were two canoes in which they had come to the island.Under the tree sat a boy.3 、直接引语在句首, 这种情况可倒装也可不倒装"What does it mean?" asked the boy或the boy asked.二、半倒装: 主语与谓语的助动词交换位置称半倒装, 有以下数种情况:1、 否定意义的词在句首, 句子半倒装, 例如: little, never, not, no, hardly, rarely, seldomNever shall I forget you.At no time was the man aware of what was happening.Little did I understand what he said to me at that time.2、 几对并列连词如not only…but also, hardly… when等连接两个并列句, 连词 在句首, 前句半倒装, 后句不倒装: Not only was everything he had taker away from him, but also his German citizenship was taken away. No sooner had I got to the bus stop than the bus started.注意: ①not only…but also连接两个并列主语时不需倒装, 如: Not only you but also I like playing chess.②neither…nor在句首时, 前后两句都需倒装, Neither do I have a sister nor does my husband.3、only在句首强调状语, 主句半倒装:Only then did I realize that I was wrong.Only in this way can I learn from my fault.Only when the war was over in 1918, was he able to get back to work.注意: only强调主语不倒装:Only the teachers can use the room.4、so…that句型, so在句首时, 主句倒装, that从句不倒装:So easy is it that a clild can learn it.So hard did he work that he finally won the fame.I saw the film, so did he.1、倒装句(Inversion)英语的基本语序是“主语+谓语”。如果将谓语的全部或一部分放在主语之前,这种语序称为“倒装”。一、倒装的类型类型例 句说 明 完 全 倒 装Out rushed the students to welcome the foreign friends.学生们涌出去欢迎外国朋友。整个谓语移至主语之前。 部 分 倒 装Seldom does he go to school late.他上学很少迟到。只把系动词,情态动词,助动词或表语放在主语之前。二、倒装结构的基本用法1、由于语法结构的需要而使用的倒装情 况例 句说 明疑问句中Have you got a dictionary?你有一本字典吗?Where did he go last Monday?上星期一他去什么地方了?Are you listening to the radio?你在听广播吗?Who told you the news?谁告诉你那个消息的?Which boy broke this glass?哪个男孩子把这个玻璃打破了?用完全或部分倒装,但以疑问词或疑问词修饰的名词作主语的疑问句要用正常语序。“there be”结构中There are three wells in our village.我们村里有三口水井。There stands a big paper making factory by the river.河边有座大型造纸厂。在以here, there, now, then, in, away, up down等副词开头的句子中Here is a letter for you.这儿有你一封信。There goes the bell. 铃响了。Now comes your turn to play.现在轮到你玩了。Away went the crowd one by one .人们一个一个地离去。Look, there he comes! 看,他来了。Down she went 她下来了。使用完全倒装结构。但如果主语是代词则用正常语序。在以neither nor 或no more开头的句子中I can’t swim, nor (neither)can she .我不会游泳,她也不会。He hasn’t been to the countryside, neither does he want to go there.他没有去过农村,他也不想去那里。He did not turn up. No more did his wife. 他没有来,他妻子也没有来。表示……也不这样, neither和nor意思相同,可以替换使用,no more表示动作的程度并不比前面提到的稍强。意为也不…。用在as(尽管)引导的让步状语从句中Proud as the nobles are ,he is afraid to see me .尽管这些贵族很傲慢,他却害怕见我。Young as he is, he knows a lot .虽然他年轻,却知道很多东西。从属连句as用于特殊语序,含义与though, although相同,但“as”这种结构可表示非常强烈的对照,必须用倒装(表语提前)2、为了加强语气而使用的倒装。(使句子更加流畅,更加生动)情 况例 句说 明含有否定意义的副词或连词放在句首时Never before have we seen such a sight.以前我们从来没有见过这样的情景。Little did I think that he could be back alive.我没有想到他竟能活着回来。Not until New Year’s Day shall I give you a gift.我要到元旦那天才能给你礼物。Not only was everything that he had taken away from him, but also his German citizenship.不仅他所有的一切被没收了,而且连他的德国公民权也被剥夺了。常用否定词有: never,not,hardly,scarcely seldom, little, not until, not only…but also, no sooner …than, hardly (scarcely)…when等。一般主句用部分倒装结构。副词only放在句首时Only then did he realize his mistakes .只有在那时,他才认识到自己的错误。Only in this way can you learn maths well .只有用这种方法,你才能学好数学。Only Mother can understand me .只有母亲最理解我。Only three of us failed in the exam.我们中只有三个人考试不及格。only 起强调作用,其句型为“only +状语+部分倒装”。如置于句首的only修饰主语,则不用倒装结构。虚拟语气条件从句中Were they here, they would help us .他们要是在这儿,他们会帮助我们的。Had I been informed earlier. I could have done something.我要是早得到通知,我就能干事了。Should you fail, take more pain and try again.万一你失败了,就要更加刻苦,重新再干。 把从句中if省略将were,had或should放在主语的前面。直接引语的全部或一部分放在句首时“He is a clever boy”said the teacher.