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-_全新版大学英语综合教程4 习题答案上海外语教育出版社Unit 1Part II Text Alexf OrganizationParts Paragraphs Main IdeasPart One Paras 1-2 Introduction — Both Napoleon's and Hitler's military campaigns failed because of the severity of the Russian winter.Part Two Paras 3-11 Napoleon's military campaign against RussiaPart Three Paras 12-20 Hitler's military campaign against the Soviet UnionPart Four Para 21 Conclusion—the elements of nature must be rekoned with in any military campaign.2.Sections Paragraphs Main IdeasSection One Paras 12-13 Hitler's blitzkrieg against Russia and Stalin's scorched earth policySection Two Paras 14-18 the battles fought at Leningrad, Moscow and Stalingrad Section Three Paras 19-20 the Russian counter-offensive and the outcome of the warVocabularyI. 1. 1) alliance 2) at the cost of3) stroke 4) limp5) minus 6) regions7) declarations 8) siege9) raw 10) bide his time11) have taken their toll 12) in the case of2. 1) is faced with 2) get bogged down3) is pressing on / pressed on 4) drag on5) get by 6) dine out7) have cut back 8) get through3. 1) The rapid advance in gene therapy may lead to the conquest of cancer in the near future.2) Production in many factories has been brought to a halt by the delayed arrival of raw materials due to the dock workers’ strike3) Sara has made up her mind that her leisure interests will/should never get in the way of her career.4) Obviously the reporter's question caught the foreign minister off guard.5) The introduction of the electronic calculator has rendered the slide rule out of date /obso lete.4. 1) Being faced with an enemy forces much superior to ours, we had to give up the occupation of big cities and retreat to the rural and mountainous regions to build up our bases.2) Unity is crucial to the efficient operation of an organization. Failure to reckon with this problem will weaken its strength. In many cases,work may be brought to a halt by constant internal struggle in an organization.3) The Red Army fought a heroic battle at Stalingrad and won the decisive victory against the Germans. In fact, this battle turned the tide in the Second World War. During this famous battle, the Soviet troops withstood the German siege and weakened the German army by launching a series of counterattacks.II.More Synonyms in Context1) During the First World War, battles occurred here and there over vast areas. Some of the most dramatic fighting took place in the gloomy trenches of France and Belgium.2) Elizabeth made careful preparations for the interview and her efforts / homework paid off.3) I spent hours trying to talk him into accepting the settlement, but he turned a deaf ear to all my words.4) Pneumonia had severely weakened her body, and I wondered how her fragile body could withstand the harsh weather.III. Usage1) But often it is not until we fall ill that we finally learn to appreciate good health.2) A rich old lady lay dead at home for two weeks—and nobody knew anything about it.3) It's said he dropped dead from a heart attack when he was at work4) Don't sit too close to the fire to keep warm—you could easily get burned, especially if you fall asleep.5) In those days people believed in marrying young and having children early.6) Little Tom was unable to sit still for longer than a few minutes.Comprehensive ExercisesI. Cloze(A)1. invasion 2. stand in the way3. Conquest 4. catching... off his guard5. launching 6. declaration7. campaign 8. drag on9. reckon with 10. bringing...to a halt(B)1. allow 2. reckoned3. highly 4. forecasts5. rapidly 6. instant7. delivery 8. advantage9. observing 10. PowerfulII. Translation1. Mr. Doherty and his family are currently engaged in getting the autumn harvest in on the farm.2. We must not underestimate the enemy. They are equipped with the most sophisticated weapons.3. Having been cut of a job/Not having had a job for 3months, Phil is getting increasingly desperate.4. Sam, as the project manager, is decisive, efficient, and accurate in his judgment.5. Since the chemical plant was identified as the source of solution, the village neighborhood committee decided to close it down at the cost of 100 jobs.The offensive had already lasted three days, but we had not gained much ground. Our troops engaging the enemy at the front were faced with strong/fierce/stiff resistance. The division commander instructed our battalion to get around to the rear of the enemy and launch a surprise attack. To do so, however, we had to cross a marshland and many of us were afraid we might get bogged down in the mud. Our battalion commander decided to take agamble. We started under cover of darkness and pressed on in spite of great difficulties. By a stroke of luck, the temperature at night suddenly dropped to minus 20 degrees Celsius and the marsh froze over. Thanks to the cold weather, we arrived at our destination before dawn and began attacking the enemy from the rear. This turned the tide of the battle. The enemy, caught off guard, soon surrendered.Unit 2Text A Vocabulary I. 1. 