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前景基础英语综合教学教材教师用书(复旦第四册~).doc

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前景 基础 英语 综合 教学 教材 教师 复旦 第四
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#*Unit One LoveDialogue设计思路l 友谊与爱情是人们生活中经常永恒的话题,也是大学校园的常见现象。树立正确的交友观和爱情观也是大学生素质养成的重要内容。通过对话的方式,让学生表述自己关于友情与爱情的看法。参考教法l 让学生搜集关于友谊与爱情的名言警句作为谈论的依据。教师可以给出以下参考:Friendship is the golden thread that ties the hearts of all the world.Without confidence there is no friendship.Friendship is like money, easier made than kept.The course of true love never did run smooth.Good company on the road is the shortest cut. A friend is a present which you give yourself. The best proof of love is trust.l 学生根据自己的理解,总结树立正确的交友观和爱情观所必需的因素。给出以下参考词汇供学生讨论,如:trust, mutual understanding, honesty, help each other, love birds, cyber love, virtual love, find a mate, dating, propose on campus, candle dinner, romantic等。Language Points in the Dialogue1. quality n. degree of goodness or worthe.g. He examined the quality of the furniture carefully. 他仔细检查家俱的质量。 The man had the quality for leading the people.那个人具备领导民众的才能。quality→qualify→qualification→qualified2. sincere a.  (of feeling or behavior) not pretended; genuinee.g. Please accept my sincere thanks and best wishes.请接受我诚挚的感谢和最美好的祝愿。Please accept our sincere apologies for the error in your bank statement. 对于银行报表中的错误,请接受我们诚挚的道歉。sincere→sincerely→sincerity3. mutual a. shared by two or more people e.g. We found that we had a mutual friend. 我们发现我们有一个共同的朋友。 We should treat each other with mutual respect. 我们应该互相尊敬4. similarity n. the quality of being similar e.g. There is a wonderful similarity between the twins. 这对孪生儿相像得惊人。 The similarity lies in the fact that they serve the same purpose. 他们的相同之处在于目标相同。Complete the following dialogue according to the hints given below.A: Hi, guy, you look upset today. What happened?B: Nothing good. I just had a little quarrel with my girlfriend.A: What’s the trouble?B: She complained much about my dressing style/the way I dress. I like casual dress too much.A: It’s not a big deal. You should have a talk with her. Maybe you should make some changes.B: Maybe you’re right. I’ll give it a try.Create a new dialogue according to the situation given below.设计思路l 通过编写对话,鼓励学生使用自己的语言表述自己的观点。以KFC相遇讨论兼职为例,练习交流的能力。参考教法l 让学生成对讨论,编写对话,然后按角色扮演;l 鼓励学生使用常用的口语句型;l 教师可以给出以下词汇或句型作为提示:part-time jobber, off-class activity, do good to, social experience, social skills, interpersonal communication, better arrange free time, make a good plan for things to do等。对话译文友谊与爱情A: 你交朋友看重的是什么?B: 我喜欢外向型的待人友好的人。他们待人真诚,并且我相信患难之交才是真朋友。A: 对我来说,诚实很重要,我不喜欢与不诚实的人交朋友。B: 是的。没有诚实就没有信任。A: 那么关于爱情呢?对于爱情,你认为什么最重要?B: 爱情意味着相互理解与尊重。爱情不是寻找共同之处,而是尊重彼此的不同。 A: 说得好!B: 爱情是两个人的事。我爱你,不是因为你是一个怎样的人,而是因为喜欢与你在一起时的感觉。对于世界而言,你是一个人;但是对于某个人,你是他的整个世界。A: 爱情是伟大的!Text设计思路l 爱情之于人生非常重要。如何找寻持久的爱情对于个人幸福有着深远的影响。l 通过学习文章,了解在物质世界飞速发展的时代如何寻找并培养永恒的爱情。参考教法1. Pre-reading questions1) What is the importance of loving relationship?2) Do you think there is someone who is really right for you?3) Have you ever seen some love birds on campus? What do you think of them?2. Do the reading comprehension exercises and ask students to talk about the topic of love with their own words and summarize the importance of a lasting love.3. After-reading questions: Nowadays, people’s life is really prosperous, but rate of divorce is getting higher and higher. What do you think of love in modern times?Language Points in the Text1. enhance v. increase, promote, cause to look bettere.g. He made many efforts to enhance his business. 