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普遍通用工程项目计划英语听说教学教材(下~)原文及其翻译.doc

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#*Unit 11 Site Inspection (2)U11 / Section A Some Tips for Site Inspection(P67-69)The previous unit referred to the general tips for hosting site inspections(工地检查), while this unit aims to introduce the general ideas of how to prepare inspectors for carrying out site inspections more efficiently, especially helpful for those young inspectors who are not so experienced.上一单元提到了主持接待工地检查的一些通用技巧,而本单元旨在介绍检查员应该如何准备,以便更有效地执行工地检查工作的一些总体(工作)思路,这对于那些经验不足的年轻检查员来说尤其有帮助。Be goal-oriented 目标明确Most engineering projects involve many construction procedures and different sites, so, in order to implement supervision and maintain the project quality, there are many objects to be inspected on the site, such as the temporary facilities, formworks, reinforcement works, concrete works, steel structure works, piping and electrical works, roofing and water proofing, finishing works, safety management, and so on. Sort out the objects and steps of inspection so that the contractor can provide direct assistance and enough information. 大多数工程项目涉及很多施工程序和不同的施工工地,因此,为了实施工程监督, 保证工程质量,工地上有很多项目需要检查,例如临时设施﹑(浇筑)模板﹑加固工程﹑混凝土工程﹑钢结构工程﹑管道和电气工程﹑屋顶和防水处理工程﹑终饰工程﹑安全管理工作等等。检查员要分类整理好被检查的对象,明确检查的各个步骤,以便承包商能够提供直接的帮助和足够的信息。Schedule good timing (计划)安排好检查的时机Time the site inspection flexibly, taking the differences—inspecting goals, objects, and weather—into consideration . 灵活安排工地检查时机,把不同的检查目标﹑检查对象以及天气的差异情况列入考虑范围。If the inspection needs the preparation and the assistance of the contractor, call the reception desk ahead of schedule, giving the latter enough time to get ready. If the inspection aims to check the instant construction state, a sudden inspection is worth considering, without informing the contractor before that. 如果检查需要承包商的准备和协助,请提前通知接待处(前台),给他们足够的时间准备。如果检查的目的是要检查即时施工状态,那么不提前通知承包商,值得考虑进行一次突击检查(或“进行一次突击检查是值得考虑的”)。It’s better to carry out the inspection in fair weather because the extreme weather may bring about downtime(停工期) of the construction, especially for those outdoor working.最好在好天气时进行检查,因为极端天气可能会导致施工的停工,尤其是那些户外施工作业。Be armed with testing devices配备测试装置It may sound like a no-brainer, but being equipped with necessary testing devices will save you from the troubles asking for help when needed. What to take depends on the different inspecting objects. But a tape measure(卷尺) is a must no matter what and where to inspect. It is easy to take but can work wonders in checking steel bars, carpenter working and other simple works. When a more accurate testing is going on, the total station, theodolite, or gradienter should be adopted. Undoubtedly, the contractor will be willing to provide those comparatively more sophisticated devices on the site when asked to.这听起来似乎很简单,但是装备这些必要的测试设备,可以在你需要寻求帮助时避免不必要的麻烦。要配备哪些装置取决于不同的检查对象。但是无论在哪里检查以及检查什么,卷尺都是必须的。虽然它很容易携带,但它可以在检查钢筋,木匠工作和其他简单工作中会产生奇效。当要进行更精确的测试时,应采用全站仪、经纬仪或水平仪。毫无疑问,当被要求时,承包商愿意在现场提供那些相对比较精密的设备。Observe safety regulations on worksite 遵守工地安全规章制度The safety regulations on the engineering worksite should be strictly observed by all the engineers and workers, let alone the inspectors.所有工程师和工人都应严格遵守工程施工现场的安全规程(规章制度)要求,更不用说检察员们了。Before getting close to the worksite, learn about the specific safety regulations of the target inspecting zone.在接近工地之前,要了解目标检查区域的具体安全规则。Ask the H.S.E. department to provide the safety helmets, reflective gear, protective shoes and so on. And the special insulating protective gear including gloves, boots and overshoes are needed when inspecting the electrical works.