1) expansion 2) automated 3) vapor 4) take control of 5) hazards 6) satellite 7) vibrated 8) magnetic 9) bunched 10) in the air 11) got/was stuckin 12) approximately 2. 1) send out 2) stand up for 3) pass for 4) were closing in on 5) starting up 6) went through 7) fill out 8) fall into 3. 1)… incorporates all the latest safety features 2) …two trees ten feet apart 3) … awarding lucrative contracts to his construction site 4) … the prototype of a new model before they set up a factory to make the cars. 5) … are correlated in all racial groups 4.1) the application, remote, has turned into a reality, are poised to 2) that vibrate, can detect, frequency 3) lanes, are mounted in, alert a, hazard II. Word Formation Clipped Words Blends Kilo kilogram Medicare medical care Memo memorandum email electronic mail gym gymnasium comsat communications satellite lib liberation newscast news broadcast doc doctor skyjack sky hijack vet veterinarian Eurodollar European dollar prep preparatory brunch breakfast and lunch auto automobile telecast television broadcast flu influenza Oxbridge Oxford and Cambridge III. 1. swimming pool 2. drawing board 3. enriched Middle English 4. disturbing change 5. fully developed prototype 6. Canned foods 7. working population 8. puzzling differences Comprehensive Exercises I. Cloze 1. 1) computerized 2) start up 3) be poised to 4) alert 5)hazards 6) monotonous 7) take control of 8) steer 9) lane 10) decrease 11) calculate 12) eliminate 13) getting stuck in 14) mounted 15) detect 16) vapor 2. 1) generates 2) related 3) revolutionized 4) enabled 5) opportunities 6) overall 7) manufacturing 8) dependent 9) interact 10) fatalities II. Translation 1.1) There was an unusual quietness in the air, except for the sound of artillery in the distance. 2) The expansion of urban areas in some African countries has been causing a significant fall in living standards and an increase in social problem. 3) The research shows that atmospheric carbon dioxide levels are closely correlated with global temperatures. 4) The frequency of the bus service has been improved from 15 to 12 minutes recently 5) The diver stood on the edge of the diving board, poised to jump at the signal from the coach. 2. Automobiles have, since their invention, revolutionized transportation, changing forever the way people live, travel, and do business. On the other hand, they have brought hazards, especially highway fatalities. However, today the application of computer technology and electronic sensors in designing and manufacturing cars makes it possible to eliminate most of traffic accidents. For example, electronic sensors mounted in your car can detect alcohol vapor in the air and refuse to start up the engine. They can also monitor road conditions by receiving radio signals sent out from orbiting satellites and greatly reduce your chances of getting stuck in traffic jams.Unit 3 Text AContent questions1. He runs a manufacturing company.2. Almost all of them were no.3. This applicant was ill prepared for the job he was applying for and therefore ill qualified. 4. Prepare to win. 5. They now have to switch jobs frequently. 6. A 90-year-old tennis player who wanted to work on his weakness -- backhand court. 7. Believing in yourself, even when no one else does. 8. Because he will mention a cab driver who is different. 9. His efforts to make a difference. 10.He was offered a ride on a day when Minnesota was hit with one of the worst snowstorms in years and the international airport there was closed for the first time in decades. 11. Because there were no tracks left in the snow, which means he was the first person to take off from there. 12 Carlson was excited about being first, which is exactly what the writer recommends to job applicants. Text Organization 1. Parts Paragraphs Main Ideas Part One Paras 1- 6 An ill-prepared college graduate failed his interview. Part Two Paras 7-27 Four pieces of advice on being a successful interviewee. Part Three Paras 28-31 Make your own tracks in whatever you do. 2. Suggestions Examples 1) Prepare to win. 1) Michael Jordan 2) Never stop learning. 