老师说:“他是个聪明的孩子。”“Go, Dick, go!”cried Tom,“Go home and get help”“走,狄克,走!”汤姆呼喊着,“快回家去求援”“What do you think of the film? ”he asked.他问“你认为这部电影怎么样?”“I’m leaving for Hongkong next month”Mary told me yesterday.玛利告诉我“我下月要去香港”。主句主语和谓语次序颠倒,用完全倒装。但如果主句主语为代词时或谓语部分比主语长,一般不用倒装。表示祝愿的句子中May you succeed! 祝你成功。Long live the Communist Party of China.中国共产党万岁!谓语动词或谓语的一部分放在主语的前面。副词so在句首He is interested in pop-songs, and so am I .他对流行歌曲感兴趣,我也如此。They will learn chemistry next term, so will I .他们下学期学化学,我也学。I can drive a car, so can my younger brother.我会开汽车,我弟弟也会开车。表示前面所说的情况也适合于另一个人或另一事物的肯定句中。—Tom won the first prize for the English competition.-So he did.英语竞赛汤姆获得了一等奖。确实如此。It was cold yesterday. So it was .昨天天气冷。的确冷。如果后面的句子只是单纯重复前句的意思,不表示也适用于另一人或事,则不用倒装结构。在频度状语often, always, many a time等开头的句子中Often did we warn them not to do so.我们曾多次警告他们不要这样做。Many a time has she helped me with my English.她不止一次地帮助或学习英语。在方式状语thus开头的句子中及程度状语so放句首Thus ended his life.这样结束了他的生命。So loudly did he speak that even people in the next room could hear him .他讲话的声音那样大,连隔壁屋子里的人都听得见。介词短语作状语,放在句首In the middle of the room stood a little girl.在房间中央站着一个小女孩。In the distance was a horse.马在远处。在强调表语的句子中Such was Albert Einstein, a simple man of great achievements.阿尔伯特·曼因斯坦就是这样一个人,一个纯朴而又取得巨大成就的人。Such is life. 生活就是这样。Nearby were two canoes in which they had come to the island.附近有两只他们来这个岛乘坐的独木船。表语提前,不仅为了强调,而且为了使句子结构达到平衡协调,或使上下文紧密衔接。六、并列句知识要点:1、熟悉并掌握并列句的结构和常用的并列词的用法;2、注意while, when 和 for等作并列连词的用法。什么叫并列句:由两个或两个以上的简单句并列连接起来的句子叫并列句。并列句的基本句型:简单句 + 并列连词 + 简单句类型说明连接词例 句并并列关系(联合关系)and, not only…but(also), neither…nor等 I help him and he helps me. 我帮助他,他也帮助我。 Not only did we write to her but also we telegraphed her. 我们不仅给她写信而且还给她发了电报。 Neither I would consult him nor he would ask me for advice. 我不想与他商量,他也不会征求我的意见。列转折关系but, yet, still, while, however, when等 He failed many times, but he didn’t despair. 他失败多次但并没有气馁。 She has difficulty in learning English, however, she works hard and is making rapid progress. 她学习英语有困难,然后她学习努力,进步很快。选择关系or, otherwise or else, either…or We must hurry, or we’ll miss the train. 我们必须快点,否则会赶不上火车。 Either you come to my place or I go to yours. 或者你到我这儿来,或者我到你那去。句因果关系for, so, thus, therefore, and so We had better stay at home, for it was raining. 我们最好呆在家里,因为天正在下雨。 He didn’t work hard, therefore he failed in the examination. 他学习不努力,因此这次考试不及格。有时也可不用连词,而用逗号,分号或冒号 Hurry up, it’s getting dark. 快点,天要黑了。 Let’s start early, we have a long way to go. 我们要早动身,因为路很远。注意:(1)yet和still是连接副词,也叫半连接词。它们是副词。又起连接作用,但不如and, but, or等强,用了yet或still,前面还可加and或but。He is tired, (but) still he will make another experiment. 他很累,但他仍然要做另一个实验。I got up very early, (and) yet I failed to catch the first bus. 我起得很早,然而还是没有赶上头班车。(2)while意义相当于at the same time表示相反和对照,常用来连接两个意义对立的分句。I like football, while my sister likes basketball. 我喜欢足球,而我姐姐喜欢篮球。when = and then, just then或at that time, during the time. We were ready to rush away, when the snake moved. 我们正准备离开,这时蛇移动了。while和when作为并列连词使用时常是放在第二个分句前边,并有逗号和第一分句隔开。3、for表示附加或推断的理由、原因。therefore比so更正式,and so比较口语化。七、定语从句一、定语从句1.定语从句三步:第一找出先行词;第二看先行词在定语从句中的语法功能(做主语、宾语或状语);第三选择合适的关联词。2.定语从句在选择关连词that 与which时,常常容易出错,所以应记住什么时候只能用that,什么时候只能用which.(1).只能用 that 的情况归纳4种:即先得词被序数词最高级修饰过;先行词为all 、everything、nothing等不定代词;先行词同时是人和物并列时;最后先行词分别被the only 、the very the same、the last 修饰。请看下列四组例句,注意其先行词:①.The first thing that we should do is to work out a plan .②.I t almost seemed as if the good man were trying to teach us all that he knew at this lesson .③.Later my father and Mr.Crosset talked for about half an four of things and persons that they remembered in school.