要求健康安全环保部门(HS.E部门)提供安全头盔、反光装置、防护鞋等等。另外,在检查电气工程时,要求提供特殊的绝缘保护装置,包括手套、靴子和绝缘套鞋等。Keep a distance from the working truck cranes, wheel cranes, tower cranes, gantry cranes, etc., to avoid unexpected injury from falling objects.要注意与正在工作中的卡车起重机、轮式起重机、塔式起重机、龙门起重机等等保持一定距离,以避免因坠落物体而造成意外伤害。Ask the professional technicians to operate the mechanical or electrical equipment.要求专业的技术人员来操作机械或电气设备。Be cautious about the ground on the site, preventing from falling down when it is too slippery and from being hurt by the wood, nails, steel bars and so on.所伤要当心工地的地面,防止因地面太滑而摔倒,也要避免被木头、钉子、钢筋等所伤。Ask direct questions and be objective 直接提问,保持客观Once the lead person from the contractor is identified, keep the overall contact with him during the inspection. It is not necessary to beat round the bush but to cut to the chase.一旦承包商确定了项目负责人,在检查期间,应与他保持全面联系。没必要说话时拐弯抹角兜圈子,而是要开门见山直入正题。Be straightforward to the lead person when asking for design drawings, construction records, testing reports, and other documents not involving confidential information.需要看设计图纸、施工记录、测试报告和其它未涉及机密信息的文件时,应直接坦率地告诉项目负责人。Ask the engineers or workers directly about the construction progress, procedures, technical requirements, material standard, etc., to get information in a more efficient way.直接询问工程师或工人们关于施工进度,施工程序,技术要求和材料标准等等问题,从而更高效地获得信息。Point out the problems, if existing, and set the deadline and demands of rectification. It may be a little callous but it will turn out to be the most helpful way for both sides.如果项目存在问题的话,指出存在的问题,并确定整改的期限和要求。这看上去显得有点不近人情,但它将会是对双方最有帮助的方式。Keep records 保存记录In order to record the inspection findings on the site, the inspector can note down the details in various forms. It is a good idea to prepare a sheet covering all those objects to be inspected before going to the site. In addition, on this inspection sheet, many issues can also be included, such as the evaluation criteria, evaluation grades, problems existing, factors contributing to the problems, rectification instructions, and rectification deadlines, etc. A carefully-designed and comprehensive inspection sheet can be helpful for the inspector to carry out the work on the site and report the inspection when finished.为了记录在现场的检查发现,检查员可以用多种方式记录细节。在去现场之前,准备一个涵盖所有被检查对象的表格是一个好主意。另外,在这个检查表中,也包含了许多问题,例如评估标准﹑评估等级﹑存在的问题﹑造成问题的因素﹑整改指示﹑和整改期限等等。一个精心设计﹑全面综合的检查表,对于检查员在现场展开工作和检查结束后报告检查情况,是有帮助的。Taking photos is another way to keep the inspection records. But make sure it is allowed because every company has its own confidential policies. So it is polite to ask the permission before taking photos and not to use the photos for unrelated purposes. 拍照是保存检查记录的另一种方法。但是要确保这个是经过允许的,因为每个公司都有自己的保密政策。所以,拍照之前征得许可,以及不为某些不相关的目的去使用这些照片,是很有礼貌的做法。Always follow up 随时跟进Conducting periodic site inspections is an excellent way to ensure both sides’ commitment. Quality should always be the main concern in site inspection. How can the inspector ensure the contractor has done the rectification properly? Certainly follow-up inspections are quite necessary.定期进行现场检查是确保双方承诺的一个极佳办法。质量问题应该始终是现场检查的关注焦点。检查员如何确保承包商妥善地完成了整改工作?显然,进行后续跟踪检查是非常必要的。Number of inspections also depends on the contractor’s reputation, which is also one of the objects to be inspected. The better the reputation, the less inspections are needed. The contractor’s reputation can be found in their completed projects and the ones in progress. And the capital funds, management, personnel, temporary facilities, construction procedures and crafts, safety regulations and so on can also shed a light on the contractor’s reputation and strength.