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人教版.初级中学八年级.上册英语语法汇总.doc

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人教版 初级中学 年级 上册 英语语法 汇总
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-_人教版初中八年级上册英语语法汇总1) leave的用法1.“leave+地点”表示“离开某地”。例如When did you leave Shanghai?你什么时候离开上海的 2.“leave for+地点”表示“动身去某地”。例如 Next Friday, Alice is leaving for London. 下周五爱丽斯要去伦敦了。 3.“leave+地点+for+地点”表示“离开某地去某地”。例如 Why are you leaving Shanghai for Beijing? 你为什么要离开上海去北京2) 情态动词should“应该”学会使用 should作为情态动词用常常表示意外、惊奇、不能理解等有“竟会”的意思例如 How should I know? 我怎么知道 Why should you be so late today? 你今天为什么来得这么晚 should有时表示应当做或发生的事例如 We should help each other.我们应当互相帮助。 我们在使用时要注意以下几点 1. 用于表示“应该”或“不应该”的概念。此时常指长辈教导或责备晚辈。例如 You should be here with clean hands. 你应该把手洗干净了再来。2. 用于提出意见劝导别人。例如 You should go to the doctor if you feel ill. 如果你感觉不舒服你最好去看医生。3. 用于表示可能性。should的这一用法是考试中常常出现的考点之一。例如 We should arrive by supper time. 我们在晚饭前就能到了。 She should be here any moment. 她随时都可能来。3) What...? 与 Which...?1. what 与 which 都是疑问代词都可以指人或事物但是what仅用来询问职业。如 What is your father? 你父亲是干什么的 该句相当于 What does your father do? What is your father's job? Which 指代的是特定范围内的某一个人。如---Which is Peter? 哪个是皮特---The boy behind Mary. 玛丽背后的那个男孩。2. What...?是泛指所指的事物没有范围的限制而 Which...?是特指所指的事物有范围的限制。如What color do you like best? 所有颜色你最喜爱什么颜色Which color do you like best, blue, green or yellow? 有特定的范围你最喜爱哪一种颜色3. what 与 which 后都可以接单、复数名词和不可数名词。如Which pictures are from China? 哪些图片来自中国4) 频度副词的位置 1.常见的频度副词有以下这些 always总是一直 usually通常 often常常经常sometimes有时候never从不2.频度副词的位置 a.放在连系动词、助动词或情态动词后面。如 David is often arrives late for school. 大卫上学经常迟到。 b.放在行为动词前。如 We usually go to school at 7:10 every day. 我们每天经常在710去上学。 c.有些频度副词可放在句首或句尾用来表示强调。如 Sometimes I walk home, sometime I rides a bike. 有时我步行回家有时我骑自行车。3.never放在句首时主语、谓语动词要倒装。如Never have I been there. 5) every day 与 everyday 1. every day 作状语译为“每一天”。如 We go to school at 7:10 every day. 我们每天710去上学。 I decide to read English every day. 我决定每天读英语。 2. everyday 作定语译为“日常的”。 She watches everyday English on TV after dinner. 她晚饭后在电视上看日常英语。 What's your everyday activity? 你的日常活动是什么6) 什么是助动词1.协助主要动词构成谓语动词词组的词叫助动词Auxiliary Verb。被协助的动词称作主要动词Main Verb。助动词自身没有词义不可单独使用例如He doesn't like English. 他不喜欢英语。doesn't是助动词无词义like是主要动词有词义2.助动词协助主要动词完成以下功用可以用来a. 表示时态例如He is singing. 他在唱歌。He has got married. 他已结婚。b. 表示语态例如He was sent to England. 他被派往英国。c. 构成疑问句例如Do you like college life? 你喜欢大学生活吗Did you study English before you came here? 你来这儿之前学过英语吗d. 与否定副词not合用构成否定句例如I don't like him. 我不喜欢他。e. 加强语气例如Do come to the party tomorrow evening. 明天晚上一定来参加晚会。He did know that. 他的确知道那件事。3.最常用的助动词有be, have, do, shall, will, should, would7) forget doing/to do与remember doing/to do1.forget to do 忘记要去做某事。 (未做) forget doing 忘记做过某事。 (已做) The light in the office is still on. He forgot to turn it off. 办公室的灯还在亮着它忘记关了。(没有做关灯的动作) He forgot turning the light off. 他忘记他已经关了灯了。( 已做过关灯的动作) Don't forget to come tomorrow. 别忘了明天来。 (to come动作未做) 典型例题---- The light in the office is still on.---- OhI forgot___.A. turning it off B. turn it off C. to turn it off D. having turned it off 答案C。由the light is still on 可知灯亮着即关灯的动作没有发生因此用forget to do sth.而forget doing sth 表示灯已经关上了而自己忘记了这一事实。此处不符合题意。 2.remember to do 记得去做某事 (未做)remember doing 记得做过某事 (已做)Remember to go to the post office after school. 记着放学后去趟邮局。Don't you remember seeing the man before?你不记得以前见过那个人吗? 8) It's for sb.和 It's of sb.1.for sb. 常用于表示事物的特征特点表示客观形式的形容词如easy, hard, difficult, interesting, impossible等It's very hard for him to study two languages. 对他来说学两门外语是很难的。2.of sb 的句型一般用表示人物的性格品德表示主观感情或态度的形容词如good, kind, nice, clever, foolish, right。It's very nice of you to help me. 你来帮助我你真是太好了。3.for 与of 的辨别方法用介词后面的代词作主语用介词前边的形容词作表语造个句子。如果道理上通顺用of不通则用for。如You are nice. (通顺所以应用of)。He is hard. (人是困难的不通因此应用for。)9) 对两个句子的提问新目标英语在命题中有将对句子划线提问这一题型取消的趋势现在采取的作法是对一个句子进行自由提问。例如句子The boy in blue has three pens.提问1.Who has three pens? 2.Which boy has three pens? 3.What does the boy in blue have?4.How many pens does the boy in blue have?很显然学生多了更多的回答角度也体现了考试的灵活性。再如句子He usually goes to the park with his friends at 8:00 on Sunday.提问1.Who usually goes to the park with his friends at 8:00 on Sunday? 2.Where does he usually go with his friends at 8:00 on Sunday? 3.What does he usually do with his friends at 8:00 on Sunday? 4.With whom does he usually go to the park at 8:00 on Sunday? 5.What time does he usually go to the park with his friends on Sunday? 6.When does he usually go to the park with his friends?10) so、such与不定冠词的使用1.so与不定冠词a、an连用结构为“so+形容词+a/an+名词”。如 He is so funny a boy. Jim has so big a house. 2.such与不定冠词a、an连用结构为“such+a/an+形容词+名词”。如 It is such a nice day. That was such an interesting story.11) 使用-ing分词的几种情况1.在进行时态中。如 He is watching TV in the room. They were dancing at nine o'clock last night.2.在there be结构中。如 There is a boy swimming in the river.3.在have fun/problems结构中。如 We have fun learning English this term. They had problems getting to the top of the mountain.4.在介词后面。如 Thanks for helping me. Are you good at playing basketball. 5.在以下结构中 enjoy doing sth 乐于做某事 finish doing sth 完成做某事 feel like doing sth 想要做某事 stop doing sth 停止做某事 forget doing sth 忘记做过某事 go on doing sth 继续做某事 remember doing sth 记得做过某事 like doing sth 喜欢做某事 keep sb doing sth 使某人一直做某事 find sb doing sth 发现某人做某事 see/hear/watch sb doing sth 看到/听到/观看某人做某事 try doing sth 试图做某事 need doing sth 需要做某事 prefer doing sth 宁愿做某事 mind doing sth 介意做某事 practice doing sth 练习做某事 be busy doing sth 忙于做某事 can't help doing sth 禁不住做某事 miss doing sth 错过做某事12) 英语中的“单数”1.主语的第三人称单数形式即可用“he, she, it”代替的。如 he, she, it my friend, his teacher, our classroom, Tom, Mary's uncle 2.名词有单数名词和复数名词。如 man 单数---men复数 banana单数---bananas复数3.动词有原形第三人称单数形式-ing分词过去式过去分词。如 go---goes---going---went---gone work---works---working---worked---worked watch---watches---watching---watched---watched 当主语为第三人称单数的时候谓语动词必须用相应的第三人称单数形式。