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21 世纪 大学 英语 读写 教育 资料 第一 单元 课文 中英对照
\\21世纪大学英语读写教程复习资料Unit11.当阿尔伯特.爱因斯坦是个小男孩的时候,他在学校里的成绩很差,老师们都觉得他反应迟钝。拿破仑-波拿巴年轻时只是法国陆军中几百名炮兵中尉中的一名。没有接受过什么正规教育的乔治-华盛顿,十几岁时不是受训当兵而是受训做土地测量员。As a young boy, Albert Einstein did so poorly in school that teachers thought he was slow. The young Napoleon Bonaparte was just one of hundreds of artillery lieutenants in the French Army. And the teenage George Washington, with little formal education, was being trained not as a soldier but as a land surveyor.2. 尽管他们的起步平淡无奇,但是后来个个都青史留名。究竟是什么使他们成了伟人呢?是否他们生来就有什么特别?亦或他们的伟大与生逢其时、与献身精神,也许与一种坚定的个性更为有关?Despite their unspectacular beginnings, each would go on to carve a place for himself in history. What was it that enabled them to become great? Were they born with something special? Or did their greatness have more to do with timing, devotion and, perhaps, an uncompromising personality?3. 几十年来,科学家们一直在问这样的问题。在过去几年里,他们已经发现了一些情况,这些情况有助于解释为什么有些人出类拔萃,而另一些人----也许同样具有才华----却被抛在了后面。他们的发现可能对我们每个人都有意义。For decades, scientists have been asking such questions. And, in the past few years, they have found evidence to help explain why some people rise above, while others—similarly talented, perhaps—are left behind. Their findings could have implications for us all.4. 谁是伟人?伟人的定义取决于如何衡量成功。但标准还是有的。“对人类文明做出永久性贡献的人是伟大的,”基思-西蒙顿院长说。他是加州大学戴维斯分校的一名心理学教授,是1994年出版的《伟大:谁创造了历史,原因何在》一书的作者。但他又提醒说:“有时候伟人并没有被载入史册。许多女性取得了巨大成就,或者颇具影响力,但却没有得到公认。Who is great? Defining who is great depends on how one measures success. But there are some criteria. "Someone who has made a lasting contribution to human civilization is great," said Dean Keith Simonton, a professor of psychology at the University of California at Davis and author of the 1994 book Greatness: Who Makes History and Why. But he added a word of caution: "Sometimes great people don't make it into the history books. A lot of women achieved great things or were influential but went unrecognized."5. 在这本书的写作中,西蒙顿融合了关于伟大人物的历史知识以及遗传学、精神病学和社会科学领域的最新发现。他所聚焦的伟人包括获得过诺贝尔奖、领导过伟大国家或打赢过战争、谱写过流芳百世的交响乐、或在科学、哲学、政治、艺术上引起过巨变的男女人物。虽然他没有一个公式来解释有些人怎样或者怎么出类拔萃(涉及的因素太多了),但他却提出了一些共同的特点。In writing his book, Simonton combined historical knowledge about great figures with recent findings in genetics, psychiatry and the social sciences. The great figures he focused on include men and women who have won Nobel Prizes, led great nations or won wars, composed symphonies that have endured for centuries, or revolutionized science, philosophy, politics or the arts. Though he doesn't have a formula to define how or why certain people rise above (too many factors are involved), he has come up with a few common characteristics.6. 一种“永不屈服”的态度。西蒙顿说,如果成就巨大者具有什么共性的话,那就是一种坚持不懈地追求成功的动力。“往往有人认为他们具备一些超常非凡的东西,”他解释道。“但研究表明,有些伟人并没有惊人的智力,有的只是程度上的差异而已。伟大是建立在大量的学习、实践和献身精神的基础之上的。”A "never surrender" attitude. If great achievers share anything, said Simonton, it is an unrelenting drive to succeed. "There's a tendency to think that they are endowed with something super-normal," he explained. "But what comes out of the research is that there are great people who have no amazing intellectual processes. It's a difference in degree. Greatness is built upon tremendous amounts of study, practice and devotion."7. 