检查的次数也取决于承包商的声誉,这也是要检查的目标之一。信誉越好,需要检查的次数就越少。人们可以从承包商已竣工项目和在建项目中看出他们的声誉。而且资本资金、管理、施工人员、临时设施、施工程序和工艺、安全规章制度等等也能够体现(或显示)出承包商的声誉和实力。No doubt, the above tips are far from comprehensive for each specific inspection, which may vary greatly under different circumstances. But they can be general guidelines for the young inspectors.毫无疑问,以上建议对于每种具体的检查工作来说远远不够全面,它可能会随不同的情况变化很大。但对于年轻的检查员们来说,上述建议可以作为通用指南使用。U11 Section C Organization of Safety Work(P74)Generally, at the very beginning of a project, a suitably qualified and experienced person will be appointed as safety officer, who will be given sufficient time, authority and responsibility to ensure the safety program. His duties mainly include several aspects: to inspect the worksite safety regularly, to ensure safety methods are being adopted, and all the safety and health requirements are being observed, to make detailed investigations if any safety accident occurs, and to take countermeasures to prevent the recurrence of similar accidents. The safety office is also authorized by the project manager the right to issue safety instructions for warning, giving penalties, up to firing any person who breaks the safety regulations. In addition, the safety officer also has the duty to take charge of the safety and health training program.通常,在一个项目刚开始的时候,一个具备资格和经验的人会被任命为安全员,他将被给予充分的时间、权利和责任去确保项目安全计划。他的职责主要包括以下几个方面: 定期检查工地安全;确保安全措施得到采纳;所有安全及健康要求得以遵守;如有任何安全事故发生,都要进行详细的调查,并制定对策以避免类似事故的重演。安全员也会得到项目经理的授权,有权发布安全操作指令作为警告、给予惩罚、甚至有权开除任何违反安全条例的人。除此之外,安全员也有职责负责安全和健康培训计划。The safety and health program is usually divided into two parts: one is for training workers and the other for training foremen and supervisors. The contents include but, are not limited to, the following items: worksite safety policy, employee responsibility, company’s safety regulations, construction accidents and reporting, electrical safety, personal safety equipment, scaffolding, trenching and excavation, crane safety, respiratory protection, fire protection and prevention, toxic substances, first aid and emergency aid procedure, and so on.安全和健康培训项目通常分成两个部分:一方面是培训工人,另一方面是培训工头与监管员。内容包含但不仅限于以下项目: 工地安全政策、员工的职责、公司的安全制度条例、施工事故及报告、用电安全、个人安全设备、脚手架、开沟和挖掘、起重机安全、呼吸保护、消防和火灾预防、有毒物质、急救和紧急救援程序等等。Unit 12 Negotiation(1)U12 / Section A Some Issues in Negotiation(P75)In an international construction project after bidding, a certain contractor is successful. And the owner is often unable to accept all contents in the tender of the contractor. This requires negotiations by which the two sides ultimately reach an agreement. In contracting, negotiation plays a vital role.一个国际建设项目,经过招标,某一承包商竞标成功。但业主通常不会接受承包商标书中的所有内容。这就需要双方进行谈判,通过谈判最终达成协议。在缔约过程中,谈判起着至关重要的作用。There are some key issues in the negotiation. They are: 在谈判中,有一些关键问题需要注意,它们分别是:The issue of working range 工作范围问题It refers to the scope of work undertaken by the contractor, including construction, materials, equipment supply, the provision of construction personnel, the amount of work to determine, quality requirements and other responsibilities and obligations. The scope of work is the prerequisite for the establishment of the contract and also the basis of negotiations. Therefore, it can be said that the scope of work is a very important issue in contract negotiations. In the provisions of the scope of work the following three cases should be paid attention to: 它指的是承包商承担的工作范围,这包括建筑施工、材料、设备供应、关于施工人员的条款、要确定的工作量、质量要求和其他的责任与义务。工作范围是合同成立(订立合同)的先决条件,也是谈判的基础。