他做了许多努力来提高他的业务。 This sauce will enhance the flavor of the meat.酱料将会增强肉的香味。enhance→enhancement 2. emotional a. of the emotionse.g. Women are often said to be more emotional than men. 人们常说女人比男人更富于感情。He tends to get emotional on these occasions.他在这些场合往往容易情绪化。emotional→emotion3. frustrate v. (cause sb. to) have feelings of annoyed disappointmente.g. Delight and satisfy your customers rather than frustrate and annoy them with smart design decisions.用巧妙的设计取悦并满足顾客而不是阻挠和激怒他们。Difficulty and failure do not frustrate his enthusiasm.困难和失败都没有挫伤他的热情。frustrate→frustrated→frustration4. romantic a. showing strong feeling of lovee.g. I was told that Spain is a romantic nation.有人告诉我说,西班牙是个浪漫的国家。She has always been a sucker for romantic movies.她总是对爱情片很着迷。5. consist v. be made up ofe.g. The true wealth does not consist in what we are.真实的财富不在于我们是做什么的。Our deeds must consist with our words.我们必须言行一致。6. issue n. a subject to be talked about, argued about, or decidede.g. The government is trying to keep a low profile on this issue.政府力图在这个问题上保持低姿态。Opinion is divided on the issue of taxes.关于税捐问题,大家意见分歧。7. resolve v. put an end to (doubts, difficulties, etc.) by supplying an answere.g. Intensive efforts are being made to resolve the problem.人们正全力以赴来解决这个问题。Any misunderstanding can resolve itself into a quarrel.任何误解都可能酿成一场争吵。8. assess v. decide or fix the value of (sth.); evaluatee.g. It's difficult to assess the impact of the President's speech.总统讲话的巨大影响很难估计。We are trying to assess how well the system works.我们正设法评估该系统运行得是否顺畅。课文译文 寻找永久的爱情健康的恋爱关系可以从情感、精神、身体和终生幸福等诸多方面提升你的生活质量。单身固然有很多好处。但是当你准备好与人分享你的生活并想建立持久而有价值的恋爱关系,此时单身就非常令人沮丧。对于许多人来说,找到共度余生的伴侣看起来就像一个不可能完成的任务,其实仍然可以通过学习找到永久的爱情,即便你曾有过短暂的恋爱史,或者对传统恋爱方式和网恋失去了兴趣。寻找合适的爱情伴侣往往是艰辛的旅程。也许你成长于一个缺乏坚实而健康情感的家庭环境,你会怀疑爱情。或许你仅有一些短暂或夭折的爱情史,你不知道如何保持持久的恋爱关系。由于对于过往的问题悬而未决,你就可能会喜欢上不适合你的人并再次做出错误的决定。不管情况如何,相信在未来会有一份浪漫爱情为你而存在,这非常重要。恋爱不可能是完美的,它需要付出很多努力、妥协以及积极解决冲突的意愿,这一点非常重要。为了寻找并建立值得保持的爱情,你可能需要审视自己对待约会和恋爱的错误观点,否则可能找不到永恒的爱情。ExercisesTask 1 Read the text again and answer the following questions.1. 1. What can a healthy and loving relationship enhance?It can enhance many aspects of your life, such as your emotional,mental, physical and overall well-being or happiness.2. Why finding the right romantic partner is often a difficult journey?Because your household and history of love may mislead you in finding the right romantic partner3. What does a relationship require of?You need lots of work, compromise, and a willingness to resolve conflict in a positive way.4. What may you need to do to find and build any relationship worth keeping?You may need to re-assess some of your misconceptions about dating and relationships.5. What can prevent you from finding lasting love?Your misconceptions about dating and relationships can prevent you from finding lasting love.Task 2 Find the right definition in Column B that matches the word in Column A. 1.c 2.f 3.a 4.b 5.d 6.e 7.h 8.j 9.g 10.iTask 3 Fill in the blanks with the given words. Change the form where necessary.1. It's healthier to release frustration than to bottle it up.2. Derik has a weird hair style and enjoys a great recognition on campus.3. She looks at the house and assesses its market value.4. Huge efforts are made to resolve the problem.5. He