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最新 汇总 大学 英语 第二 综合 教学 教材 课文 翻译
-_Unit 1Text AHoward Gardner, a professor of education at Harvard University, reflects on a visit to China and gives his thoughts on different approaches to learning in China and the West. 哈佛大学教育学教授霍华德·加德纳回忆其中国之行,阐述他对中西方不同的学习方式的看法。 Learning, Chinese-StyleHoward Gardner 1 For a month in the spring of 1987, my wife Ellen and I lived in the bustling eastern Chinese city of Nanjing with our 18-month-old son Benjamin while studying arts education in Chinese kindergartens and elementary schools. But one of the most telling lessons Ellen and I got in the difference between Chinese and American ideas of education came not in the classroom but in the lobby of the Jinling Hotel where we stayed in Nanjing. 中国式的学习风格霍华德·加德纳 1987年春,我和妻子埃伦带着我们18个月的儿子本杰明在繁忙的中国东部城市南京住了一个月,同时考察中国幼儿园和小学的艺术教育情况。然而,我和埃伦获得的有关中美教育观念差异的最难忘的体验并非来自课堂,而是来自我们在南京期间寓居的金陵饭店的大堂。  2 The key to our room was attached to a large plastic block with the room number on it. When leaving the hotel, a guest was encouraged to turn in the key, either by handing it to an attendant or by dropping it through a slot into a box. Because the key slot was narrow, the key had to be positioned carefully to fit into it. 我们的房门钥匙系在一块标有房间号的大塑料板上。酒店鼓励客人外出时留下钥匙,可以交给服务员,也可以从一个槽口塞入钥匙箱。由于口子狭小,你得留神将钥匙放准位置才塞得进去。 3 Benjamin loved to carry the key around, shaking it vigorously. He also liked to try to place it into the slot. Because of his tender age and incomplete understanding of the need to position the key just so, he would usually fail. Benjamin was not bothered in the least. He probably got as much pleasure out of the sounds the key made as he did those few times when the key actually found its way into the slot. 本杰明爱拿着钥匙走来走去,边走边用力摇晃着。他还喜欢试着把钥匙往槽口里塞。由于他还年幼,不太明白得把钥匙放准位置才成,因此总塞不进去。本杰明一点也不在意。他从钥匙声响中得到的乐趣大概跟他偶尔把钥匙成功地塞进槽口而获得的乐趣一样多。 4 Now both Ellen and I were perfectly happy to allow Benjamin to bang the key near the key slot. His exploratory behavior seemed harmless enough. But I soon observed an interesting phenomenon. Any Chinese staff member nearby would come over to watch Benjamin and, noting his lack of initial success, attempt to assist. He or she would hold onto Benjamin's hand and, gently but firmly, guide it directly toward the slot, reposition it as necessary, and help him to insert it. The "teacher" would then smile somewhat expectantly at Ellen or me, as if awaiting a thank you ─ and on occasion would frown slightly, as if considering us to be neglecting our parental duties. 我和埃伦都满不在乎,任由本杰明拿着钥匙在钥匙的槽口鼓捣。他的探索行为似乎并无任何害处。但我很快就观察到一个有趣的现象。饭店里任何一个中国工作人员若在近旁,都会走过来看着本杰明,见他初试失败,便都会试图帮忙。他们会轻轻握紧本杰明的手,直接将它引向钥匙的槽口,进行必要的重新定位,并帮他把钥匙插入槽口。然后那位“老师”会有所期待地对着我和埃伦微笑,似乎等着我们说声谢谢——偶尔他会微微皱眉,似乎觉得我俩没有尽到当父母的责任。 5 I soon realized that this incident was directly relevant to our assigned tasks in China: to investigate the ways of early childhood education (especially in the arts), and to throw light on Chinese attitudes toward creativity. And so before long I began to introduce the key-slot anecdote into my discussions with Chinese educators. 