他举了二战时期的英国首相温斯顿-丘吉尔作为永不放弃敢于冒险的典范。丘吉尔在全国士气最为低落的时候被推上了台,并出色地领导了英国人民。在1940年盟军敦刻尔克大撤退之后的一次演讲中,他的话激励了全国人民,“我们决不会退缩、永不失败。我们一定要坚持到底......我们永远不会屈服。”He cited Winston Churchill, Britain's prime minister during World War II, as an example of a risk-taker who would never give up. Thrust into office when his country's morale was at its lowest, Churchill rose brilliantly to lead the British people. In a speech following the Allied evacuation at Dunkirk in 1940, he inspired the nation when he said, "We shall not flag or fail. We shall go on to the end...We shall never surrender."8. 你会天生就伟大吗?西蒙顿经过研究丘吉尔在历史上的作用----通过研究其他政治和军事领袖的作用----发现了一个惊人的模式:“长子长女和独生子女往往会成为危难时期的优秀领导者:他们习惯于承担责任。但是在和平时期,中间出生的人们是更好的领袖;他们更善于倾听不同利益群体的呼声,作出必需的妥协。独生子丘吉尔就很典型。他在危难中是伟大的,但是在和平时期却并不称职----甚至于不得人心。”Can you be born great? In looking at Churchill's role in history—as well as the roles of other political and military leaders—Simonton discovered a striking pattern: "Firstborns and only children tend to make good leaders in time of crisis: They're used to taking charge. But middle-borns are better as peacetime leaders: They listen to different interest groups better and make the necessary compromises. Churchill, an only child, was typical. He was great in a crisis, but in peacetime he was not effective—not even popular."9. 生逢其时是又一个因素。“如果你把乔治?华盛顿放在20世纪,他作为一个政治家将一事无成,”西蒙顿宣称。“他不善于公开演讲,他也不喜欢同公众握手。反之,我看富兰克林?罗斯福若在华盛顿的时代也很难有所作为。火炉边谈话是不会有收音机来为他广播的。”Timing is another factor. "If you took George Washington and put him in the 20th century he would go nowhere as a politician," Simonton declared. "He was not an effective public speaker, and he didn't like shaking hands with the public. On the other hand, I'm not sure Franklin Roosevelt would have done well in Washington's time. He wouldn't have had the radio to do his fireside chats."10. 你会过于太聪明吗?西蒙顿有一个出人意料的发现,许多政治和军事领袖虽然很聪明,但并非过于聪明。他解释说,超过了一定程度,有效沟通的能力等其它因素比智商测试测得的先天智力更为重要。西蒙顿说,最具才智的美国总统----如托马斯-杰斐逊,伍德罗-威尔逊和约翰-F-肯尼迪等----好不容易才当选总统,而其他智商接近于平均水平的人(如沃沦-G-哈定)却在竞选中大获全胜。因为还涉及到政治和经济因素,所以具备天才的智商并不一定会成为伟大领袖。Can you be too smart? One surprise among Simonton's findings is that many political and military leaders have been bright but not overly so. Beyond a certain point, he explained, other factors, like the ability to communicate effectively, become more important than innate intelligence as measured by an IQ test. The most intelligent U.S. Presidents, for example—Thomas Jefferson, Woodrow Wilson and John F. Kennedy—had a hard time getting elected, Simonton said, while others with IQs closer to the average (such as Warren G. Harding) won by landslides. While political and economic factors also are involved, having a genius IQ is not necessary to be a great leader.11. 在科学领域,西蒙顿补充说,那些具有“天才级”智商的人确实更有可能获得承认。然而,事实也表明克服传统的思维方式也许同样重要。In the sciences, those with "genius level" IQs do have a better chance at achieving recognition, added Simonton. Yet evidence also indicates that overcoming traditional ways of thinking may be just as important.12. 他提到最近的一项研究:给大学生们一系列数据,问他们能否找出一种数学关系。几乎三分之一的人找了出来。他们并不知道他们刚刚解出的是历史上最著名的科学等式之一:行星运动第三定律,约翰尼斯-开普勒在1618年发现了一个等式。