doesn’t look good, because he's suffering from severe mental disorder.6. Passing the English examination should enhance your chances of getting the post.7. Nobody can prevent him from running the risk.8. How many players does a baseball team consist of?9. It is said that Frenchmen are the most romantic people in the world.10. Women are often said to be more emotional than men.Task 4 Fill in the blanks according to the following passage.1. The three qualities of love are attraction, closeness and commitment.2. Attraction is the chemistry part of love. It’s all about the physical interest between the two.3. Trust is a big part of closeness, the second quality of love.4. If two people show the quality of closeness, they may share thoughts and feelings.5. Romantic love is combined with attraction and closeness and it can be hard to tell the difference between attraction and closeness.Task 5 Translate the following into English or Chinese.1. The flight has been cancelled due to the bad weather.2. Genuine beauty consists of inner beauty and outer beauty.3. Proper exercise can enhance physical health.4. Nobody can prevent him from traveling around the world.5. We should resolve problems on our own after we step into the society.6. 在人生的旅途上你会遇到许多人,从中找到适合你的人,然而你应该不顾一切地避开几种类型的人。他们一开始可能非常绅士体面,试图吸引你的注意力,可是一旦表现出本性,你就会避之唯恐不及。Reading PracticePassage One1. A 2. C 3. A 4. APassage Two适龄 an appropriate age独立生活 an independent life社会关系social relationship经济资助financial support宗教机构religious institution自制self-government重大的人生决定major life decisions特定行业a particular profession文化价值观cultural value自立self-reliance and independencePractical Writing设计思路本单元应用文写作选取日常生活和工作中经常会涉及到的请假条作为写作部分教学内容。具体通过“概述、重要句型介绍、例文学习、写作实践”四个步骤让学生掌握请假条的写作。参考教法1.导入问题:In what kind of situation do you have to write a request for leave?2. 教师简短介绍请假条的定义。3. 教师讲解请假条的基本格式。4. 教师讲解重要表达方式和句型。5. 案例学习。6. 写作实践。IV. Read the following letter of showing thanks and answer questions.1. What is the purpose of writing this letter?To ask leave from the teacher.2. When will Mary be absent from school?From the 12th to the 17th.3. Why does Mary ask for leave?She has to return home to see my grandfather.4. What does Mary promise to do after coming back?She will do her best to make up for her missed lessons.V. Writing PracticeKey April 25thDirector Wang, I beg to apply for five days’ leave of absence from April 26th to May 1st instant, in order to return home to see my father, who is now dangerously ill. I shall be much obliged if you grant me my application. As for the work not done during my absence, I will do my best to make up for them as soon as I come back.Zhang QiangUnit Two Cultural ExchangeDialogue设计思路l 文化交流发生于两个或者多个具有文化源差异显著的关系之间。随着社会经济的不断发展,文化的交流愈发频繁。通过了解不同文化之间的差异,帮助学生更好的理解和掌握不同国家的语言应用环境;l 现代社会中,东西方国家之间的政治、经济合作越来越多,我们应该如何面对这些文化差异,如何去认识和了解。参考教法l 让学生列举一些发生在我们周围的中西方文化差异现象,比如饮食、服装、教育等方面;l 讨论文化差异是否会给人们的生活带来的误解与冲突。Complete the following dialogue according to the hints given below.A: Do you know why America is called “melting pot”?B: Of course. America is a country of immigrants. The immigrants are from corners of the world.A: Yes, such as Europe, South America, Africa and Asia.B: You are right. Every stream of immigrants has its own culture, and since society doesn’t exclude these cultures, it forms a multicultural environment.A: Oh, I see. American culture is just like a big melting pot of different cultures.Create a new dialogue according to the situation given below.