我很快意识到,这件小事与我们在中国要做的工作直接相关 :考察儿童早期教育 (尤其是艺术教育)的方式,揭示中国人对创造性活动的态度。因此,不久我就在与中国教育工作者讨论时谈起了钥匙槽口一事。 TWO DIFFERENT WAYS TO LEARN6 With a few exceptions my Chinese colleagues displayed the same attitude as the staff at the Jinling Hotel. Since adults know how to place the key in the key slot, which is the ultimate purpose of approaching the slot, and since the child is neither old enough nor clever enough to realize the desired action on his own, what possible gain is achieved by having him struggle? He may well get frustrated and angry ─ certainly not a desirable outcome. Why not show him what to do? He will be happy, he will learn how to accomplish the task sooner, and then he can proceed to more complex activities, like opening the door or asking for the key ─ both of which accomplishments can (and should) in due course be modeled for him as well. 两种不同的学习方式 我的中国同行,除了少数几个人外,对此事的态度与金陵饭店工作人员一样。既然大人知道怎么把钥匙塞进槽口——这是处理槽口一事的最终目的, 既然孩子还很年幼,还没有灵巧到可以独自完成要做的动作,让他自己瞎折腾会有什么好处呢?他很有可能会灰心丧气发脾气——这当然不是所希望的结果。为什么不教他怎么做呢?他会高兴,他还能早些学会做这件事,进而去学做更复杂的事,如开门,或索要钥匙——这两件事到时候同样可以 (也应该)示范给他看。 7 We listened to such explanations sympathetically and explained that, first of all, we did not much care whether Benjamin succeeded in inserting the key into the slot. He was having a good time and was exploring, two activities that did matter to us. But the critical point was that, in the process, we were trying to teach Benjamin that one can solve a problem effectively by oneself. Such self-reliance is a principal value of child rearing in middle-class America. So long as the child is shown exactly how to do something ─ whether it be placing a key in a key slot, drawing a hen or making up for a misdeed ─ he is less likely to figure out himself how to accomplish such a task. And, more generally, he is less likely to view life ─ as Americans do ─ as a series of situations in which one has to learn to think for oneself, to solve problems on one's own and even to discover new problems for which creative solutions are wanted. 我俩颇为同情地听着这一番道理,解释道,首先,我们并不在意本杰明能不能把钥匙塞进钥匙的槽口。他玩得开心,而且在探索,这两点才是我们真正看重的。但关键在于,在这个过程中,我们试图让本杰明懂得,一个人是能够很好地自行解决问题的。这种自力更生的精神是美国中产阶级最重要的一条育儿观。如果我们向孩子演示该如何做某件事——把钥匙塞进钥匙的槽口也好,画只鸡或是弥补某种错误行为也好——那他就不太可能自行想方设法去完成这件事。从更广泛的意义上说,他就不太可能——如美国人那样——将人生视为一系列的情境,在这些情境中,一个人必须学会独立思考,学会独立解决问题,进而学会发现需要创造性地加以解决的新问题。 TEACHING BY HOLDING HIS HAND8 In retrospect, it became clear to me that this incident was indeed key ─ and key in more than one sense. It pointed to important differences in the educational and artistic practices in our two countries. 把着手教 回想起来,当时我就清楚地意识到,这件事正是体现了问题的关键之所在——而且不仅仅是一种意义上的关键之所在。这件事表明了我们两国在教育和艺术实践上的重要差异。 9 When our well-intentioned Chinese observers came to Benjamin's rescue, they did not simply push his hand down clumsily or uncertainly, as I might have done. Instead, they guided him with extreme facility and gentleness in precisely the desired direction. I came to realize that these Chinese were not just molding and shaping Benjamin's performance in any old manner: In the best Chinese tradition, they were ba zhe shou jiao ─ "teaching by holding his hand" ─ so much so that he would happily come back for more. 