2) a 90-year-old tennis player 3) Believe in yourself,even when no one else does 3) the four-minute mile, the New York Marathon and the Vietnam veteran. 4) Find a way to make a difference. 4) a New York cabdriver. Language Sense Enhancement 1. (1) checked with (2) interview (3) grill (4) clippings (5) be right for (6) follow up (7) indicating (8)hand-delivered (9) prepared (10) prospective Language Focus I. 1.1) rude 2) physically 3) structure 4) made a difference 5) blurted (out) 6) chuckling 7) measurable 8) prospective 9) preparations 10) sparkled 11) took a crack at 12) partner 2. 1) go after 2) look back at/on 3) be put up 4) stood for 5) build in 6) follow up 7) be hooked up to 8) closed up 3.1) grilled her about where she had been all night 2) beyond Cinderella's wildest dreams that she could one day dance in the King’s palace 3) will be in readers’ hands soon 4) do your homework before going on an interview. 5) was in the neighborhood of 150 dollars. 4. 1)applicants,veteran, the prospective 2)From his standpoint,has made every endeavor to go after 3) as the saying goes, to have a crack at, barely II. Words with Multiple Meanings 1. behave 2. used to avoid repetition 3. Clean 4. get along 5. perform/complete 6. perform/complete 7. study 8. be enough 9. be acceptable III. Usage 1. There is so much to say and it is hard to know where to begin. OK, I’ll talk about myself first. 2. Thank you very much, John, for your beautiful Christmas card. By the way, I have something here for you. 3. The new computer language can be quite easily understood by anyone who can read the daily newspaper. Now, why is this an advantage? 4. I’m going to work out the outline and will let you know how it goes. By the way, I will see you in February, as I plan to attend your seminar in Shanghai. 5. OK, you got the job. Now, how to maximize your profits with as little effort as possible? 6. Chris is back from Australia. Incidentally, those pictures you sent me are wonderful. Comprehensive Exercises I. Cloze 1. (1) prospective (2) As I see it (3) done your homework (4) beforehand (5) endeavor (6) structure (7) partners (8) Respond (9) take a crack (10) from the standpoint (11) make a difference (12) follow up 2. (1) encouraging (2) inquiry (3) relevant (4) samples (5) references (6) advice (7) preparing (8) seriously (9) probably (10) exhibit II. Translation 1. 1) Despite the inadequate length of the airstrip in this emergency landing, the veteran pilot managed to stop the plane after taxiing for only a short while. 2) Grilled by the reporters, the movie star eventually blurted (out) that she had undergone two plastic surgeries. 3) We have the technology and our partner has the capital. Working together, we’ll have the future in our hands. 4) If I had known beforehand that you would bring so many friends home, I would have made better preparations. You see, I have barely enough food and drinks for a snack. 5) People gave generously upon learning that new school rooms with stronger structures were to be built in the earthquake-stricken area.2. Well begun, half done, as the saying goes. It is extremely important for a job applicant to do his homework while seeking employment. From my standpoint, whether or not one has done his homework clearly makes a differences in his chance of success. I have a friend who is earning somewhere in the neighborhood of 100,000 dollars a years in a large computer software company. He told me that from his own experience the decision makers who interview prospective employees like people who are well prepared. Those who make no endeavor to learn as much about his prospective employer as possible don't have much of a chance of success. Unit 4Text AText rganization 1. PartsParagraphsMain IdeasPart OneParas 1-3Introduction to Davos Man and the World Economic ForumPart TwoParas 4-5Debate over the impact of globalization on current society and culturePart Three ppppPTThreeThreeParas 6-8History of globalization and its recent trends and future prospectsPart FourParas. 9-11Globalization versus nationalism and the challenges it faces2. Main Events1. Davos man spends a lot of time in places other than his native country.2. Davos Man sees their identity as a mater of personal choice, not an accident of birth.3. Davos Man believes that globalization, the unimpeded flows of capital, labor and technology across national borders, is both welcome and unstoppable.4. Davos Man sees the world increasingly as one vast, interconnected market-place in which corporations search for the most advantageous locations to buy, produce and sell their goods and services.VocabularyI. 