设计思路l 通过对话的学习和讨论,学生对文化交流有了进一步的认识。通过编写对话,梳理有关文化交流的一些知识,把现实生活中的场景转化为语言情景。参考教法l 把班级学生分成若干小组,确定要讨论的文化交流事例,编写英文对话;l 教师根据学生编写对话的情况,选择几组表现突出的学生,在班级上展示,锻炼学生,并提高学生的积极性,活跃课堂气氛。对话翻译文化差异A:我是唐明,很高兴见到你!B:幸会!我是乔。A:听说你来自英国,在这里学习汉语吗?B:是的,这是我来中国的第一年。A:你现在习惯在中国的生活吗?有时候对于西方的学生而言,有些艰难。B:太对了!我在英格兰长大,第一次出国留学,需要一些时间来习惯这里的文化。A:对你来说,在这里最大的困难是什么?B:我想应该是习俗吧。缺乏对中国风俗习惯的了解,给我带来了很多麻烦。A:比如呢?B:西方文化中,即使是好朋友或者父母,一点点帮助都要说谢谢,但是中国不同,例如帮朋友开门之类的小事,他们是不需要说感谢之类的话。A:的确如此,在中国无需说感谢!B:有时很担心由于习俗差异对中国的同学们不够礼貌。A:完全理解!你最好交几个中国朋友,向他们学习。B:嗯,好主意。Text设计思路l 由对话导入了文化差异的话题,在课文中进一步的讨论文化差异,了解深层次的一些文化现象,有助于学生把握语言应用的环境。l 随着社会经济的发展,文化交流日益频繁,为更好的进行国际交流,现代学生有必要了解一些西方国家的文化现象。参考教法l 导入问题:What is Cultural Exchange? Can you give some examples in our life?What can we learn from cultural exchange?Language Points in the Text1. inevitable a.① certain to happen and impossible to avoide.g. It's inevitable that doctors will make the occasional mistake.医生也会偶尔犯错误,这是不可避免的。Disease was an inevitable consequence of poor living conditions.疾病是恶劣的生活条件所带来的必然结果。② a situation that is certain to happen:e.g.One day the inevitable happened and I got a speeding ticket.一天一件不可避免的事情发生了,我得到一张罚单。2. clash n.① a short fight between two armies or groups:violent clashes between police and demonstrators 警察与示威者之间的暴力冲突②an argument between two people or groups:e.g. The plans put oil companies in a head-on clash with environmentalists.这些计划使得石油公司与环保主义者之间发生了正面的冲突。3. enrich v. to improve the quality of something, especially by adding things to ite.g. Add fertilizer to enrich the soil. 施肥使土壤肥沃。Education can greatly enrich your life. 教育可以极大的丰富你的生活。4. digest v.① to change food that you have just eaten into substances that your body can use:e.g. One or two years old babies can digest a wide range of food easily.一两岁大的婴儿能够很容易消化各种各样的食物。② to understand new information:e.g. I struggled to digest the news. 我努力去理解这个新闻。5. eliminate v.① to completely get rid of something that is unnecessary or unwanted:e.g. Do you know how to eliminate the pouch? 你知道如何消除眼袋吗?Fatty foods should be eliminated from the diet. 高脂肪的食物应该从饮食中去除。② to defeat a team or person in a competition:e.g. Our team was eliminated in the first round.我们的队伍在第一轮就被淘汰了。6. novelty n. the quality of being new, unusual, and interesting:e.g. Many toys have no attraction beyond their novelty value.许多玩具除了新奇性,无任何吸引力。It was fun for a while, but the novelty wore off.它会有趣一段时间,但新鲜感会渐渐消失。7. imitation n. copy someone else's actionse.g. Many people think that children learn language by imitation.很多人认为儿童是通过模仿学习语言的。8. originality n. something completely new and different e.g. I was impressed by the originality of the plan.这个计划的创意给我留下了深刻印象。Her earlier work shows a lot of originality.她早期的作品展示了很多创意。A lot of his designs lack originality.他的很多设计缺乏创意。课文翻译文化差异现代化的交通与传播手段使世界变得越来越小,整个国际社会好似一个巨大的地球村。有着不同文化背景的村民们在文化交流和文化冲撞中和睦相处。当代社会的任何一个民族,其先进文化从来都不是孤立的,而是与其他民族的文化进行广泛交流的产物。当然,任何一个民族的文化,其根基与主流必须具有这个民族的鲜明特征。文化交流不是让外国文化吞没自己的文化,而是为了丰富和充实本民族的文化。通过文化交流,不同的文化可以相互学习,相互影响。在文化领域里,相互影响是一种非常复杂的现象。因此,吸取外国文化是一个入口、咀嚼和消化的过程。我们应该采取去伪存真、去粗取精、多出优进、抵御腐蚀的原则。我认为各种文化的不同特点和风格不会因此而消失,相反,不同的文化可以取长补短,互为补充。我们在吸取外国文化优秀成果的同时,不能满足于一味模仿的做法。沉溺于简单的模仿会使自己失去创作力,无法达到新的艺术高度,无法向世界推出自己的优秀作品。新意是现代风格与传统风格的结合,是外国特色与本民族特色的结合,是艺术性与教育性的结合。