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人教版.八年级.英语下册各单元复习计划重点资料库汇总.doc

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人教版 年级 英语 下册 单元 复习计划 重点 资料库 汇总
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-_八年级英语下册各单元知识点汇总Unit 1 What’s the matter?一、基础知识1. What’ s the matter? 怎么啦?出什么事情了?【解析】matter/ ' mætə(r)) /n.问题;事情 What’ s the matter with you?= What’s the trouble with you? = What’ s wrong with you? 你怎么了?【注】: matter 和trouble 为名词, 其前可加the 或形容词性物主代词,wrong 是adj. 不能加the【用法】用于询问某人有什么病或某人遇到什么麻烦、问题其后跟询问对象时, 与介词with连用。即: What’s the matter with sb.? = What’s your trouble? = What’s up? = What happens to sb.?— What’s the matter with you ? — I have a bad cold.2. I had a cold.我感冒了。 have a cold=catch a cold=have the flu感冒 have a fever 发烧 have a cough咳嗽 have a stomachache胃疼,肚子疼 have a toothache牙疼 have a headache头疼3. 身体部位+ache(疼痛)构成新的复合词stomach+ache=stomachache head+ache=headache tooth+ache=toothache back+ache=backache后背痛4. much too+ 形容词,意为 太...... ,too much+名词,意为 很多,大量 。5. enough【形容、副词】足够的/地,enough放在名前后,形副后。good enough足够好,enough money=much money6. lie down躺下, lie 躺,躺着,过去式lay;lie说谎,过去式lied7. maybe “或许”,常用于句首,表示可能性,后加句子。Maybe you are right.may be,是情态动词+be的结构,意为“可能,也许”,后加名词、代词或形容词。He may be angry.sound like+名词代词和从句:It sounds like you don’t know the truth. It sounds like a good idea. sound+形容词,“听起来,好像”,The music sounds nice.9. need 需要,实义动词need+名词,需要某物; need to do sth.需要做某事,主语通常是人,表示人主动的动作:You need to listen carefully during class. need doing sth.主语通常是物,表示被动的动作:Your dirty clothes need washing.10. get off (the bus) 下(公交车) get on 上车11. agree 同意,赞同; agree with sth. 同意某事 如:I agree with that idea. agree to sb. 同意某人的意见 如:I agree to LiLei.12. trouble问题,麻烦 ;be in trouble遇到麻烦,make trouble 制造麻烦 ,have trouble (in) doing sth. =have difficulties (in) doing sth做......有麻烦。 13. right away=right now=at once,意为 马上 。14. advice [不可数名词]劝告,建议,向…征求意见, give sb. advice on sth.就某事给某人建议; advise [动词] advise sb. to do sth. 建议某人做某事 advise sb. doing sth.【复习】exercise 练习、锻炼当exercise意为“练习”时,为可数名词 即可加s当exercise意为“锻炼”时,为不可数名词 即不加s16. hurt 及物动词,使……疼痛,……受伤,He hurt his leg while exercising. 不及物动词,……(部位)疼。 His leg hurt badly.clean 【动词】打扫,clean the classroom打扫教室,【形容词】 干净的 ,cleaner意为 清洁工 。18. hit (用手或器具)打;击打 The boy hit the dog with a stone. hit sb. on the head/ nose/ back打某人的头、鼻子、后背,on用在所打较硬的部位; hit sb. in the face/ eye/ stomach 打某人的脸、眼睛、肚子,in用在所打较软的部位。 be used to sth./ doing sth.习惯于、适应了……、做某事,强调状态;His grandpa was used to country life. Mary is not used to getting up early in the morning. get/ become used to sth./ doing sth. “变得习惯,逐渐适应……”强调过程、动作: It’s difficult for one to get used to another country’s habit.20. 【复习】free [形容词]空闲的free time;免费的the drink is for free;自由的I want to become a free bird. free【动词】使……解脱,得到自由:He could not free his arm.run out用完,用尽 When his water run out, he knew that he would have to do something to save his own life.