如 The boy wants to be a sales assistant. Our English teacher is from the US. Their daughter makes her breakfast all by herself. 13) 名词的复数构成的几种形式名词复数的构成可分为规则变化和不规则变化两种。I 名词复数的规则变化 1.一般在名词词尾加-s。如pear---pears hamburger---hamburgers desk---desks tree---trees 2.以字母-s, -sh, -ch, -x结尾的名词词尾加-es。如 class---classes dish---dishes watch---watches box---boxes 3.以字母-o结尾的某些名词词尾加-es。如 potato---potatoes tomato---tomatoes Negro---Negroes hero---heroes 4.以辅音字母加-y结尾的名词将-y变为-i,再加-es。如 family---families dictionary---dictionaries city---cities country---countries 5.以字母-f或-fe结尾的名词将-f或-fe变为-v再加-es。如half---halves leaf---leaves thief---thieves knife---knives self---selveswife---wives life---lives wolf---wolves shelf---shelves loaf---loaves但是scarf---scarves(fes) roof---roofs serf---serfs gulf---gulfs chief---chiefsproof---proofs belief---beliefs II 名词复数的不规则变化 1.将-oo改为--ee。如foot---feet tooth---teeth 2.将-man改为-men。如man---men woman---women policeman---policemen postman---postmen3.添加词尾。如child---children 4.单复数同形。如sheep---sheep deer---deer fish---fish people---people5.表示“某国人”的单、复数变化。即“中日瑞不变英法变其它国把-s加后面”。如Chinese---Chinese Japanese---Japanese Swiss---Swiss Englishman---Englishmen Frenchman---Frenchmen American---Americans Australian---Australians Canadian---Canadians Korean---Koreans Russian---Russians Indian---Indians6.其它。如mouse---mice apple tree---apple trees man teacher---men teachers 14) 双写最后一个字母的-ing分词初中阶段常见的有以下这些 1.let→letting 让 hit→hitting 打、撞 cut→cutting 切、割 get→getting 取、得到 sit→sitting 坐 forget→forgetting 忘记 put→putting 放 set→setting 设置 babysit→babysitting 临时受雇照顾婴儿2.shop→shopping 购物 trip→tripping 绊 stop→stopping 停止 drop→dropping 放弃 3.travel→travel(l)ing 旅游 swim→swimming 游泳 run→running 跑步 dig→digging 挖、掘 begin→beginning 开始 prefer→preferring 宁愿 plan→planning 计划15) 肯定句变否定句及疑问句要变化的一些词1.some变为any。如 There are some birds in the tree. →There aren't any birds in the tree. 但是若在表示请邀请、请求的句子中some可以不变。如 Would you like some orange juice? 与此相关的一些不定代词如something, somebody等也要进行相应变化。2.and变为or。如 I have a knife and a ruler. →I don't have a knife or a ruler.3.a lot of (=lots of)变为many或much。如 They have a lot of friends.可数名词 →They don't have many friends. There is lots of orange in the bottle.不可数名词 →There isn't much orange in the bottle. 4.already变为yet。如 I have been there already. →I haven't been there yet.16) in与afterin 与 after 都可以表示时间但二者有所区别。1.in 经常用于将来时的句子中以现在为起点表示将来一段时间。如 He will leave for Beijing in a week. 一周后他会动身去北京。2.after 经常用于过去时的句子中以过去为起点表示过去一段时间。如 He left for Beijing after a week. 一周后他动身去了北京。不过如果after后跟的是具体的时刻它也可用于将来时。如 We will finish the work after ten o'clock. 十点后我们会完成工作的。 3.注意区分以下的in的用法。 I'll visit him in a week. 一周后我会去拜访他。 I'll visit him twice in a week. 一周内我会去拜访他两次。17) 不定冠词a与an的使用1.a 用在以辅音音素开头的单词前。如 There is a "b" in the word "book". 单词book中有个字母b。 类似的字母还有c, d, g, j, k, p, q, t, u, v, w, y, z。 She has a small knife. 她有一把小刀。2.an 用于以元音音素开头的单词前。如 There is an "i" in the word "onion". 单词onion中有个字母i。 类似的字母还有a, e, f, h, l, m, n, o, r, s, x。 