那些善意的中国旁观者前来帮助本杰明时,他们不是简单地像我可能会做的那样笨拙地或是犹犹豫豫地把他的手往下推。相反,他们极其熟练地、温和地把他引向所要到达的确切方向。我逐渐认识到,这些中国人不是简单地以一种陈旧的方式塑造、引导本杰明的行为:他们是在恪守中国传统,把着手教,教得本杰明自己会愉快地要求再来一次。 10 The idea that learning should take place by continual careful shaping and molding applies equally to the arts. Watching children at work in a classroom setting, we were astonished by their facility. Children as young as 5 or 6 were painting flowers, fish and animals with the skill and confidence of an adult; calligraphers 9 and 10 years old were producing works that could have been displayed in a museum. In a visit to the homes of two of the young artists, we learned from their parents that they worked on perfecting their craft for several hours a day. 学习应通过不间断的精心塑造与引导而得以实现,这一观念同样适用于艺术。我们观看了孩子们在教室里学习艺术的情景,他们的娴熟技艺令我们惊讶。年仅5、6岁的孩子就带着成人的那种技巧与自信在画花、画鱼和动物;9岁、10岁的小书法家写出的作品满可以在博物馆展示。有一次去两位小艺术家的家里参观,我们从孩子的父母处得知,他们每天练习数小时以完善他们的技艺。 CREATIVITY FIRST? 11 In terms of attitudes to creativity there seems to be a reversal of priorities: young Westerners making their boldest departures first and then gradually mastering the tradition; and young Chinese being almost inseparable from the tradition, but, over time, possibly evolving to a point equally original. 创造力第一? 从对创造力的态度来说,优先次序似乎是颠倒了:西方的年轻人先是大胆创新,然后逐渐深谙传统;而中国的年轻人则几乎离不开传统,但是,随着时间的推移,他们同样可能发展到具有创新的境界。 12 One way of summarizing the American position is to state that we value originality and independence more than the Chinese do. The contrast between our two cultures can also be seen in terms of the fears we both harbor. Chinese teachers are fearful that if skills are not acquired early, they may never be acquired; there is, on the other hand, no comparable hurry to promote creativity. American educators fear that unless creativity has been acquired early, it may never emerge; on the other hand, skills can be picked up later. 美国人的立场可以概括起来这么说,我们比中国人更重视创新和自立。我们两种文化的差异也可以从我们各自所怀的忧虑中显示出来。中国老师担心,如果年轻人不及早掌握技艺,就有可能一辈子掌握不了;另一方面,他们并不同样地急于促进创造力的发展。美国教育工作者则担心,除非从一开始就发展创造力,不然创造力就有可能永不再现;而另一方面,技艺可于日后获得。 13 However, I do not want to overstate my case. There is enormous creativity to be found in Chinese scientific, technological and artistic innovations past and present. And there is a danger of exaggerating creative breakthroughs in the West. When any innovation is examined closely, its reliance on previous achievements is all too apparent (the "standing on the shoulders of giants" phenomenon). 但我并不想夸大其辞。无论在过去还是在当今,中国在科学、技术和艺术革新方面都展示了巨大的创造力。而西方的创新突破则有被夸大的危险。如果仔细审视任何一项创新,其对以往成就的依赖则都显而易见(“站在巨人肩膀之上”的现象)。 14 But assuming that the contrast I have developed is valid, and that the fostering of skills and creativity are both worthwhile goals, the important question becomes this: Can we gather, from the Chinese and American extremes, a superior way to approach education, perhaps striking a better balance between the poles of creativity and basic skills? 