物sth. run out. 某物用尽了。 人sb. run out of sth. 人用尽了某物。He run out of all his money last night.22. risk (sb.) to do sth. 冒险去做某事 take a risk=take risks 冒险 23. the importance of (doing) sth.(做)某事的重要性 We students should know the importance of (learning) English. importance n. 重要(性), important adj.重要的,unimportant adj.不重要的decision 【名词】决定;抉择; make a decision 做决定 ;make a decision to do sth.= decide to do sth. 。25. be in the control of …掌管,管理 The headmaster is in the control of this new school. be out of control无法控制,无法管理 be under control被控制住,在控制之中26. 【复习】mind意为 介意 ,mind doing sth. 介意做某事 , Would you mind my opening the window?27. give up (doing) sth. 放弃(做)某事,give up (playing) computer games;give up后可接名词、代词和动词ing形式,也可不接,如: Never give up easily.二、重点语法【反身代词】英语中共有八个反身代词,在使用时应注意和它所指的相应的对象在人称、性别、数上保持一致。数 人称第一人称第二人称第三人称单数myselfyourselfhimself herself itself复数ourselvesyourselvesthemselves【用法】1. 可用作宾语,指的是宾语和主语表示同一个或同一些的人或事物。 如:Maria bought herself a scarf. We must look after ourselves very well. 2. 可用作表语,指的是表语和主语表示同一个或同一些人或事物。 如: She isn’t quite herself today. 3. 可用作主语或宾语的同位语,常用来加强语气。如:She herself will fly to London tomorrow. I met the writer himself last week. 4. 用在某些固定短语当中。look after oneself / take care of oneself 照顾自己 teach oneself sth./ learn sth. by oneself自学enjoy oneself 玩得高兴,过得愉快 help oneself to sth 请自用……(随便吃/喝些……). hurt oneself摔伤自己 say to oneself自言自语 leave sb. by oneself把某人单独留下 buy oneself sth.给自己买……东西 introduce oneself 介绍……自己 -_【提醒】1. 反身代词不能单独做主语,但可以做主语的同位语,起强调作用。 如:我自己能完成作业。(误)Myself can finish my homework. (正) I myself can finish my homework. / I can finish my homework myself.2. 反身代词表示“某人自己”不能表示“某人的东西”,因为它没有所有格的形式。表达“某人自己的(东西)”时,须要用one’s own. 如:我用我自己的蜡笔画画。(误)I’m drawing with myself crayons. (正) I’m drawing with my own crayons.Unit 2 I’ll help to clean up the city parks一、基本知识点1. sick 生病的,有病的;可在句中作表语Mary could not come because she is sick. 也可作定语a sick child 【区别ill】ill与sick同义;但是只在句中做表语,不做定语。Mary could not come because she is ill.2. cheer (sb.) up(让某人)变得高兴;振奋起来The good news cheered up everyone in our class.3. give out分发;散发,相当于hand out,The teacher is giving out/ handing out the test papers. give sth. out to sb. 意为 把某物分发给某人 。4. volunteer 【名词】志愿者 【动词】义务做,自愿做(某事)volunteer to do sth. 自愿做某事 , The girls could volunteer in an after-school study program.5. used to do sth.过去/曾经(常)做某事,表示过去的习惯、动作或状态,并强调现在已经不再存在或发生。 There used to be a cinema here. 这里曾有一个照相机。 They told me stories about the past and how things used to be. 他们告诉我关于这里过去的故事。 6. alone 【形容词】独自一人的,无感情色彩:The musician enjoyed living alone and writing songs himself. lonely (感到)孤独寂寞的,带有很强的感情色彩,可做表语或定语。The lonely boy is not lonely now.7. care for sb./sth.照顾;照料…… care 【名词】小心,关心take care of=look after →【动词】care about sb./sth.