Do you have an umbrella? 你有一把雨伞吗3.以元音字母开头的单词前面不一定都用an以辅音字母开头的单词前面也不一定都用a。如a useful book a universe a one-letter word an hour an uncle an umbrella an honest person 18) 如何表达英语中的“穿、戴”英语中表示“穿、戴”的表达方法有好几种常见的有以下这些1、put on 主要表达“穿”的动作。如 He put on his coat.他穿上了他的外套。 You'd better put on your shoes.你最好穿上你的鞋子。2、wear 主要表示“穿、戴”的状态。如 The old man wears a pair of glasses.老人戴着一副眼镜。 The girl is wearing a red skirt.那女孩穿着一条红色的短裙。3、dress 可作及物动词有“给......穿衣”的意思后接“人”而不是“衣服”。如 Please dress the children right now.请立即给孩子们穿上衣服。 dress 也可作不及物动词表示衣着的习惯。如 The woman always dresses in green.那位妇女总是穿绿色的衣服。4、be in 表示穿着的状态。如 John is in white today.约翰今天穿白色的衣服。 The man in black is a football coach.19) a little, a few 与 a bit (of)a little, a few 与 a bit (of) 都有“一些、少量”的意义。他们的区别在哪里呢1. a little 意为“一些、少量”后接不可数名词。如 There is a little water in the bottle. 瓶子里有一点水。 还可以接形容词。如 He is a little shy. 他有些害羞。2. a few 意为“一些、少数”后接复数的可数名词。如 There are a few people in the room. 房间里有一些人。3. a bit 意为“一点儿”后接形容词。如 It's a bit cold. 有点冷。 a bit of 后接不可数名词。如 He has a bit of money. 他有一点儿钱。 4. a little 表肯定意义little 表否定意义a few 表肯定意义few 表否定意义。如 There is a little soda in the glass. 杯子里有一点儿汽水。 There is little soda in the glass. 杯子里几乎没有汽水了。 I have a few Chinese friends. 我有一些中国朋友。 Few people like him. 几乎没有人喜欢他。5. a little = a bit of, 后接不可数名词 a little = a bit = a little bit = kind of, 后接形容词意为“有点儿”。20) 关于like的用法like 可以作动词也可以作介词。1、like 作动词表示一般性的“爱好、喜欢”有泛指的含义。如 Do you like the color?你喜爱这种颜色吗 like 后可接不定式like to do sth也可接动词的-ing分词like doing sth有时意思不尽相同。如 She likes eating apples.她喜爱吃苹果。习惯 She likes to eat an apple.她喜爱吃一粒苹果。平常不喜欢吃 like 与 would 连用后接不定式表示愿望或客气的请求。如 Would you like a cup of tea?您愿意喝杯茶吗 “喜欢某人做某事”可以用结构“like sb to do sth/doing sth”。如 They all like me to sing/singing English songs.他们都喜欢我唱英文歌。2、like 作介词可译成“像......”。如 She is friendly to us like a mother.她对我们友好就像母亲一样。 It looks like an orange.它看起来像个桔子。3、区分以下句子 A. What does he look like? B. What is he like? A句译为“他长相如何”指一个人的外貌特征而B句译为“他人怎么样”指人的性格特点。C. The boy like Peter is over there. D. A boy like Peter can't do it.A句指外貌相似而D句指性格相似。21) stop to do sth 与 stop doing sth1. stop to do sth 意为“停下来去做某事”。如 The students stop to listen to their teacher. 学生们停下来去听他们老师讲话。 2. stop doing sth 意为“停止做某事”。如 The students stopped talking. 学生们停止了谈话。 与它们相反的句式是go on to do sth “继续做某事与刚才一事不同”和 go on doing sth “继续做某事与刚才同一件事”。如He finishes his homework and goes on to study English. 他完成了作业接着继续去念英语。They went on playing games. 他们继续玩游戏。22) tell, speak, say 与 talk 1. tell 意为“告诉、讲述”指某人把某一件事、一条信息传送给别人或讲述一件事。如 He tells me that he wants to be a teacher. 他告诉我说他想成为一位教师。 Father always tells interesting stories to us. 爸爸总是给我们讲有趣的故事。 tell sb sth 意为“告知某人某事”。如 He told me something about his past. 他告诉我一些他的往事。 tell sb to do sth 意为“告诉某人去做某事”。如 David told his son to do the homework. 大卫要他的儿子去做作业。 2. speak 意为“说话、讲话”后面主要接语言。如 He can speak English and a little Chinese. 他能讲英语和一点汉语。 speak to 意为“和.....讲话、谈话”。如 Can I speak to Mr Zhang? 