然而,假定我这里所说的反差是成立的,而培养技艺与创造力两者都是值得追求的目标,那么重要的问题就在于:我们能否从中美两个极端中寻求一种更好的教育方式,它或许能在创造力与基本技能这两极之间获得某种较好的平衡?Text BFinding a way of teaching children to appreciate the value of money can be a problem. Yet the solution, David Owen suggests, is simple -- just open a bank. Easier said than done? Well, it turns out to be not quite so difficult as it sounds, as you'll discover in reading about the First National Bank of Dave. 设法教育孩子珍惜钱财会是件难事。然而,大卫·欧文说,方法也很简单——开个银行就行。说来容易做起来难?其实,这事并没听上去那么难,你读一读戴夫第一国家银行的故事就知道了。  Children and MoneyDavid Owen 1 Parents who decide that the time has come to teach their children about money usually begin by opening savings accounts. The kids are attracted at first by the notion that a bank will pay them for doing nothing, but their enthusiasm disappears when they realize that the interest rate is tiny and, furthermore, their parents don't intend to give them access to their principal. To a kid, a savings account is just a black hole that swallows birthday checks. 孩 子 与 金 钱大卫·欧文 当家长觉得该教孩子们懂得如何对待金钱的时候,他们通常先为孩子开个储蓄账户。刚开始的时候,孩子们颇感兴趣,因为他们想自己什么也不干银行还会付给他们钱,可当他们明白利率小得很,而且父母也无意让他们动用本金时,他们的热情一下子就冷却了。对一个孩子来说,一个储蓄账户只不过是一个吞没其生日礼金支票的黑洞。  2 Kid: "Grandma gave me twenty-five dollars!" Parent: "How nice. We'll put that check straight into your savings account." Kid: "But she gave it to me! I want it!" Parent: "Oh, it will still be yours. You just have to keep it in the bank so that it can grow." Kid (suspicious) : "What do you mean by 'grow'?" Parent: "Well, if you leave your twenty-five dollars in the bank for just one year, the bank will pay you seventy-five cents. And if you leave all of that in the bank for just one more year, the bank will give you another seventy-five cents plus two and a half more cents besides. That's called compound interest. It will help you go to college." 孩子:“奶奶给了我25美金!” 家长:“太棒了。咱们把支票直接存到你的账户上去。” 孩子:“可这钱她是给我的!我要用!” 家长:“嗳,钱还是你的嘛。你只不过是要把钱放在银行里,好让它增多。” 孩子(狐疑地):“你说‘增多’是什么意思?” 家长:“哦,要是你把这25美金在银行里放一年,银行就会付给你75美分。要是你连本带息在银行里再放一年,银行会再付给你75美分,另加2.5美分。这叫做复利。这钱能帮你上大学。” 3 The main defect in such saving schemes is that there's nothing in them for the kids. College is a thousand years away, and they probably think they'd just as soon stay home anyway. Indeed, the true purpose of such plans is usually not to promote saving but to prevent consumption. (1) Appalled by what their children spend on candy and video games (or, rather, appalled by the degree to which their children's overspending seems to mimic their own), parents devise ways to lock up their children's resources. Not surprisingly, kids quickly decide that large sums aren't real money and that all cash should either be spent immediately or hidden in a drawer. 这类储蓄计划的主要缺陷在于,孩子本人一无所获。上大学还不知要过多少年,他们或许会想他们宁愿呆在家里。实际上,这类计划的真正目的通常不是促进储蓄而是限制消费。孩子们在糖果、电子游戏上的花费之大令家长们十分震惊(或者更确切地说,令他们吃惊的其实是孩子们的超支行为与他们自己的相似程度),于是他们便设法让孩子们将钱存起来不用。毋怪乎孩子们很快就认定,大额钱款不是实实在在的钱,有了现钱要么赶紧花掉,要么藏在抽屉里。 