关心,在意某人/事 →【形容词】careful 仔细的 / careless 粗心的 →【副词】carefully 仔细地 8. such “这样的,这种,如此”,用于修饰名词 such+ a/ an+形容词+单数名词:such a good day 多么美好的一天 /such an exciting match 多么 精彩的比赛 such+形容词+复数名词/不可数名词:such important decisions 多么重要的建议 such delicious food 多么美味的食物 如果名词前被many, much, few, little修饰时,只能用so,而不用such:so many sick children/ so little time9. try out for…参加…选拔,争取成为…Thirty football players tried out for the Best Player of the year.try out试用,试验10. journey 【名词】(尤指长途)旅行,行程;trip【名词】多指短途旅行;travel【名词、动词】travel around the world →【名词】traveler旅行者11.【复习】be busy with sth. 忙于(做)什么事情 be busy doing sth. 忙于(做)什么事情 12.【复习】try doing sth. 试着去做某事 try to do sth. 尽力去做某事 try one’s best (to do sth.) 尽某人最大的努力去做某事 13.【复习】be worried about sb./ sth. = worry about sb./ sth. 担心某人、某事 14. raise money集资,筹钱;raise money for…为……筹钱 raise【动词】举起;提高;募集15. keep【动词】keep+名词,保留(某物);keep+形容词,保持16.【形容词】broken破损的,出毛病的;blind瞎的,失明的;deaf聋的;disabled有残疾的,丧失能力的;在句中做定语和表语。make it possible (for sb.) to do sth.使(某人)做某事成为可能,You helped to make it possible for me to have Lucky. make it +形容词(+for sb.) to do sth. 使(某人)做某事成为…; think/find it +形容词to do sth. 18. make a difference to…对……有影响;对……有作用,difference前可以用no, any, some, much等修饰,如The rain made no difference to the game. Hard-working makes much difference to study.19. difficulty【可数/不可数】表示抽象意义的“困难”时为不可数;表示具体的“难题、难事”时为可数;have difficulty (in) doing sth.= have trouble (in) doing sth. 做某事有困难 20. train【动词】训练,trained为过去分词,可做定语,意为“受过训练的”a trained dog21. be excited about sth. 对某事感到兴奋 ,Everyone is excited about the good news. 【复习】excited意为 兴奋的,修饰人;exciting意为 令人兴奋/激动的,修饰物。22. order【名词】命令,指示;顺序,次序【动词】订购;点(菜)follow the order。23. change【动词】变化,改变It’s hard for a person to change his life(style). 【名词】变化;零钱 change A for B用A换成B:When you travel in China, remember to change US dollars for RMB.repair 【动词】修理,修补; fix【动词】安装;使固定 【fix up修理=repair】 Unit3 Could you please clean your room?Peter ,could you please take out the trash? 彼得,你能把垃圾倒了吗?Could you please do sth ?请你(做)......好吗? 用于提出请求,希望得到对方的肯定回答,说话的语气比较客气委婉。Could 不是can的过去式,是委婉、礼貌的说法。回答用can.【常用答语】肯定回答:Sure./ Of course./ Certainly./No problem. 否定回答: Sorry , I can’t2、take out 取出(v+ adv) 【注】: 跟代词做宾语,代词放中间;跟名词做宾语,可放在中间,也可放在后边His teeth hurt badly. The dentist take them out .【短语】take out the trash 倒垃圾 take a walk 散步 take away 拿走,取走 take back 收回 take place 发生 take off 脱下; 起飞3. Can you do the dishes.?那你可以洗盘子吗? do the dishes 洗碗 【结构1】do the +名词: do the dishes/ laundry 洗餐具/衣服 【结构2】do the +动词-ing do the cleaning 打扫卫生 【结构3】do one’s + 名词 do one’s housework/ homework 做家务/家庭作业 【结构4】do some +动词-ing do some reading/ shopping 读写书/购物Could I at least finish watching this show? 至少让我看完这个节目可以吗?1】Could I do a sth? 我可以做......吗?用于表达请求,语气比较委婉。 Could I go out with my classmate this weekend?2】at least 至少,多指数量或程度上的最低限度。(反) at most 至少,不超过Now all of us exercise at least an hour a day and outside school.3】finish v 结束;完成 finish doing sth 做完某事 5、I think two hours of TV is enough for you! 我觉得你看两个小时的电视已经足够了。1】two hours of TV 表示时间、距离、金额、度量等词语作主语时,通常被视作整体,谓语动词用单数形式。 