我能和张先生讲话吗 speak of 意为“提到、说起”。如 The book speaks of my hometown. 那本书提到我的家乡。 3. talk 意为“谈话、讲话”如果只有一方对另一方说话时一般用 talk to如果双方或多方交谈多用 with。如 Please talk to him right now. 请立即同他谈话。 He is talking with his friend. 他在和朋友交谈。 talk about 意为“谈论......”。如 They are talking about the movie. 他们在谈论那部电影。 have a talk with 意为“与......交谈”。如 Can I have a talk with you? 我可以和你交谈吗 4. say 意为“说”。如 Can you say it in English once more? 你能用英语再说一遍吗 say to 意为“对......说”。如 He said to his students that they would have a test. 他对他的学生说他们将有一个测试。 It is said that... 意为“据说”。如 It is said that he could stay under the water for a long time. 据说他能呆在水里很长时间。 23) Excuse me! 与 I'm sorry! 1. Excuse me! 意为“打搅了对不起”一般是为了与陌生人搭话或者要打断对方所说做的事。如 Excuse me, is there a hotel in the neighborhood? 请问附近有旅馆吗 Excuse me, could I say something? 打搅一下我能说一些吗 2. I'm sorry! 意为“对不起”表示道歉。如 I'm sorry, Mr Zhang. I won't do it again. 对不起张先生。我不会这么做了。 24) 表示时间的 in、on 与 at in, on 与 at 都可以和表示时间的词组连用。 1. in 表示时间的一段或较长的时间。如 in the morning 在上午 in May, 2004 在2004年五月 in a week 在一周之内后 It's Sunday, I can finish it in two days. 现在是星期天我能在两天后完成。星期二 Rome was not built in a day. 罗马不是在一天内建起来的。 2. on 主要指在具体的一天。如 on Sunday 在星期天 on May Day 在“五一”节 on a hot afternoon 在一个炎热的下午 He arrived in Beijing on April 26,2004. 他于2004年4月26日到达北京。 3. at 表示时间的一点或比较短的时间。如 at 8:00 在八点 at noon 在中午 I always get up at 6:00 every morning. 我总是每天早晨六点起床。 It's always warm at this time of year. 每年的这个时候总是暖和的。25) Other及其用法Other 及其相近的词组如 others, the other, the others, another, any other 等一直是中学生朋友们比较困扰的问题平常的考试、作业中经常出错。下面是它们的一些用法1、other 指其余的人或物所有格是 other's复数形式是 othersthe other 指“两个人或物中的另一个”其复数形式是 the othersothers 相当于“other + 名词”所以不能充当定语修饰名词。others指整体中去掉一部分后剩余的部分但不是全部的即 some...others 一些...其余的人...。the others 强调整体中除去一部分后剩余的全部即some...the others.2、another 泛指三个以上的不定数目中的“另外一个”。由 an 和 other 合并构成所以不能和冠词连用。another 修饰单数名词比如another pencil. 3、any other 指除去本身以外的“任何其他的人或物”后面要用名词的单数形式。 26) look 短语 常见的look短语有以下这些 1.look at 朝......看 Please look at the map of China. 请看中国地图。(look at=have a look at)2.look for 寻找 The old man is looking for his dog. 老人在寻找他的狗。 3.look like 看起来像 Nancy looks like her mother. 南希看起来像她母亲。 4.look the same 看上去一样 Li Ping and Li Jing look the same. 李萍和李晶看上去一样。 5.look up 查找Please look up the word in the dictionary. 请在词典中查找这个单词。6.look over 仔细检查 The doctor looked over Mary carefully. 医生仔细检查了玛丽。7.look after 照顾照看 You must look after your old father. 你必须照顾你的老父亲。8.look around 到处寻找、查看 We looked around, but we found nothing strange. 我们四处查看但是我们没有发现奇怪的东西。 27) tooalso与either 1.too用于肯定句和疑问句一般放在句尾其前常加逗号。如 We are in the same school, too. 我们也在相同的学校。 Do you play soccer every day, too? 你也每天踢足球吗 2.also用于肯定句和疑问句一般位于实义动词前、be动词后。如 Sandra is also a Korean student. Sandra 也是一个韩国学生。 3.either用于否定句一般放在句末。如 They don't know the answer, either. 她们也不知道答案。 4.as well as也有“也”的意思。如 We have great mushroom pizza as well as soda. He is a happy boy as well. 28) hard与hardly 1.hard既可作形容词也可作副词。如 It's a hard(adj.) question. (=difficult) 这是一个难的问题。 