④.This is the very dictionary that I want to find .(2).只用which is 情况有两种情况:一是非限制性定语从句,关连词要用which;二是做介词宾语时只能用which。请看下列两组例句:I said nothing , which made him more angry .I have the book about which you are talking .三、在定语从句的非限制性定语中,which 和as 是容易混淆的。在很多情况下两者兼可互换,但在下列情况中不可互换:1、通常As 可以放在整句的句首,而which,只能在逗号之后,as 本身含有“正如”,as 在定语从句中既可是主语也可做宾语As appear from her paper ,she has read widely in Romantic literature.She is remarkable, as I have told you .2、 which 在做非限制性定语从句关联词时可以无明确先行词,指前句整个的意思,如:she has warried again,which surprises us .四、在定语从句中,许多人往往分不清all that 和what,what 实际上只引导名词性从句,它相当于all that两个字,例如:All that I know is that he has made up his mind to heave the country for a new place. = what I know is that ……一、限定性定语从句:种类先行词关联词例句说明定语从句(人)在从句中做主语或宾语物在从句中做主语或宾语whowhichThis is the doctor who saved the boy’s life .这就是救了孩子生命的医生。She is the new student whom I want to introduce to you .她就是我要介绍给你的新学生Please pass me the book which is lying on the table.请递给我摆在桌上的那本书。The novel which Tom bought is very interesting.汤姆买的小说很有意思。Can you lend me the magazine about which you talked yesterday?你能把昨天谈到的那本杂志借给我吗?who在从句中做主语whom在从句中做宾语,口语中who可以代替whom,也可以被省去,但做介词宾语时只能用whomwhich在从句中做主语。which充当宾语时可以省去。which做介词宾语不可省种类先行词关联词例 句说 明定语从句人或物的whoseThe professor whose daughter teaches you English is Dr. Williams那位教授是威廉斯他的女儿教你英语。The professor, the daughter of whom teaches you English is Dr. Williams. The bike whose brake was damaged has now been repaired.那辆坏了闸的自行车现在已经修好了。=The bike the brake of which was damaged has now been repaired whose在从句中做定语指某人的也可以用…of whom代替whose指物时也可以用…of which 代替 whose人或thatThe woman that is playing the piano is Miss Zhang.正在弹钢琴的那位妇女是张小姐。I’d like to see the films that are just on show.我想看那些刚上映的电影。that指人做主语that指物做主语种类先行词关联词例 句说 明物all, little much和some,any every ,no 构成的合成代词人或物thatthatThey talked for about an hour of things and persons that they remember in the school. 他们谈起他们所记得起的学校里的人和事,谈了大约有半个小时。I’ll tell you all(that )I know about it .我要告诉你我所知道这件事的一切情况。Is there anything (that) I can do for you?有什么我可以帮助做的事吗?I’ve brought everything (that )you need.我把你需要的东西都拿来了。This is the best film that I have seen .这是我看过的最好的一部电影。The first place that we’ll visit is Beijing Library.我们要参观的第一个地方是北京图书馆先行词分别表示人和物,关系代词要用that,不用who或which先行词表示物,关系代词用that不用which, 在从句中做宾语可省去 。如果先行词是人时,关系代词不受制约,用that或who (whom)均可先行词被形容词最高级或序数词修饰时定语从句用that引导。定语从句人或物thatHe is the only person that is believable.他是唯一可靠的人。John is the very person that she wants to see.约翰正是她要见的人。Who is the man that is talking with Tom ?正在和汤姆谈话的人是谁?Which of the books that you bought is easy to read?你买的那些书中哪一本容易读。先行词被the only, the very,the same 等修饰时用关系代词that.当主句以who、which开头的特殊疑问句时,定语从句要用that时间whenHe came at a time when we. needed him most.他在我们最需要的时候来了。We’ll never forget the day when the People’s Republic of China was founded.我们永远不会忘记中华人民共和国成立的那一天。在定语从句中作时间状语注:先行词是time, minute, moment, next tim很少用关系副词when,可用that 但通常省去。地点whereThis is the room where he put up for the night.这就是他渡过夜晚的那房子。在定语从句中作地点状语原因理由whyI know the reason why she studies so well .我知道她学习好的原因。在定语从句中作原因状语(2)非限制性定语从句种类先行词关联词例 句说 明非限制性定语从句人物没有固定的先行词而是一个句子whowhomwhichwhichasGeorge ,who is my classmate, has won a scholarship.乔治获得了奖学金,他是我的同学。Dr. Li , whom I know very well, will come here tomorrow.李大夫明天将来这儿,我跟他很熟悉。I gave him a New Year card ,which he enjoyed very much.我给他一张贺年卡,他很喜欢它。He studies hard at school when he was young, which leads to his success in his later life .他年轻时在校学习努力,这导致了他后来生活中的成功。He gets up early ,as is always his habit.他总是早起床,这是他的习惯。John was adm
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