作形容词足够的,充分的(在句中作定语或表语)【解析2】enough I don’t have enough money with me.作 副词 足够;充分(放在形容词;副词后)The river is deep enough for swimming. 【【注意】enough 修饰名词时,置于名词前;修饰形容词时,置于形容词之后。 6、【解析】take out 拿出;取出take 的用法:拿;取 Please take some books to the classroom. 吃;喝;服用 Take this medicine three times a day.乘(车;船等)take They usually take the bus to work.花费(时间;金钱) It takes me two hours to do my homework every day.【拓展】take 构成的短语:take a walk 去散步 take a rest 休息 take care of 照顾 take off 脱下;起飞 take up 占据 take down 拿下 take one’s time 不急;慢慢来 take one’s temperature 量体温7.【解析1】the minute = as soon as “一...... 就......” Please write to me the minute you get there.【解析2】 in front ofin front of 指在物体外部的前面 There is a bike in front of the classroom.in the front of 【辨析】 指在物体内部的前面 Our teacher is standing in the front of the classroom 【注意】有the无the区别大: at table 吃饭;进餐 in hospital 住院 at the tabel 在桌边 in the hospital 在医院(不一定看病)【解析3】come over 过来 【拓展】 come 短语:come across(偶然)发现 come back 回来 come up with想出 come true实现 come down下来 come from=be from来自,出生于come in/into进入,进来 come on赶快,加油 come along走吧,过来,快点come and go来来去去 come up上来 come out出来,(花)开,(照片)冲洗出来 7. all the time = always 一直;总是 8.! 【解析】as...as ... 和......一样......9. For one week , she did not do any housework and neither did I. 一周的时间,她不做任何家务,我也不做。【解析】neither +助动词/系动词/情态动词 +主语 “某人(主语) 也不”⑴ neither两者都不neither …nor… 既不…也不…,连接两个词做主语,谓语动词由后一个主语确定Neither Tom nor Jim is a student⑵ 表达“…也不……” 则用 “Neither /Nor + be / V助 / V情 + 主” —The first one wasn’t bad. — Neither was the second. 10. The next day , my mom came home from work to find the house clean and tidy. 第二天,妈妈下班回到家后发现房间很干净、整洁。【解析】find +宾语+宾语补足语【注】find → found →found v寻找 (1) find sb. doing sth 发现某人做某事 (2) find it + adj. + to do sth 发现做某事很……◆find it difficult/ hard to do sth 发现做某事很困难 She found _it__ hard to finish the work by herself. 11. She asked in surprise.她吃惊地问道。【解析】in surprise 惊奇地;吃惊地surprise v 使吃惊→surprising adj. 令人吃惊的 →surprised adj. 吃惊的 to one’s surprise 使某人吃惊的是 in surprise 吃惊地 be surprised at 对……感到吃惊To my surprise_(使我吃惊的是)12. 【解析1】need v 需要用于肯定句,是实义动词。(1)人做主语,sb. need to do sth 某人需要做某事(2)物做主语,sth need doing sth= sth need to be done用于否定句或疑问句,是情态动词(1)needn’t = don’t have to 没有必要(2)need ,must 引导的一般疑问句,肯定会的用must,否定回答用needn’t — Must I go there now? — Yes,you must/No, you needn’t【解析2】share 分享;共用 share sth 分享或共用某物 share sth with sb. 与某人分享某物 13【解析】hang out 闲逛 hang up 把......悬挂/挂起14.【解析】pass ⑴v 给;递;走过;通过 pass sb.sth 把某物递给某 Pass on 传递 ⑵ v 通过;路过 I pass your home. ⑶ v 通过(考试) ;及格 Tom can pass his math exam.15.【解析】borrow /lend/keep(1)borrow 借入 ,与from 连用,尤指主语“【借进来”】borrow sth from sb. 从某人那里借某物 You can borrow the book from the library.(2)lend 借出 ,与to 搭配 【指借出去】 lend sb sth=lend sth to sb 把某物借给某人He doesn’t want to lend his book to others. (3)keep 保留,保存(延续动词,可以与表示一段时间的状语连用)【指借一段时间】16.【解析】try (not) to do sth努力(不)做某事。 