The boy studies very hard(adv.). 那男孩学习非常努力。 句子结构It's hard for sb to do sth 做某事对某人来说是难的。如 It's hard for him to finish the work. 完成那项工作对他来说很难。 注意区分hard work 困难的工作 work hard 努力工作 2.hardly是频度副词表示否定的意思。=almost not通常用在形容词、副词和动词之前。如 I can hardly see it. 我几乎看不到它。 29) sometime,sometimes,some time与some times 1.sometime是时间副词指不确定的将来或过去某一点时间某时候或任何时候不指一段时间。如 We'll go to Beijing sometime next month. 我们下个月某一时候会去北京。 2.sometimes是频度副词指“有时”、“不时”的意思=at times。如 Sometimes I get up very late on Sunday morning. 有时候我在星期天早晨起得很晚。 3.some time是名词词组指一段时间一些时间或若干时间。如 It took him some time to finish the book. 她花了一些时间去完成作业。 4.some times指“几次”。如 He met the woman some times last month. 上个月他见过那妇女几次。 30) exercise的一些用法 1.作不及物动词译为“运动锻炼”。如 David exercises every morning. 大卫每天早晨进行锻炼。 2.作及物动词译为“训练”。如 Swimming exercises the whole body. 游泳能使身体得到全面的锻炼。 3.作名词译为“体育锻炼、运动、体操、练习题”等。如 It's good to do eye exercises every day. 每天做眼保键操对眼睛有好处。 Please do more exercise from now on. 从今以后请多做运动吧。 I have lots of homework to do tonight. 今晚我有很多的作业要做。 4.注意exercise指具体运动或体操时是可数名词复数形式为exercises泛指运动时是不可数名词。31) maybe与may be 1.maybe是副词译为“也许、可能”相当于“perhaps”。如 Maybe he can answer the question. 也许他能回答那个问题。 He maybe is from the USA, too. 他可能也来自美国。 2.may be中的may为情态动词译为“可能是......”。如 He may be from the USA, too. 他可能也来自美国。 She may be our English teacher. 她可能是我们的英语老师。32) same与different 1.same指“相同的”前面通常要有一个定冠词the但是如果same前面已经有thisthose等词就不能再与the连用了。如 We are in the same class. 我们在同一个班级。 结构the same as 与......一样 如 His mark is the same as mine. 他的分数和我的分数一样。 2.different译为“不同的”其后的可数名词应为复数形式。如 We are in different classes. 我们在不同的班级。 结构be different from 与......不同 如 This sweater is different from that one. 这件毛衣与那一件不同。 different的名词形式为difference, 复数形式为differences。33) 动词want的用法 1.want sth. 想要某物 They want some help. 他们需要一些帮助。 2.want sb. to do sth. 想要某人去做某事 My father wants me to help him on the farm. 我父亲要我在农场上帮他。 3.want to do sth. 想要做某事 I want to study English in England. 我想要在英国学习英语。 4.want doing 需要... Your sweater wants washing. 你的运动衣该洗了。34) be good(bad) for、be good at的相关用法 1.be good for 对......有益 Doing morning exercises is good for your health. 做早操对你们的建康有益。 2.be good at 擅长于...... Li Ping is good at basketball. 李平擅长于篮球。 =Li Ping is good at playing basketball. 李平擅长于打篮球。be good at = do well in 如 I'm good at math. = I do well in math. 我擅长于数学。 3.be good to 对......好 Parents are always good to their children. 父母亲总是对他们的孩子好。35) how many与how much 1.how many表示“多少”对数量提问后面接可数名词的复数形式。如 There are four people in my family. ---How many people are in your family? 你家里有几个人 We have seven classes every day. ---How many classes do you have every day? 你们每天上几节课 2.how much也是表示“多少”但它对不可数名词进行提问。如 There is some milk in the bottle. ---How much milk is there in the bottle? 瓶子里有多少牛奶 3.how much还可以对价格提问表示“多少钱”的意思。如 The yellow T-shirt is only 35 yuan. ---How much is the yellow T-shirt? 那件黄色的T恤衫多少钱36) with的几个用法 1.with表“和、同、与”。如 Can you go to the park with me? 你能和我一起去公园吗 2.with表“用、以、被”。