因此,可以说,工作范围是合同谈判中一个非常重要的问题,在工作范围的规定中,应注意以下三种情况:(A) The scope of work and content is not clear or the contractor does not correctly understand, which results from leakage and will directly affect the cost of the project.工作范围和内容表述不清楚,或者承包商没有正确理解,造成了内容的泄露,都将会直接影响工程的造价。(B)The text in the provisions of the scope of the work is not clear.关于工作范围的条款文本表述不清楚。(C) Inaccuracy cases in Chinese translation of tenders in foreign languages. The quotation based on such incorrect translation will affect the contract price.外文标书翻译成中文时,存在的不准确情况。基于这样错误翻译的报价将会影响合同价格。All of these cases in the negotiations must be very clear. The key equipment translation must be professional. It needs technical personnel and interpreters to review and strive to avoid big mistakes. 所有这些出现的情况在谈判中都必须非常清楚。关键设备的翻译必须是专业的。需要技术人员和口译员去认真审查,尽力避免大的错误。The issue of contract price 合同价格的问题Contract price is the most important content of the contract, which is the key to the discussion, including unit price, total price, salary, overtime and other costs, as well as payment methods and payment conditions. Contract prices are affected by the scope of work, contract duration and other obligations.合同价格是合同当中最重要的内容,它是谈判的关键。包括单价、总价、薪水、加班费和其他费用,以及付款方式和付款条件。合同价格受工作范围、合同工期和其他义务的影响。(A) The owner asked the contractor to use a fixed price to bid, or allowed some price flexibility clauses. For example, in the event of a devaluation of the currency, could the contract price be increased? If not allowed, then the contractor should make judgments on the price by considering full factors such as the country’s political situation, economic conditions and so on.业主要求承包商使用固定价格来投标,或允许某些弹性价格条款。例如,在货币贬值的情况下,合同价格是否可以增加?如果不允许,则承包商应充分考虑如该国的政治情况、经济条件等诸多因素,对价格产生的影响作出判断。(B) In the contract period, the owner can or cannot guarantee a certain or several commodities prices stable. For example, the owner asked the contractor to use a fixed price to bid, but can guarantee the prices of a small number of other commodities such as cement stable. If these commodity prices were raised, the contract price could be increased.在合同有效期内,业主不一定能保证某种或几种商品价格的稳定。例如,业主要求承包商使用固定价格进行投标,但可以保证其他少数商品,如水泥的价格稳定。如果这些商品价格上涨,合同价格可能会提高。The issue of contract project time合同项目时间的问题The contract duration indicates that the contractor’s work must be completed within a specified period of time. It is the default basis for defaulting fine, but also an important factor affecting the contract price. The contract duration requirements should be stated as follows: 合同工期表明,承包商的工作必须在规定的时间内完成。这是违约罚款的默认基础,也是影响合同价格的一个重要因素。合同期限的要求如下:(A) If the start conditions cannot be guaranteed, the duration should be extended. To ensure the completion of schedule, first of all, it is necessary to protect the start on time. The factors which may affect the start should be written into the terms of the contract, such as to provide construction drawings on time, to deliver construction sites timely. 如果不能保证(项目)开始条件,则应延长工期。为确保按计划完工,首先有必要保护按时开工。应把可能影响施工开始的因素都写进合同条款中,例如:应按时提供施工图纸,及时交付施工地点。If the owner cannot check timely before acceptance, the duration should be extended. Some owners, subjectively in order to delay payment or objectively due to increasing the amount of engineering or modifying the design content and other factors, do not check the project before acceptance, which has been completed by the contractor.(一些业主,由于有想推迟付款的主观原因,或由于增加了工程量或修改了设计内容或其它因素等客观原因,验收前不检验承包商已完工的项目).It will force the contractor to interrupt the construction. Therefore, the work which needs the owner to confirm the approval should be determined a double limited time limit. If the confirmation time of the owner exceeds the time limit, the contractor has the right to require the owner to extend the contract duration.