He pointed to one recent study where college students were given a set of data and were asked to see if they could come up with a mathematical relation. Almost a third did. What they did not know was that they had just solved one of the most famous scientific equations in history: the Third Law of Planetary Motion, an equation that Johannes Kepler came up with in 1618.13. 西蒙顿说,开普勒的天才并不在于解决了一道数学难题, 而在于用一种独特的方式思考数字----将数学知识运用到对行星运动的观测之中。正是他的胆识使他与众不同。Kepler's genius, Simonton said, was not so much in solving a mathematical challenge. It was in thinking about the numbers in a unique way—applying his mathematical knowledge to his observations of planetary motion. It was his boldness that set him apart.14. 热爱工作。童年时,爱因斯坦迷上了磁铁同金属相吸的现象。“他忍不住要去想这种东西,”西蒙顿指出。“他16岁就对物理学的问题着了迷,并从未停止过对它们的研究。所以他在26岁时作出重大的贡献也就不足为怪了。”Love your work. As a child, Einstein became fascinated with the way magnets are drawn to metal. "He couldn't stop thinking about this stuff," Simonton pointed out. "He became obsessed with problems in physics by the time he was 16, and he never stopped working on them. It's not surprising that he made major contributions by the time he was 26."15. “对我们大多数人来说,并不是我们没有这能力,”西蒙顿补充说,“而是我们没有投入时间。你一定要投入精力,并承受一切挫折和障碍。”"For most of us, it's not that we don't have the ability," Simonton added, "it's that we don't devote the time. You have to put in the effort and put up with all the frustrations and obstacles."16. 像其他有创造性的天才一样,爱因斯坦的动力并非对名誉的渴望,西蒙顿说。相反,是他对工作的痴迷使他与众不同。Like other creative geniuses, Einstein was not motivated by a desire for fame, said Simonton. Instead, his obsession with his work was what set him apart.17. 这样的动力来自何处仍是一个谜。但它几乎在一切有创造性的天才身上都能找到----无论他们的才华是否得到同代人的认可。Where such drive comes from remains a mystery. But it is found in nearly all creative geniuses—whether or not their genius is acknowledged by contemporaries.18. “艾米莉-迪金森的诗歌直到她去世后被人承认,”西蒙顿说。“但她不是为了名而写的。詹姆斯-乔伊斯也是如此,他没有多费时间去担心有多少人会读他的《为芬尼根守灵》。”"Emily Dickinson was not recognized for her poetry until after her death," said Simonton. "But she was not writing for fame. The same can be said of James Joyce, who didn't spend a lot of time worrying about how many people would read Finnegans Wake."19. 如今,研究者们有证据证明,对工作的内在热情是出类拔萃的一个关键。现任哈佛大学工商管理教授特蕾莎-阿玛贝尔1985年在布兰代斯大学主持的一项研究中,要求一批专业作家----其中没有一位是有名气的----各写一首短诗。当时每位作家被随机分别编到三个小组中:一个小组要求记住是为金钱而写;另一个小组要求想着只为消遣而写;第三个小组则没有给任何指示。Today, researchers have evidence that an intrinsic passion for one's work is a key to rising above. In a 1985 study at Brandeis University conducted by Teresa Amabile, now a professor of business administration at Harvard University, a group of professional writers—none famous—were asked to write a short poem. Each writer was then randomly placed in one of three groups: One group was asked to keep in mind the idea of writing for money; another was told to think about writing just for pleasure; and a third group was given no instruction at all.20. 然后这些诗歌匿名交给一个由专业作家组成的评判小组进行评审。想着为金钱而写作的人所写的诗歌排名最低。那些想着只为消遣而写作的人写得最好。“从对工作的喜爱中获得的动力起着重要的作用,”阿玛贝尔说。The poems then were submitted anonymously to a panel of professional writers for evaluation. The poetry written by people who thought about writing for money ranked lowest. Those who thought about writing just for pleasure did the best. "Motivation that comes from enjoying the work makes a significant difference, "Amabile said.




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