Language PracticeTask 1 Read the text again and answer the following questions.1. Why does the world become smaller?The world becomes smaller because of different modern transportation and communication.2. What can we learn from cultural exchange?It can enrich a nation’s own culture.3. What kind of principle can we adopt in cultural exchange?Eliminate the false and retain the true, discard the dross and select the essential, export more and import the best, and resist bad influences.4. How should we do when we absorb the essence of a foreign language?We should not be content with imitation without creation; we should keep our novelty and originality.5. When we talk to the westerns, what kinds of questions should be avoided?We should avoid personal questions like these: How old are you? Are you married? How much do you make? How many children do you have? …Task 2 Find the right definition in Column B that matches the words in Column A.1. b 2. d 3.j 4. a 5.h 6.c 7.e 8.f 9.g 10.iTask 3 Fill in the blanks with the given words. Change the form where necessary.1. It is better to be content with what one has than to risk losing everything by being too greedy.2. Education can greatly enrich your life.3. If you think you may be allergic to a food or drink, eliminate it from your diet.4. This country seeks to become stronger through alliance.5. Read the manufacturer's guidelines before discarding the box.6. Some of the younger pop bands try to imitate their musical heroes from the past.7. This is by no means a good way to solve the problem.8. The house had belonged to her family for three or four generations.9. Excessive usage of this drug can result in injury to the liver.10. The accident was the inevitable consequence of carelessness.Task 4 Fill in the blanks according to the following passage.Conflict exits in different cultures or people of different ethnic, political, or other groups in a society. Cross-cultural negotiation, small-group communication decision-making and intercultural or cross-cultural views are included in intercultural communication conflict.There are five conflicts mentioned in the passage. Object conflicts usually happen in conscious or unconscious disagreement and misunderstanding about something.Relational conflicts refer to individuals’ rights and responsibilities involved in the situation.… Nowadays people increasingly pay attention to different types of conflict.Task 5 Translate the following sentences into English or Chinese.1. They appear to be able to handle the problem.2. There is more and more culture clash in China as foreign travelers pour into.3. Chinese government is trying to eliminate the poverty in the countryside.4. The teacher was very content with students’ homework.5. Wasting other people’s time is equivalent to killing them.6. 婚姻是一种古老的、合法的宗教活动,被世界各地的人们所庆祝。虽然许多地方人们结婚的理由相似,但是不同的国家有不同的婚礼习俗。Reading PracticePassage One1.C2. A3. D 4. A5.BPassage TwoChoose from below an appropriate Chinese to match each equivalent in the passage.武术martial arts赤手空拳的barehanded追溯到trace back to中医学Traditional Chinese Medicine身心合一a unity of body and mind鲜明的特征distinctive feature速度和力量speed and vigor以智战胜对手outwit one’s opponent在外表上in appearance形醉意不醉drunk in appearance but not in mindPractical WritingNotice设计思路l 随着商业活动及涉外活动的日益频繁,团体或个人的重要信息公之于众非常重要。可通过通知的形式,将其张贴在学校、企业和公共场所的布告栏中,或通过网络告示。掌握通知的格式和写作要点,尤为重要。参考教法l 授课中,强调通知通常由三部分组成:1) 标题(Headline):通常只用Notice作为标题,或用所通知事宜的具体内容作为标题。标题通常写在上方的居中处。2) 正文(Body):写明所举行的活动、时间、地点等内容。3) 落款(Signature):写明通知的日期和单位名称或人名。落款一般写在正文的右下方,有时也放在正文的左上方。l 写作实践。