如果业主在验收前不能及时检查,应当延长工期。一些业主,主观上为了推迟付款,或者,客观上由于增加了工程量或修改了设计内容或其它因素,验收前不检验承包商已完工的项目。这将迫使承包商中断施工建设。因此,所有需要业主确认同意的工作应该规定双限定期限(即甲方验收的确认时间和乙方施工工期)。如果业主的确认时间超过了规定期限(时间限制),承包商有权要求业主延长合同期限。Here it is necessary to mention the difference between the contract duration and the contract period. The contract duration is the time stipulated by the contractor to complete its work. And the contract period is the valid period of a contract. In the contract of construction, the contract period is generally longer than the contract duration. That is, the contract duration may not have begun and the contract period is not terminated at the end of the contract duration, such as maintenance period existing.在这里,有必要提及合同工期和合同有效期的区别。合同工期是指承包商完成工作所规定的时间;合同有效期是合同的有效期限。在施工合同中,合同有效期一般比工期要长。也就是说,工期可能还没开始,(合同已经生效);而工期已结束,但合同有效期还没结束,比如还有保修期存在。The issue of inspection and acceptance 验收事项The owners formally accept the contents of the work completed by the contractor in accordance with the contract and the new requirements. This work will directly affect the contract duration and construction costs. Pay attention to the acceptance range, acceptance time, acceptance quality standards and other issues. Inspection and acceptance can be divided into three forms. The first is inspection and acceptance of the construction of a single work (or a process), such as the concealed project acceptance. The second is the inspection and acceptance of completion of the entire project, including issuing the acceptance certificate of completion. The third is inspection and acceptance for the construction of materials and equipment.业主根据合同和新要求,正式验收承包商完成的工作内容,这项工作将直接影响合同工期和施工成本。这个工作会直接影响工期和工程相关费用。要注意验收范围﹑验收时间,验收质量标准和其他问题。验收可以被分成三种形式。第一种就是单一工作(或者某一过程)施工的验收,例如隐蔽工程的验收。第二种是对整个项目的竣工验收,包括签发竣工验收证书。第三种是对建材和设备的验收。U12 / SECTION C How to Negotiate for International Project Contract(P82-83)In the negotiation process of international project contract, the negotiator of the bidder should use different negotiation skills as the negotiation situation and the negotiation intensity contrast. 在国际工程项目合同的谈判过程中,竞标方的谈判官,在不同的谈判情景与谈判强度对照之下,应该采取不同的谈判技巧。To find out the intention of the owners. Bidders’ negotiation team should have a person responsible for recording. The words of each other all should be recorded. It helps careful analysis of each other’s intentions to determine bidder’s next step in the negotiations.搞清楚业主的意图。投标方的谈判小组应由一专人负责记录。双方的所有话都应记录下来。这有助于仔细分析对方的意图,利于投标方确定谈判中下一步要采取的策略。(A) To test each other’s bottom line. Bidders in the negotiations should pay attention to the bottom line, understand what other side’s bottom line is and determine which conditions the other side really wants to adhere to and which condition is a feint. 测试对方的底线。在谈判中,投标方应注意底线问题,了解对方的底线是什么,并确定对方真正想要坚守的条件是什么,哪些条件是对方的伪装。(C) Bidders should fully analyze the situation, make the right judgments, take advantage of the other side’s weaknesses and force the other side to make compromises. As for one’s own weaknesses, the bidder should try to avoid.投标方应当全面分析谈判局势,作出正确判断,利用对方的弱点,迫使对方作出妥协。至于自身的弱点,投标方应当尽力避免。(D)If the negotiations stalled, the bidders may wish to call “pause” and tell each other:they want to find the boss’ or expert’s consultation. This allows both parties to have time to reconsider their position and to give them the opportunity to study countermeasures or to return to the negotiating table with a little concession.