try v 试图,设法,努力 【拓展】 (1)try on 试穿 (2) try to do sth 努力做某事 【侧重尽力做】 (3) try doing sth 试图做某事 【侧重尝试做】(4)try one’s best to do sth= do one’s best to do sth 尽某人最大努力做某事17. I hate to do chores. 我讨厌做家务。hate to do sth 讨厌做某事, 表示某次具体行为或动作。 I hate to trouble him. hate doing sth不愿意做某事 表示经常或习惯性行为或动作。 She hates smoking in her room. 18.【解析】ask sb. to do sth 要求某人做某事。 ask for 请求,要某物 ask sb. about sth 向某人询问关于某事 (1)ask sb. for help 向某人请求帮助 (2) ask sb. (not) to do sth请求某人做某事ask构成的短语:短语含义ask sb. to do sth请某人做某事ask sb. not to do sth不让某人做某事ask sb for sth 向某人要某物ask for help 寻求帮助19.I【解析1】finish doing sth 完成某事— Can you finish _reading__ these books before 10 o’clock? — Yes, I can.【解析2】while conj. “在……期间; 当……的时候”While 引导的时间状语从句的谓语动词只能是延续动词。_【解析3】help sb. with sth. 在某事上帮助某人。【注】help v 帮助 → helpful adj. 有帮助的(1)help sb. do sth. =help sb. with sth. 帮助某人做某事(2)with the help of sb.=with one’s help在某人的帮助之下(3)without the help of 没有在…的帮助之下20【解析】invite sb. to Sp. 邀请某人去某地【解析】invite v → invitation n邀请(1) invite sb. to do sth 邀请某人做某事(2)invite sb. to +地点 邀请某人去某地21.【解析】make sb. do sth 让某人做某事make → made →made v. 做, 制作, 使得(1) make sb/sth + 形容词 “让某人或某物…” make you happy (2) make sb/sth do sth 使某人做某事 make me laugh.22.【解析】have time to do sth.有时间做某事have time =be free 有空23【解析】a waste of 浪费 a waste of time 浪费时间 a waste of money 浪费金钱waste v “浪费” waste time/money on sth waste time / money (in) doing sth 在做某事上花费时间/金钱24【解析1】spend... on sth 在某事上花费...... spend/pay/cost/take 花费(1)spend→spent→spent v 花费,主语是人 ◆ sb.+ spend +时间/钱+on sth ◆sb. +spend +时间/钱+(in) doing sth◆spend on= pay for 支付(2) pay →paid →paid v 支付,主语是人 ◆sb.+ pay + 钱+for sth I pay 10 yuan for the book. — How much did you __pay__ for this computer? — Five hundred dollars.(3) cost→ cost→ cost v 花费,主语是某物或某事 ◆sth cost sb. +钱 某物花费某人多少钱 A new computer costs me a lot of money. I bought a new sweater last weekend. It ___cost_ me 120 yuan.(4)take→took → taken v 花费◆It takes /took sb. some time to do sth. 做某事花费某人多长时间It takes him 3 hours to do his homework.【解析2】in order to “目的是;为了” 后接动词原形。 in order to do sth 为了做某事He ran quickly in order not __to be___ late for the meeting.【解析3】get into =enter 进入【拓展】与get相关的短语:get up 起床 get back 返回 get over 克服 get dressed穿衣 get into进入 get/be lost丢失 get off/on下/上车get on well with sb.与某人相处得好 get out of从…出来 get warm 变暧get ready for +n.为…做准备 get ready to do sth.准备做某事get well康复 get a chance 有机会、得到机会get/go to sleep(fall asleep)入睡 相关:(be asleep睡着) 25【解析】get older 长大 get/ become/ go辨析:⑴ get+adj较多地与形容词比较级连用。 The days are getting longer and longer.⑵ become 强调变化的结果 It's becoming colder and colder.⑶go+adj.''表示令人不快的事情 go bad变坏,go blind变瞎,go hungry挨饿26. 【解析】provide sth. for sb. 为某人提供某物provide v 提供provide sb. with sth. (sb 前介词用for) =provide sth for sb.( sth 前需加介词with)供应某人某物相当于:offer sb. sth. = offer sth to sb. provide为应急等做好准备而“提供; 供给”provide sb. with sth. =provide sth for sb.提供某人某物offer侧重表示“愿意给予”offer sb. sth. = offer sth to sb.