如 Don't write with the red pen. 不要用那支红色的钢笔写字。 3.with表“随着”。如 Climate varies with the time of the year. 气候随着时令的不同而不同。 4.with表“带有、有......的”。如 The girl with long hair is my classmate. 长头发的女孩是我的同学。 5.with表“因为、由于”。如 They were angry with hard work. 他们因为艰难的工作而生气。 6.一些with结构 play with 与......一起玩 be angry with 对......生气 talk with 与......交谈 get on well with 与......相处融洽37) a lot of(lots of)与many,much 1.a lot of意为“许多、大量”。相当于lots of。它既可以修饰可数名词又可以修饰不可数名词。如 I have a lot of friends in China. 我在中国有很多朋友。 The old man has lots of money. 那位老人有很多的钱。 2.many意为“许多”。它用来修饰可数名词。如 Do you have many beautiful skirts? 你有很多漂亮的裙子吗 3.much意为“大量”。它用来修饰不可数名词。如 There is much water in the lake. 湖里有大量的水。 4.a lot of =lots of用在肯定句中而manymuch不受限制。如果将一个含有a lot of=lots of的肯定句改为否定句或疑问句要将它们改为many或much。如 We can see a lot of birds in the tree. ---We can't see many birds in the tree. 我们在树上看不到很多鸟儿。 He wants lots of soda. ---Does he want much soda? 他需要许多汽水吗38) help用法举例 help既可以作名词也可以作动词。 1.help作名词意为“帮助”。如 He needs some help. 他需要一些帮助。 2.help作动词也是“帮助”的意思。如 Can you help me? 你能帮帮我吗 3.help的结构 help sb (to) do sth 帮助某人做某事 =help sb with sth 帮助某人做某事 如 They want to help the boy carry the heavy box. =They want to help the boy with the heavy box. 他们想要帮助那位男孩搬那个重箱子。39) well的用法 well可以作副词也可以作形容词。 1.well作副词意为“某事干得好”。如 The boy draws very well. 男孩画得很好。 2.well作形容词意为“健康、安好”。如 I'm not feeling well. 我觉得不舒服。40) ago与before ago与before都表示“......以前”但用法有所区别。 1.ago意为“以前”表示从此刻算起的若干时间之前常用于过去时的句子中。如 He took a photo a week ago. 他一周前照了一张相片。 2.before作为副词时表示 a.从过去某一时刻算起的若干时间以前用于过去完成时的句子中。如 The boy had already seen the comedy before. 那男孩以前已经看过那部喜剧片了。 b.笼统的“以前”用于一般过去时或现在完成时的句子中一般单独使用而ago不可以单独使用。如 He's read this novel before. 他以前读过这部小说。41) need的用法 1.need作实义动词意为“需要”。如 Do you need to stay at home? 你要呆在家里吗 2.need作情态动词一般用于对must的否定回答。如 ---Must he leave now? 他必须离开吗 ---No, he needn't. 不他不必。 3.区分 a.need作实义动词。 He needs to go. He doesn't need to go. Does he need to go? Yes, he does./No, he doesn't. b.need作情态动词一般不用于肯定句。 He needn't go. Need he go? Yes, he need./No, he needn't.42) decide的几种句式 1.decide to do sth 决定去做某事 They decide to fly kite on weekend. 他们决定在周末去放风筝。 2.decide on doing sth 决定做某事 They decide on flying kites. 他们决定放风筝。 3.decide on sth 就某事决定...... Betty decided on the red skirt. 贝蒂选定了那条红裙子。 4.decide的名词形式为decision结构make a decision意为“做决定”。如 He has made a decision. 他已经做一个决定了。43) too many,too much与much too 1.too many意为“太多”用于修饰可数名词的复数。如 There are too many students in our class. 我们班上有太多的学生。 2.too much意为“太多”用于修饰不可数名词。如 We have too much work to do. 我们有太多的工作要做。 3.much too表示“太”用来修饰形容词或副词。如 The box is much too heavy, so I can't carry it. 箱子太重了所以我搬不动它。44) can的用法 1.表示能力。如 We can carry the heavy box. 我们可以搬得动箱子。 Who can sing an English song? 谁会唱英文歌 2.表示惊讶、不相信等态度主要用于否定句和疑问句中。如 Can it be true? 这会是真的吗 You can't be serious? 你不会当真吧 3.表示允许意思与may相近主要用于口语中。如 Can I smoke here? 我可以在这儿吸烟吗 Can I go with him? 我可以跟他一起去吗
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