4 To avoid this problem with my two children, I started my own bank. It's called the First National Bank of Dave. I set up an account for each child, using the same computer program I use to keep track of my checkbook. Because I wanted my kids' deposits to grow at a pace that would hold their attention, I offered an attractive interest rate-five per cent a month. (2) Compounded, that works out to an annual rate of more than 70 per cent. (No, I don't accept deposits from strangers.) Allowances are deposited automatically on the first day of each month. The kids can make other deposits, or withdrawals, whenever they like. 为了避免我的两个孩子产生这一问题,我开设了自己的银行,名叫戴夫第一国家银行。我用记录自己支票簿使用情况的同一个电脑程序给每个孩子开了一个账户。因为我希望孩子存款增长的速度足以引起他们的注意,便给他们一个诱人的利率——月息5厘。以复利计算,年息达到70%以上。(不,我不接受外来存款。)零花钱在每月第一天自动存入。孩子们也可以把别的钱存进来,想存就存,想取就取。 5 The Bank of Dave, which has been in operation four years, instantly turned both my children into keen savers. My son still comes to me with change he has found on the floor of the car, saying, "And credit this today." Both kids' accounts grew so fast that after two years I had to roll back my monthly interest rate to three per cent. The kids protested when I announced the change, but they nodded solemnly when I explained that the law of supply and demand applies even to the supply of money. The kids help me calculate their interest -- a useful lesson in averaging and percentages. (3) I give them unlimited access to their funds, no questions asked, and I provide printed statements on demand. 戴夫银行经营了4年,一下子就把我的两个孩子变成了热心的储蓄者。至今我儿子在车里找到零钱仍会来找我说, “今天就把这个上账。”两个孩子的存款增长很快,两年之后,我不得不将月利率降至3厘。我宣布调低利率时两个孩子反对,可当我解释说供求法则同样适用于货币供应后,两人严肃地点头赞同。两个孩子帮我一起计算他们的利息——这可是学习计算平均值与百分比的颇为有用的一课。他们使用自己的资金我不加任何限制,不作任何询问,我还根据要求随时提供打印的账单。 6 The high rate of interest is not the only attractive feature of the Bank of Dave. Equally important from the kids' point of view is that their accounts belong to them. When they save, they harvest the benefit; when they want to spend, they don't need permission. Children who have no control over their own funds have no incentive not to beg for money and then spend every dollar that comes into their hands. 高利率并非戴夫银行惟一诱人之处。在孩子看来同样重要的是,他们的存款属于他们自己。他们存钱便会获利;他们想花钱也用不着获得许可。孩子对自己的钱没有自主权,就没有什么东西激励他们不去伸手要钱,不把到手的钱花个光。 7 The way to help children become rational consumers is to give them more control, not less. Before we go on vacation, I'll usually give my kids an extra twenty bucks or so, which I deposit in their accounts. I tell them that they can spend the extra money on a T-shirt, save it, spend it before we leave, or do anything else they want with it -- but that while we are on vacation, they won't receive any additional pocket money from me (except in the form of communal purchases considered by custom to be vacation entitlements, such as candy, ice cream, movie tickets, and so on). Because any money they spend starts out as theirs, not mine, they think twice before throwing it away. In a souvenir store on Martha's Vineyard a couple of summers ago my son quietly studied the unpromising merchandise while a friend of his loudly cajoled his parents into paying five dollars for a toy gun, which fell apart almost before we got back to the car. My son ended up spending thirty-three cents for an unopened geode, which he later cracked open by hitting it with a hammer -- a good value, it seemed to me. If he had been spending my money instead of his, he undoubtedly would have wanted a toy gun instead. 