IV. Read the following Notice and answer questions.1. Sales Manager,Barry Chen.2. Tell the customers that JIAXUAN Supermarket will be opened on Sept.28.3. The goods is in high quality and will be supplied at reasonable prices.4. 10% reduction.Key:Boys and girls, May I have your attention please? Tomorrow is March the 12th—Tree Planting Day. In order to protect our environment, we’ll go to the West Hill to plant trees there. Please meet at 7:00 in the morning at the school gate. We’ll go there by bus. You’d better put on your old clothes and bring tools and lunch with you. Don’t be late.Thank you.Unit Three EnvironmentDialogue设计思路l 随着经济的快速发展,人们的生活水平逐渐提高,私家车的数量越来越多,对城市空气的污染程度也日趋严重。通过对话导入健康绿色出行理念——骑自行车代替开车,从而引发人们对环境的关注,爱护环境,珍爱生命。参考教法l 让学生谈谈当前的环境现状,例如air pollution, water pollution, white pollution,traffic jam in big cities等;l 让学生分组讨论Green Travel的好处,如reduce carbon dioxide emission, make the environment clean , give people a healthy living environment 等。Complete the following dialogue according to the hints given below.A: Hello, how do you go to work every day?B: I usually ride a bicycle.A: Why not drive your car? It’s very convenient.B: Yeah, but sometimes there is always a traffic jam during the rush hour, and cars produce too much pollution.A: So you are a green traveler?B:Absolutely. I get lots of exercise when riding a bicycle. More important, I can save much money on gas, insurance and repairs every month. Why don’t you have a try?A: Wow, good idea. I’ll take it.对话翻译A:你通常怎么去上班?B:我常骑自行车,你呢?A:有时候骑车。但有时比较懒,就开车上班。B:我认为应该劝阻人们使用私家车。汽车产生了太多的污染。A:我赞同,但是很难停止使用汽车。开车很方便。B:开车确实很方便,但是对环境很有害。A:你有车吗?B:现在没有,以前有一辆。一旦开始使用自行车,我就发现真的不需要开车了。A:也许我现在应该卖掉小汽车,这样就可能不那么想用它了。B:是的。每个月我在汽油、保险和修理费上节省了数百美元。A:如果你每天骑车而不是开车上班,你会得到很多锻炼的。Language points in the Dialogue1. discourage vt. make someone feel less confidente.g. We discouraged him from giving up the job. 我们劝他不要放弃那份工作。Don’t let one failure discourage you. 不要因为一次失败就泄气。2. tempt vt. make someone want to have or do somethinge.g. What tempted Arthur to steal the cellphone? 是什么诱使亚瑟偷这部手机的?The offer of a high salary tempted Tom. 愿出高薪的提议使汤姆动了心。tempt somebody to do something 诱使某人做…be tempted to do something 被引诱做…Create a new dialogue according to the situation given below.设计思路l 通过对话的学习和讨论,学生对环境问题有了进一步的认识。通过编写对话,梳理有关环境污染的一些问题,让学生思考如何面对环境问题,把现实生活中的场景转化为语言情景。参考教法l 把班级学生分成若干小组,编写英文对话,并分组练习口语;l 教师根据学生编写对话的情况,选择几组表现突出的学生,在班上展示,锻炼学生的勇气,并提高学生参与的积极性,活跃课堂气氛。Text设计思路l 由对话导入了环境问题,在课文中进一步展开讨论。让学生们关注我们生存的环境,减少污染和浪费,培养环保意识。l 人类在不断发展的历程中,取得了辉煌的成绩,但是也给自然环境带来了灾难,提醒我们反思:发展不能以破坏自然为代价,应该与自然保持和谐。参考教法l 导入问题:Should we move on to the problem of environmental protection? Why?What methods do you think we should take to protect the environment?Is it late to solve the environmental problems?Language points in the Text1. physical a. connected with the bodye.g. Playing basketball is a form of physical exercise. 打篮球是体育活动的一种形式。The doctor gave me a physical examination this morning. 今天上午医生给我做了体检。2. alter v. to change, or to make someone or something changee.g. Has she altered her mind? 她改变主意了吗?The tailor altered the coat to make it shorter. 裁缝把大衣改短了。3. transform v. to completely change the appearance, form, or character of something or someonee.g. Increased population has transformed the landscape. 增长的人口改变了地貌。The situation has been greatly transformed. 形势已经大大好转。4. modify v. to make small changes to something in order to improve ite.g. We have to modify our plan a little bit. 