如果谈判陷入僵局,投标方可能希望叫“ 暂停” ,并告知对方:他们想寻求老板或专家的咨询。这样双方就有时间重新考虑自己的立场,有机会研究对策,或在作出稍许让步的情况下,重新回到谈判桌上。(E) The price should be prepared for concessions. The price is the focus which the owners are concerned about. Because the price of a project is very easy to be seen and concerned, in the negotiations, if necessary, the bidders should make some concessions on the price. But the terms of the contract is not easy to see clearly, which also hides a huge interest and can find some back.价格应当准备好做出让步。价格是业主们关注的焦点。因为一个项目的价格总是显而易见又让人关注。在谈判中,如有必要,投标方需要在价格上做些让步。但合同中的条款并不容易看明白,其中也隐藏了巨大利益,可以找回一些利益(或损失)。(F) Compromise strategy. In order to speed up the settlement of the problems encountered in the negotiations, a compromise is a good way. If the owner put forward a compromise, the bidder could take the initiative, and then bargain. So as soon as possible the two parties would reach an agreement.妥协策略。为了加快解决谈判中遇到的问题,妥协是一种好办法。如果业主提出了妥协,投标方就可以采取主动,然后进行议价,这样合作双方才有可能尽快达成一致。Unit 13 Negotiation(2)U13 / Section A Some Tips for Negotiation(P84-85)The following are some issues that should be negotiated in international engineering contracts.以下是在国际工程合同谈判中需要注意的问题:(1)The issue regarding guarantee 关于担保问题 Provisions relating to guarantee in international engineering include the following: 国际工程中关于担保的条款包括以下:Warranties on time limit for the project 项目期限担保 Warranties on time limit for the project mean the OWNER or the CONTRACTOR shall be responsible for any cost incurred for the suspension of project due to the fault on their own part.项目期限担保意味着,业主或者承包商应该,对任何因他们己方过失造成的项目暂停,从而遭受的任何损失要担负负责。Payment guarantee 支付担保 The payment guarantee is a written instrument in which the bank or the professional guarantee corporation provides to the CONTRACTOR for the OWNER’s honoring(兑现)the payment engineering sum (progress claim) at the confirmation of the work quantity. 支付担保是由银行或者专业担保公司在确认工作量时,向承包商提供的,由业主兑现工程款项(工程进度款)的一种书面文据。Performance guarantee 履约担保 The performance guarantee is a written instrument in which the bank or the professional guarantee corporation provides to the OWNER for the CONTRACTOR’s performance(履约) of contract, pledging(承诺) the CONTRACTOR to implement(履行) the obligations of its own in the contract.履约担保是由银行或专业担保公司,向业主提供的,由承包商履约合同,承诺由承包商履行自己在合同中义务的一种书面文据。 Insurances 保险 For example, prior to the commencement of the construction work, the OWNER shall complete insurance for the construction engineering, the life and property of the people engaged in the construction work in the site and the third person and pay the insurance premium for them.例如,在施工建设开始之前,业主应当为施工工程、施工现场的工程人员的生命财产和第三人上保险,并为其支付保险费。Various types of guarantee in the bidding documents are generally accompanied by a fixed form.投标文件里,各种类型的担保(文据),通常都附有固定表格。(2)The issue of responsibility of contract breach 合同违约的责任问题 If any of the parties to the contract is unable to perform or fails to perform the contract due to its fault, it shall compensate the other party for the loss arising from its breach of the contract in accordance with the contract and pay a certain amount of liquidated damages. In the negotiation, the parties must clearly specify((详细说明;具体指明) some specific(明确的;特定的;具体的) responsibilities. 合同当事人,因其过错,不能履约或者无法履行合同的,应当按照合同约定,赔偿对方因违约所引起的损失,并支付一定金额的违约赔偿金。谈判中,各方必须明确规定一些具体责任。