帮助孩子们成为理性消费者的方法是,交给他们更多的,而不是更少的自主权。我们去度假前,我通常额外多给孩子们20块钱左右存在他们账户上。我告诉他们,他们可以在我们出发前用这笔额外的钱买T恤衫、存起来,或者花掉,或随便他们派什么别的用场——但在度假期间,他们就不会从我这儿再拿到任何额外的零用钱了(根据惯例被认为是度假享受的共同消费除外,如糖果、冰淇淋、电影票等)。由于他们花费的任何一笔钱都是他们自己的而不是我的,他们出手时就很谨慎。两年前的一个夏天,在玛莎葡萄园的一家纪念品商店,我儿子一声不响地仔细察看那些不起眼的商品,他的一个朋友则吵着让父母花5美金买了一把玩具枪,可几乎还没等我们回到车上,枪就坏了。我儿子最后花了33美分买了个未打开的空心晶球,后来他用榔头把它砸了开来——我看这钱花得值得。要是他花的是我的而不是他自己的钱,毫无疑问,他肯定也会要买一把玩具枪的。 8 "Children are instinctive capitalists. If given enough leeway, they quickly become shrewd managers of their own finances. When parents fail in their efforts at financial education, it's usually because for reasons of their own they have managed to make saving seem painful and dull. Money is fun, and it's almost entirely self-explanatory. (4) The only way to teach kids to adopt a long-term perspective is to give them a short-term incentive for doing so. 儿童是天生的资本家。只要给予足够的自由活动余地,他们很快就会成为精明的理财者。如果家长的理财教育失败,那往往是因为他们出于自身的原因把存钱弄得似乎既痛苦又无聊。金钱是有趣的,而且几乎完全是不讲自明的。教育孩子们看问题要有长远目光的惟一途径,是让孩子们近期内便能尝到某种甜头,从而激励他们去那样做。 Unit 2Text BDoes being rich mean you live a completely different life from ordinary people? Not, it seems, if your name is Sam Walton. 有钱是否意味着过一种完全不同于普通人的生活?看来未必,如果你的名字叫萨姆·沃尔顿。 THE RICHEST MAN IN AMERICA, DOWN HOMEArt Harris 1 He put on a dinner jacket to serve as a waiter at the birthday party of The Richest Man in America. He imagined what surely awaited: a mansion, a "Rolls-Royce for every day of the week," dogs with diamond collars, servants everywhere. 美国乡巴佬首富阿特·哈里斯 他穿上餐服准备到美国首富的生日聚会上去担任侍者。在他的想象里,他定然会看到:豪宅,主人天天要坐的罗尔斯—罗伊斯轿车,戴着钻石颈圈的家犬,到处可见的仆人。  2 Then he was off to the house, wheeling past the sleepy town square in Bentonville, a remote Arkansas town of 9,920, where Sam Walton started with a little dime store that grew into a $6 billion discount chain called Wal-Mart. He drove down a country road, turned at a mailbox marked "Sam and Helen Walton," and jumped out at a house in the woods. 他动身前往那所宅邸,开着车穿过本顿维尔镇冷冷清清的市政广场。本顿维尔镇是阿肯色州一个人口仅有9,920的偏远小镇,萨姆·沃尔顿就在该镇从一个专卖廉价商品的小店起家,逐渐发展成为价值60亿美金资产的廉价连锁店沃尔玛公司。 侍者上了一条乡间车道,转过一个标着“萨姆和海伦·沃尔顿”的信箱,在一幢林间住宅前跳下了车。 3 It was nice, but no palace. The furniture appeared a little worn. An old pickup truck sat in the garage and a muddy bird dog ran about the yard. He never spotted any servants. 房子还不错,但绝对不是宫殿。家具略显陈旧,一辆旧的轻便货车停在车库里,一条土褐色的捕禽猎犬在院子里窜来窜去。根本没看见任何仆人的身影。 4 "It was a real disappointment," sighs waiter Jamie Beaulieu. “太令人失望了,”侍者杰米·鲍尤叹道。 5 Only in America can a billionaire carry on like plain folks and get away with it. And the 67-year-old discount king Sam Moore Walton still travels these windy back roads in his 1979 Ford pickup, red and white, bird dogs by his side, and, come shooting season, waits in line like everyone else to buy shells at the local Wal-Mart. 只有在美国,一个亿万富翁才能像普通百姓一样,安稳地过着普普通通的日子。67岁的廉价店大王萨姆·穆尔·沃尔顿仍然开着他那辆红白两色的1979年出厂的福特牌轻型货车穿行在弯弯曲曲的乡间小道上,身边坐着他的捕禽猎犬。