我们不得不对计划稍加修改。He has modified his demands. 他已降低了他的要求。5. drain v. to make the water or liquid in something flow away:e.g. Luckily the water drained away in time. 幸好水及时排掉了。It seemed that his life was draining away. 他的生命似乎在枯竭。6. beneficial a. having a good effecte.g. Cycling is highly beneficial to health and the environment. 骑车对健康和环境非常有益。It would be beneficial to keep up with the developments in Asia. 跟上亚洲的发展步伐会很有益处。7. pressing a. needing to be discussed or dealt with very soone.g. Poverty is a more pressing problem than pollution. 贫困是一个比污染更加紧迫的一个问题。Pressing business matters prevented him from taking a holiday.紧迫的事务使他没法休假。8. negative a. harmful, unpleasant, or not wantede.g. He gave me a negative answer. 他给了我一个否定的答案。Their criticism was not negative. 他们的批评并不是负面的。课文翻译 人与环境人类有史以来不断改变环境,以改善自己的生活方式。人类借助科技工具改变了地球的许多自然特征,将林地和草原改造成为农田,使江河变成湖泊和水库,用于灌溉或用于水力发电。人类还通过给沼泽地排水、凿石劈山、修建公路和铁路等方式,改变了地球的面貌。然而,人类改变自然环境并不总是带来有益的结果。如今,空气和水的污染给地球的健康造成了越来越严重的危害。每天机动车辆的排气管排出成千上万吨废气。工厂释放的烟雾污染了工业区和周围乡村的空气。水污染同样有害,海洋的整个生态平衡正在受到破坏,工业废水已经使许多河流的生物死亡。现在,环境保护比以往任何时候都更为紧迫。我们知道,对环境的大规模破坏已经带来了负面影响,甚至咄咄逼人地威胁到人类的生存。对这些问题漠不关心将意味着自我毁灭。因此,应采取有效措施并通过法律来保护环境。不然的话,人类势必遭受因其不关心生存环境而引起的严重后果之苦。ExercisesTask 1 Read the text again and answer the following questions.1.Why has man changed the physical environment in history?They have changed the physical environment in history because they want to improve the way of life.2.Can you give some examples of altering physical features of the earth?Transform wood lands and prairies into farms; make rivers into lakes and reservoirs for irrigation purposes or hydroelectric power. 3.What causes the pollution of the air and water?Gases from the exhausts of motor vehicles, smoke and pollution from factories.4.How do you think of “Indifference to these problems will mean committing suicide”?If we don’t care about the problems, the environment will be worse and worse, such as no clean air and water, no healthy food, people can not live in such a terrible environment.5.What should we do to improve the environment on campus?Reduce wastes on campus. For example, eat up food in canteen, turn off the lights when leaving classroom, recycle used books, etc. Task 2 Find the right definition in Column B that matches the words in Column A.1. j2.f3.h4.a5.b6.i7.d8.e9.g10.cTask 3 Fill in the blanks with the given words. Change the form where necessary.1. Poverty is a more pressing problem than pollution in Africa.2. Survivors of the crash were rescued by helicopter.3. The new credit cards will be of great benefit to our customers.4. James was hit in the mouth as he struggled with the burglars.5. We must conserve our woodlands for future generations.6. Her face hadn't altered much over the years.7. His character seems to have undergone a complete transformation since his marriage.8. The feedback will be used to modify the course for next year.9. You may be physically and mentally exhausted after a long flight.10. They thought his behavior was abnormal.Task 4 Fill in the blanks according to the following passage.Green living is a great way to create a more eco-friendly environment. People can take some actions to preserve the environment.The use of organic cotton, which is on the rise for both eco-friendly shops and fashion designers.You help reduce the amount of trees that are unnecessarily chopped down by using pr
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