对某人提供某物 offer to do sth 主动提出干某事supply 定期“供应” , 强调替代或补充所需物品Supply sb. with sth=supply sth. to sb. 为某人提供某物27【解析】anyway 无论如何, (一般放在句首,用逗号和句子隔开)2【解析】It is important for sb. to do sth. 对某人来说做某事是重要的29.【解析】depend on 依靠;信赖30. 【解析1】 do one’s part 尽职责;尽本分 Do one’s part in doing sth 在做某事上尽职责【解析2】keep +sth /sb. +adj. “使......处于某种状态” keep 系动词 “保持” keep + adj . We must keep healthy.实义动词 “保持;继续” (1) keep ( on ) doing sth 继续做某事 He was in great pain but he kept on working (2) keep sb. Doing sth 让某人一直做某事 I’m sorry to have kept you waiting for so long. 31. 【解析】develop independence 培养独立意识 develop v→development n 发展→developing adj. 发展的→developed adj. 发达的a developing country 一个发展中国家a developed country 一个发达国家 32.【解析】since conj. 既然 (表示对方已知的事实或理由,常放在句首).33. 【拓展】与take相关的短语:take photos/pictures 照像 take away拿走 take out取出(work out算出) take care当心 take a walk散步take medicine服药 take place发生take one’s temperature量体温 take one’s time别着急 34. 【解析1】as a result 结果 (插入语,放在句首,用逗号隔开)【解析2】fall ill 生病 fall asleep 入睡35 【解析】the + 比较级, the + 比较级 “越...... 越...... ”Unit 4 Why don’t you talk to your parents?【解析】Why don't you do sth ?= Why not do sth? 为什么不......呢?【拓展】用于提建议的句型有:(1)What about doing sth ?=How about doing sth? ….怎么样?(2)Why don’t you do sth?= Why not do sth? 为什么不呢?(3)Let’s do sth.让我们一起做某事吧。(4)Shall we/I do sth?我们做…好吗?(5)had better do/not do sth 最好做/不做某事(6) Will/Would you please do sth 请你做…好吗?(7) Would you like to do sth? 你想去做某事吗?(8)Would you mind doing sth?你介意做某事吗?【解析1】(1)too many + 复数名词 许多 too many people (2)too much +不可数名词 许多 too much homework (3)much too +形容词 太… much too cold【解析】allow sb. to do sth 允许某人做某事 【拓展】allow v 允许allow doing sth 允许做某事 They don’t allow smoking.allow sb. to do sth 允许某人做某事My mother allows me to watch TV.be allowed to do sth 被允许做某事What’s wrong( with sb./ sth) (某人/物) 怎么了?until 直到......时【解析】go to sleep 去睡觉 (强调“入睡,睡着”这一动作)7.【解析】look 看起来 (系动词,后跟形容词作宾语)【拓展】:系动词:后跟adj. 作表语一是:(be) am /is /are be quiet=keep quiet 保持安静二保持:stay/keep (表示持续状态) stay healthy=keep healthy 保持健康三变化:become/get/turn (表示状态变化)五起来:sound/look/smell/taste/feel (表示感觉)【解析】call up (v + adv) call on 拜访;号召 I call up my parents every Sunday.9.【解析1】find sb. doing sth 发现某人正在做某事Mr. Wang found Li Dong reading a storybook in the class.类似动词:hear,watch, see, feel【解析2】look through 浏览【拓展】与look相关的短语:look for look after=take care of look like look the same look over look through look out look up look around look forward to 10.【解析】be angry with sb. 生某人的气【拓展】angry adj. 生气的→ angrily adv. 生气地(1)be angry with sb. =be mad at sb. 对某人生气【with后接人】(2)be angry at/about sth对某事感到生气 【at后接事】 (3)be angry to do sth 做某事感到生气11.Although she’s wrong, It’s not a big deal. 尽管她错了,但也不是什么大错。【解析1】although= though 尽管 , 用来引导让步状语从句。【注】though / although 不能与but连用【拓展】although/however辨析⑴although conj,“虽然;即使;纵然”,引导让步状语从句时放在主句前后都可。⑵ however adv,在句中作插入语,起一个连词的作用,一般用逗号与句子分开,可以放在句首或句中,意为“然而,尽管如此”。