当狩猎季节来临时,他跟别人一样在当地的沃尔玛商店排队购买猎枪子弹。 6 "He doesn't want any special treatment," says night manager Johnny Baker, who struggles to call the boss by his first name as a recent corporate memo commands. Few here think of his billions; they call him "Mr. Sam" and accept his folksy ways. "He's the same man who opened his dime store on the square and worked 18 hours a day for his dream," says Mayor Richard Hoback. “他不要任何特殊待遇,” 夜班经理乔尼·贝克说,他费了好大的劲才如公司最近一份备忘录所规定的那样对自己的老板以名相称。这里几乎没人去想他的亿万身价,他们称他为萨姆先生,丝毫不以他的平民作风为怪。“他还是那个在市政广场开廉价店,为了自己的梦想每天工作18个小时的人,一点没变,”市长理查德·霍巴克说。 7 By all accounts, he's friendly, cheerful, a fine neighbor who does his best to blend in, never flashy, never throwing his weight around. 人人都说他为人友善,性情开朗,是个好邻居;他尽力与人们融洽相处,从不炫耀,也从不盛气凌人。 8 No matter how big a time he had on Saturday night, you can find him in church on Sunday. Surely in a reserved seat, right? "We don't have reserved seats," says Gordon Garlington III, pastor of the local church. 无论他星期六晚上的夜生活过得多晚,星期日你还是能在教堂见到他。当然是坐在他的包座上,对吗?“我们不设包座,”当地教堂牧师戈登·加林顿第三说。 9 So where does The Richest Man in America sit? Wherever he finds a seat. "Look, he's just not that way. He doesn't have a set place. At a church supper the other night, he and his wife were in back washing dishes." 那美国首富坐哪儿呢?哪儿有空位子就坐哪儿。“知道吗,他根本就不是那种人。他没有包座。前几天晚上教堂举行晚餐会,他和太太一起在后面洗盘子。” 10 For 19 years, he's used the same barber. John Mayhall finds him waiting when he opens up at 7 a.m. He chats about the national news, or reads in his chair, perhaps the Benton County Daily Democrat, another Walton property that keeps him off the front page. It buried the Forbes list at the bottom of page 2. 19年来,为他理发的总是同一个师傅。约翰·梅霍早上七点开门会见到他等在门外。他跟人闲聊国内新闻,或是坐在椅子里看报,没准是《本顿民主日报》,这是沃尔顿的又一宗产业。这份报纸从来不让有关他的消息出现在头版上。 它将《福布斯》的富人排行榜塞在第二版的报尾。 11 "He's just not a front-page person," a newspaper employee explains. “他压根儿不是那种爱上头版新闻的人,”一位报社雇员解释说。 12 But one recent morning, The Richest Man in America did something that would have made headlines anywhere in the world: He forgot his money. "I said, 'Forget it, take care of it next time, '" says barber Mayhall. "But he said. 'No, I'll get it,' and he went home for his wallet." 但最近有天早上,美国首富做了件在任何其他地方准会成为头条新闻的事:他忘了带钱。“我说,‘没事,下次一起付吧,’”理发师梅霍说,“可他说,‘不行,我得回去拿,’就回家去取钱包了。” 13 Wasn't that, well, a little strange? "No sir," says Mayhall, "the only thing strange about Sam Walton is that he isn't strange." 这一切,嗯,是不是有点怪?“一点也不,先生,”梅霍说,“萨姆·沃尔顿惟一不同寻常的就是,他平平常常。” 14 But just how long Walton can hold firm to his folksy habits with celebrity hunters keeping following him wherever he goes is anyone's guess. Ever since Forbes magazine pronounced him America's richest man, with $2.8 billion in Wal-Mart stock, he's been a rich man on the run, steering clear of reporters, dreamers, and schemers. 然而,沃尔顿所到之处名人追星族紧跟不舍,他的平民习惯能保持多久,就很难说了。自从《福布斯》杂志宣布他拥有价值28亿的沃尔玛股票成为美国首富以后,他就成了一个东躲西藏的富人,他得甩开记者、寻梦者,还有图谋不轨者。 