1) advantageous2) let alone3) witnessing/vanishing 4) landmark5) entitled 6) displace7) Establishment 8) patriotic/strengthen9) contradictions 10) aspires11) divorced 12) pendulums2.1) come to 2) dozed off3) believed in 4) was set apart5) take in6) sucks in7) clean up 8) turn away3.1) For me, it makes no/little difference whether we go there by train or by bus.2)Toyata has overtaken General Motors as the world’s biggest car maker. 3)Shortly after their marriage, Mr. Chambers was at odds with his wife over money matters. 4)Henry has been at the forefront of nanotechnology research. 5)She doesn’t even know how to boil potatoes, let alone cook a meal. 5. a) is increasingly/to accelerate/their investmentb) economy/make an earnest/domestic/strike a balance betweenc) a handful of/be endorsed by/on a large scaleII.Word FormationWTOWorld Trade Organization 世界贸易组织GDPGross domestic product国内生产总值ATMAutomated teller machine自动出纳机VATValue-added tax增值税CADComputer-aided design计算机辅助设计ITInformation technology信息技术IDDInternational direct dialing国际直拨电话MTVMusic television音乐电视RadarRadio detecting and ranging雷达IOCInternational Olympic Committee国际奥委会VIPVery important person贵宾,大人物LaserLight amplification by stimulated emission of radiation激光CPUCentral processing unit中央处理器III. Usage1. An unusual present, a book on ethics, was given to Henry for his birthday.2. The reason(he gave) that he didn’t notice the car till too late was unsatisfactory.3. Football, his only interest in life, has brought him many friends.4. Cloning had been raised as a possibility decades ago, then dismissed, something that serious scientists thought was simply not going to happen anytime soon.Comprehensive ExercisesI. Cloze2. networking4. growth6. facilitate8. outlook10. patriotic 12. strike a balance(A)1. academics 3.a variety of 5. vanish7. endorsing 9. sweeping aside11. erasing(B)1. aided2.effects3.distances4. connected5. invested6. features7. prevailing8. qualitatively9. volume10. DistinguishingII. Translation1.) Due to his pessimistic outlook on the European economy, John has moved his assets from Europe to elsewhere.2) I like hiring young people. They are earnest learners and committed to work.3) Unlike her girl friends who center their lives on their children, Mary cares more about her personal growth.4) Why is it that a considerable number of colleagues are at odds with you?5) The Chinese government has introduced a variety of policies to strengthen cooperation with developing countries.2.Globalization has great implications for young Chinese. For example, young farmers are moving on a large scale to urban areas to look for jobs. And for those young people who aspire to study abroad or work in foreign-invested enterprises, English has become increasingly important. At the same time, a considerable number of overseas Chinese students have returned home in recent years, for they hold an optimistic outlook for the long-term growth of the Chinese economy. The internet has strengthened the links between Chinese young people and those elsewhere. They follow the latest trend and copy foreign fashions. Some of them don’t seem to care for traditional Chinese virtues, let alone carry them forward, which has given rise to worries that the traditional Chinese culture might one day vanish.Unit 5 TextAoganization 1. PartsParagraphsMain IdeasPart OneParas 1It is no easy to judge people, for they aren’t always what they appear to bePart TwoParas 2-3Kind and gentle, Edward Burton, a wealthy merchant, appeared as if he could not bear to hurt a fly.Part Three Paras 4-51History of globalization and its recent trends and future prospects sectionsParagraphsMain Ideassection OneParas 4-16What Edward knew about Lennysection TwoParas 17-31How Edward responded to Lenny’s requestsection Three Paras 32-51How Edward, a “kind” gentleman, handled a friend in desperate need of helpVocabularyI1) In a way 2) in accordance 3) vacancy 4) in good condition 5) transparent 6) rub 7) spicy 8) hitherto9) with (a) bad grace 10) instinct 11) pawned 12) current2.1) turned up 2) will stick to 3) brought back 4)go about5) driving at 6) put away 7) over 8) took aback3. 