【解析2】It’s not a big deal. 没什么大不了;不是什么大事(常用于口语中)【解析】leave v 遗忘,留下 leave sth . somewhere把某物忘在某地 leave sb. by oneself 把某人单独留下【解析1】hope v 希望 hope to do sth I hope to visit Guilin. hope + that 从句 (表示希望) I hope that you’ll be better soonwish v 希望 wish to do sth I wish to visit Guilin. wish sb.to do sth 希望某人做某事 I wish you to go.wish +that 从句 表示愿望,从句用虚拟语气 I wish I were you.【解析2】work out 解决;成功地发展,后跟fine,well, badly等词,表明产生的结果如何。计算出(答案、数量、价格等) The math problem is too difficult for me to work out制定出(计划等) I have worked out a new way of doing it.work out 解决;找出…的答案 The government has many problems to work out.【解析】get on with sb. 和某人和睦相处;和某人关系良好 =get along with get on well/ badly with 相处的好/坏14.【解析1】argue 争吵→argument n 争论 have an argument with sb.与某人辩论argue with sb. 与某人争吵 argue with sb. about sth 为某事与某人争吵 argue about sth 争论某事argue against 争辩;反对 He argued against the plan【解析2】 hang over 挂在......之上; 悬浮在......之上 hang out 闲逛;常去某处 hang on to 紧紧抓住 hang up 挂电话;悬挂 【解析】elder adj.年纪较长的 elder用来表示兄弟姐妹及子女之间的长幼关系,常用作定语older泛指新旧、老幼或年龄的大小关系,可以用作表语,是old的比较级形式。16.【解析】refuse =say no to v拒绝 refuse to do sth拒绝去做某事【解析1】 instead 代替,反而,替 (1) instead 副词,代替,常放在句首或句尾,表示前面的事情没做,而做了后面的事情。 (2) instead of +n/doing 代替,而不是,放在句中instead of 为介词短语,后面一般接名词、代词、介词短语或动名词形式。【解析2】 whatever = no matter what 任何,每一【解析】 offer to do sth 主动提出做某事【拓展】offer v 主动给予(1) offer to do sth 主动提出做某事(2)offer sb. sth= offer sth to sb. 主动提供给某人某物【解析1】secondly adv.第二;其次【解析2】communicate v交流 communication n 交流;沟通communicate with sb. 和某人交流 They communicate with each other by QQ.【解析】explain 解释;说明 → explanation n 解释;说明explain sth to sb. 向某人解释某事。 explain to sb sth给某人解释某事【解析】 be worried about sth. 担心某事【拓展】worry v 担心 → worried adj. 焦急的 worry about = be worried about 为……担心【解析】return ⑴v 归还=give back return ... to ... = give back to ... 把......还给......⑵ v 回来;返回 = come back 【解析】press v 按;压 →pressure压力⑴不可数名词 (物理学)压力air pressure 气压 blood pressure 血压⑵不可数名词 还可指精神上、外界施加的压力 = stress under pressure 在压力下24.【解析】compete v竞争;对抗 → competition n 竞争compete with sb. 和某人竞争compete against/ with 与……竞争compete for 为……参加比赛25.【解析】improve =make ... better 改进 →improvement n 提高26【解析】opinion n 意见;想法;看法 in one’s opinion 以某人的观点;在某人看来27.【解析】some time /sometime/some times/sometimes【口诀】:分开是一段, 合起是某时; 分开s 是倍次,合起s是有时(1) some time一段时间,做时间状语 It takes sb. some time to do sth. 做某事花费某人多长时间(2) sometime adv 在某个时候, (3) some times 名词词组,“几次,几倍” Mr. Green went to Sanya some times last summer.(4)sometimes=at times 有时 (一般现在时的标志词)【解析】 others pron. “其他的人或事物”There are other ways of doing it. 做这事还有其他的办法。29.The Taylors are a typical American family.泰勒一家是一个典型的美国之家。【解析1】The Taylors 泰勒一家 。 在姓氏的复数前加冠词the表示“全家人或夫妻两人”,使用时注意主语和谓语保持一致。【解析】typical 典型的 be typical of “是……的特点”30..【解析】cut out 删除;删去 (v+adv) You’d better cut out that sentence. cut up 切碎 cut down 砍到 cut in 插队 cut off 切断(水、电)供应31.