15 "He may be the richest by Forbes rankings," says corporate affairs director Jim Von Gremp, "but he doesn't know whether he is or not -- and he doesn't care. He doesn't spend much. He owns stock, but he's always left it in the company so it could grow. But the real story in his mind is the success achieved by the 100,000 people who make up the Wal-Mart team." “他或许是《福布斯》排行榜的首富,”公司事务主管吉姆·冯·格雷姆普说,“但他并不知道自己是不是首富——而且他也不在乎。他不怎么花钱。他是拥有股票,但他一直把股票留在公司里好让公司发展。而他脑子里真正想着的是沃尔玛十万员工共同取得的成功。” 16 He's usually back home for Friday sales meetings, or the executive pep rally Saturday morning at 7 a.m., when Walton, as he does at new store openings, is liable to jump up on a chair and lead everyone in the Wal-Mart cheer: "Give me a W! Give me an A! Give me an L! Louder!" 他通常回来参加星期五的销售会议,或是星期六早晨7点的行政人员鼓劲会,届时沃尔顿会像分店新开张时那样,跳上椅子,带领大家呼喊沃尔玛公司口号:“给我一个W!给我一个A!给我一个L!大声点!” 17 And louder they yell. No one admits to feeling the least bit silly. It's all part of the Wal-Mart way of life as laid down by Sam: loyalty, hard work, long hours; get ideas into the system from the bottom up, Japanese-style; treat your people right; cut prices and margins to the bone and sleep well at night. Employees with one year on board qualify for stock options, and are urged to buy all they can. 于是大家越喊越响。没有谁说这样做有点傻。这都是萨姆定下来的沃尔玛生活方式的一部分:忠诚,勤勉,加班加点;从公司最底层起大家集思广益,日本管理方式;善待员工;尽可能降低价格、减少利润,一夜安睡到天亮。员工进公司一年就有资格获得优先认股权,并一再鼓励他们尽能力购买。 18 After the pep rally, there's bird hunting, or tennis on his backyard court. But his stores are always on his mind. One tennis guest managed to put him off his game by asking why a can of balls cost more in one Wal-Mart than another. It turned out to be untrue, but the move worked. Walton lost four straight games. 鼓劲会之后,大家一起去打野禽,或在他家后院打网球。但他的那些商店总搁在他的心上。一位来打网球的客人为了分散他打球的注意力,故意问了一句为什么一筒网球在一家沃尔玛商店卖得比别的一家沃尔玛商店贵。此话并非实情,但这一招却真管用。沃尔顿连输四局。 19 Walton set up a college scholarship fund for employees' children, a disaster relief fund to rebuild employee homes damaged by fires, floods, tornadoes, and the like. He believed in cultivating ideas and rewarding success. 沃尔顿为员工子女设立了大学奖学基金,为房屋遭受火灾、洪水、龙卷风等破坏的员工重建家园设立了灾难救助基金。他信奉广开思路、褒奖成功。 20 "He'd say, 'That fellow worked hard, let's give him a little extra,'" recalls retired president Ferold F. Arend, who was stunned at such generosity after the stingy employer he left to join Wal-Mart. "I had to change my way of thinking when I came aboard." “他会说,‘那人工作努力,奖励一下吧,’”退休的前任总裁费罗尔德·F·阿伦德回忆道。他原先供职的雇主非常吝啬,所以离开那里加入沃尔玛公司之后,他对这种慷慨行为深感震惊。“我加盟沃尔玛后,不得不改变自己的思维方式。” 21 "The reason for our success," says Walton, in a company handout, "is our people and the way they're treated and the way they feel about their company. They believe things are different here, but they deserve the credit." “我们之所以成功,”沃尔顿在公司宣传册上写道,“是由于我们的员工,是由于他们所受到的待遇以及他们对公司的感情。他们认为这里与众不同,但是这种荣誉他们受之无愧。” 22 Adds company lawyer Jim Hendren: "I've never seen anyone yet who worked for him or was around him for any length of time who wasn't better off. And I don't mean just financially, although a lot of people are. It's just something about him -- coming into contact with Sam Walton just makes you a better person." 公司律师吉姆· 亨德伦补充说,“我从没见过有谁为他工




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