Liability(责任;债务;负债) for breach of contract (违约)should be considered from the following three aspects: 违约责任应从当以下三个方面考虑:To clear the nonperformance of the contract 明确合同不履约情况 For example, we (as the CONTRACTOR), fails to complete project within the construction period or we (as the OWNER) fails to pay the engineering sum, when determining our liability(责任) for breach of contract, we should specify(规定;详细说明) certain acts of the other party which are a prerequisite for the performance of our party at the same time. If the other party fails to implement these obligations set in the contract, we shall not constitute the breach of contract, like “the construction work cannot be carried out because of the OWNER not paying the engineering sum as set in this contract.”例如,我方(作为承包商)在施工期内未能完成工程,或者我方(作为业主)未能支付工程款项,在确定违约责任时,我们应该详细说明(或规定),对方的某些行为是我方同时履行合同的先决条件。如果另一方不履行合同中规定的义务,我方则不构成违约,例如“因业主未能支付本合同中所规定的工程款项,从而施工工作无法进行,(不属于违约的情况)”。To clear the key right 明确主要权利As for our key right, it is necessary to stipulate(规定) the liability for breach of contract of the other party in order to guarantee its performance of the obligations. For example, we (as the CONTRACTOR) should specify(详细说明;具体指明) the obligations and liabilities(责任;债务;负债) for breach of contract as to the OWNER’s honoring the payment engineering sum.对于我方的主要权利,有必要规定对方的违约责任,以保证履行义务。 例如,我方(作为承包商)应该规定(或详细说明)有关业主兑现工程款项的义务和违约责任。To clear the dispute resolution 明确争议解决的办法If the dispute about the liability for breach of contract and the loss caused by the breach of contract cannot be settled through consultation(协商), it will be better to be settled by consulting engineers than through litigation(诉讼,起诉) which usually does harm to the cooperation between parties.如果发生了违约责任造成了争议,和违约造成的损失(纠纷),不能通过协商解决,最好咨询工程师来解决,而不是通过会对双方合作造成损害的诉讼方式来解决。(3)The issue of the source of constructors 施工人员的来源问题 It is an important issue to be discussed in international engineering contract negotiations. It directly affects the cost and construction efficiency. 这是一个在国际工程合同谈判中讨论的重要议题。它直接影响到工程造价和施工效率。Lots of things should be taken into account: the total number of construction personnel required for the project, the number of foreign workers allowed to recruit, the requirements of the government for the use of local workers, the possibility of hiring enough skilled workers from the local, the provisions of the local government on the wages and welfare of local workers, restrictions on foreign workers applying for entry visas, residence permits and work permits, and whether these restrictions possibly resulting in foreign workers failing to enter the construction site on schedule and so on.有许多问题需要考虑:项目要求的施工人员总人数; 允许招募的外籍工人数目、政府对本地用工的要求、从地方雇佣足够技术工人的可能性、当地政府规定的本地工人工资与福利标准(或法规条款)、对外籍工人申请入境签证、 居住许可和工作许可的限制条件,还有是否这些限制条件,可能会造成外籍工人不能按时进入施工现场等等问题。 (4) The issue of building materials and mechanical equipment 建材和机械设施问题Building materials and mechanical equipment are also an important issue in negotiations. Some points should be confirmed in the discussion: whether the materials and mechanical equipment used in the project can be imported duty-free or partly duty-free through consultation and taxes and tax rates(应收税和税率) on taxable goods; whether goods exempt from customs duties can be re-exported or sold locally; whether the local government requires the contractor to use some local material and so on.建材和机械设备也是谈判中的一个重要议题。 在讨论中应该确认一些要点:项目使用的材料和机械设备是否可以通过协商、应税货物的应收税和税率,获得进口免关税或部分免关税 ; 免关税的货物是否可以再出口或在当地出售; 当地政府是否要求承包商使用本地材料等。U13 / Section C How to Refuse in Negotiations(P90)In the process of contract negotiation, it is inevitable to reject the other side’s requirements. It takes courage and wisdom to refuse and this requires negotiators not to agree with the requirements of the other side easil
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