【解析】successful 成功的【拓展】 succeed v 成功,达到 →success n 成功→successful adj 成功的→successfully adv成功地 ◆succeed in doing sth 32.It’s time for homework.该写作业了。【解析】It’s time for sth 是到做某事的时候了。It’s time for lunch. It’s time to do sth It’s time to go to school. 【解析】continue 继续;持续【拓展】continue doing sth =go on doing sth 继续做某事(前后做同一件事) continue to do sth = go on to do sth 继续做某事(前后不是同一件事)【拓展】continue,go on, last辨析⑴continue v.继续,持续,指进程在时间或空间上的延续,强调持续不断,有时也可以指短暂停止后继续进行。He continue the work for two days.他连续两天都在做这项工作。⑵ go on指无间歇或有间歇地继续,或以某种特定方式继续。go on to do sth继续做某事,指开始做另外一件事;go on doing sth继续做原来所做的事情。⑶last v.持续,延续,维持,指某事物继续存在或某种现象在时间上延续,说明某一动作要延续一段时间。34.【解析1】send→ sent → sent v 发送 【短语】: send away 赶走 send for 派人去请send off 寄出 send out 分发 send up 发射send sb. sth = send sth to sb. 送给某人某物【注】类似的动词有:show (展示; 给……看) give (给) lend (借出) offer(提供) return (归还) tell ( 告诉)【解析2】all kinds of 各种各样的 【拓展】kind (1) n 种类 kind of +adj.有点,有几分,kind of cold 有点冷 a kind of 一种的,某种的 all kinds of 各种各样的different kinds of 不同种类的 What kind of…?那种 (2) adj. 友好的 be kind to sb. = be good to sb.=be friendly to sb. 对某人友好【辨析】kind of 与kinds of:kind of 单独用,表示“有点”,后接形容词或副词: kind of前有a, this, that, what等,译为“种,种类” 后加名词。【解析】have time to do sth 有时间做某事 36. 【解析】compare A with B 将A和B 比较 (1)compare…with… 把……与…..做比较 (2) compare…to… 把…..比做……【拓展】good ( better ; best) adj. 好的 → goodness n 好处;善行 ;美德 be good for 对….有益处(反) be bad for对…有害处be good at +n/doing=do well in +n/doing 擅长于做某事be good to sb. =be kind to =be friendly to sb.对某人友好【解析2】development 发展 【解析】 cause v. 造成,使发生(1) cause sb. to do sth 使某人做某事 (2) cause sb. for sb. 给某人添麻烦【拓展】 cause, reason, excuse辨析⑴cause n.原因,指引起某种结果的“原因”,后接介词of.⑵reason n.理由,原因,指决定做某事或采取某项行动的理由。⑶excuse n.辩解,借口,指对某种行为所做的解释,可以是真的,也可以是托词。【解析】in one’s opinion 以某人的观点; 在某人看来40. Perhaps children/ parents should / could ......或许孩子们/父母应该/ 可能.......【解析】perhaps 也许;可能【拓展】perhaps,probably,possibly,maybe辨析⑴perhaps意为“也许,可能”,一般指比较小的可能性。⑵probably“很可能,大概”,其可能性最大,表示一种几乎完全肯定的意思。⑶possibly意为“可能,或许,也许”,可能性较大。⑷maybe“或许,大概”,主要用于非正式场合,常用在口语中,语气比perhaps轻。41. 【解析】crazy. adj. 不理智的;疯狂的 (在句中作定语、表语、宾语补足语) be crazy about 对……着迷;热衷于…… I’m crazy about football.42.【解析】It’s + adj.(easy,difficult,important,necessary) +(for sb.) to do sth【注】若形容词表示事物特征的,如:easy ,difficult, hard ,important等,须用介词for 【形容物,用for】 It’s +adj( kind, honest, friendly, )+(of sb) to do sth.【注】 若形容词表示人的性格、品质与特点,如:good ,kind ,nice, wrong等,用介词of。【形容人用of】43. keep on happening 持续发生【解析】keep on doing 继续做某事 keep sb. doing sth 让某人一直做某事 keep up with 跟上keep sb. from doing sth阻止某人做某事 keep away from避开二、重点语法1. 情态动词should与could的用法should的用法should为情态动词,表示劝告、建议,意为“应该”,它和其他情态动词一样,没有人称和数的变化,后接动词原形,其否定形式为shouldn’t。Maybe she should say sorry to you.也许她应该跟你说声对不起。could的用法情态动词could既是can的过去式,表示过去的能力,又可以表示谨慎、客气的建议,后接动词原形,其否定形式为couldn’t。My grandfather could drive well even at the age of eighty.我的祖父甚至到了80岁任然能很好地驾车。You could go out and buy her some me
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