1) has a very weak constitution --- she may not be able to survive the operation.2) was taken aback by the insurance company’s rejection of my compensation claim3) was something of a surprise when we ran into each other in a place like that.4) needs trimming/ to be trimmed ---it’s getting too long.5) are often seceptive4.1) Oddly enough /went broke /wrinkled / he had gone all to pieces2) definite / is capable of /her vanity3) too mild / sipping / strokeII. Usage1. Except for 2. except that 3. except 4. except when5. except to 6. except what 7. except where 8. except thatIII. vocabularyspellingAmEBrEAmEBrEapartment flat favorablefavourablecantinparalyzeparalysecandysweetslaborlabourelevatorliftmetermetrefacultystaff (of a university)catalogcataloguefirst floorground floorlevelinglevellinggas, gasolinepetroltheatertheatremail postdefensedefencerailroadrailwayplowploughpantstrousersprogram programmesubwaytube, undergroundpractice (v.)practisecornmaizecharacterizecharacterisestoreshoptiretyre (on a car)Comprehensive exercisesI. Cloze1.1). insane 2).current 3). candid 4). capable 5). was taken aback6). in good condition 7). constitution 8). go all to pieces 9). Gone broke 10). vacancy 11). mild 12). deceptive2.1). suspected 2). pleading 3). confirmed 4)stunned 5) lucrative 6). jewellery 7). wealthy 8). urge 9). spell 10). arrestedII. Translation1.1) I have an instinct that Henry will seek to join the expedition, because he is something of an adventurer.2) He is capable of sticking to the task at hand, even if he is exposed to noises.3) The trademark was registered in accordance with the laws hitherto in force.4) Oddly enough, many people volunteered to help organize the meeting, but only a few turned up.5) The teacher’s affectionate words, along with his candid comments, changed the way Mike perceived the society and himself.2. For my own part, I find that appearances are all too often deceptive. For instance, you might be wrong if you judged by appearances only people like Edward Hyde Burton. In appearance, he seemed a man all of a piece. He was a tiny little fellow with white hair and mild blue eyes, gentle and candid. Nevertheless, he turned out to be very cruel. He insulted and fooled Lenny who was down and out and made him commit himself to an insane venture. What was still more surprising was that he was completely indifferent to Lenny’s death. Without doubt, Burton was a man with a heart of stone.Key to Unit6, Book4 “The Pace of Life”Vocabulary 11) appliances2) comparative3) multiply4) distribution5) prosperity6) decorate7) famine8) large quantities of/ a large quantity of9) streamline10) fax11) pointed the way to12) bewilderedVocabulary 21) eat into2) cling to3) stand out/ stood out4) wears away5) set about6) switch off7) will be turned loose8) poured inVocabulary 3is forecast to be below average next year, which at the moment is 4 percent.to enter the building and find the baby girl proved futile as rescuers were driven out by the heat and flames.was urged to divert some of its attention from expanding production and get more involved with issues of market demand.can really eat heavily into your profits when you are selling suits at £900 and dresses at £2,000.has toiled endlessly over the exercise machine for the last twenty years in order to keep her body in shape.Vocabulary 4reaction to; discontent; provokedconvention; evading tax; the confines ofa burden; are always on the go/ seem forever on the go; to copeII. Confusable Words1. 1) nervousness 2) tension 3) stress; stress 4) tension2. 1) honorary 2) Honorable 3) honorable 4) honorary 5) honorable 6) HonoraryIII. UsageDealing with the extinction crisis is no simple matter. Is it sensible, we may ask, to spend large sums of money to save some species – be it an elephant or an orchid – in a nation in which a large proportion of the population is living below the poverty line?This new technology could be used anywhere large numbers of people need to be quickly screened --- at airports, train stations, bus terminals or border crossings. However, experts suspect, there is also the risk that people will learn to fool the machine the same way they try to fool polygraph readings by controlling their breath or taking drugs to relax themselves.With a high percentage of marriages ending in divorce, often due to financial difficulties, you would say that money is a big factor in making a good marriage. But, believe it or not, it isn’t money that ensures you a happy marriage; it is your philosophy of life that does.Not all the risks on the Internet




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