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新概念英语第四册课文word版.pdf

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新概念英语第四册课文 1 Lesson1We can read of things that happened 5,000 years ago in the Near East, where peoplefirst learned to write. But there are some parts of the world where even now peoplecannot write. The only way that they can preserve their history is to recount it assagas--legends handed down from one generation of story-tellers to another. Theselegends are useful because they can tell us something about migrations of people wholived long ago, but none could write down what they did. Anthropologists wondered where the remote ancestors of the Polynesian peoples now living in the Pacific Islandscame from. The sagas of these people explain that some of them came from Indonesiaabout 2,000 years ago.But the first people who were like ourselves lived so long ago that even their sagas, ifthey had any, are forgotten. So archaeologists have neither history nor legends to helpthem to find out where the first 'modern men' came from.Fortunately, however, ancient men made tools of stone, especially flint, because this is easier to shape than other kinds. They may also have used wood and skins, but thesehave rotted away. Stone does not decay, and so the tools of long ago have remainedwhen even the bones of the men who made them have disappeared without trace.Lesson2Why, you may wonder, should spiders be our friends ? Because they destroy so manyinsects, and insects include some of the greatest enemies of the human race. Insects would make it impossible for us to live in the world; they would devour all our crops and 新概念英语第四册课文 2 kill our flocks and herds, if it were not for the protection we get from insect-eatinganimals. We owe a lot to the birds and beasts who eat insects but all of them puttogether kill only a fraction of the number destroyed by spiders. Moreover, unlike someof the other insect eaters, spiders never do the least harm to us or our belongings.Spiders are not insects, as many people think, nor even nearly related to them. One cantell the difference almost at a glance for a spider always has eight legs and an insectnever more than six. How many spiders are engaged in this work on our behalf ? One authority on spidersmade a census of the spiders in a grass field in the south of England, and he estimatedthat there were more than 2,250,000 in one acre, that is something like 6,000,000 spidersof different kinds on a football pitch. Spiders are busy for at least half the year in killinginsects. It is impossible to make more than the wildest guess at how many they kill, butthey are hungry creatures, not content with only three meals a day. It has beenestimated that the weight of all the insects destroyed by spiders in Britain in one year would be greater than the total weight of all the human beings in the country.Lesson3Modern alpinists try to climb mountains by a route which will give them good sport, andthe more difficult it is, the more highly it is regarded. In the pioneering days, however,this was not the case at all. The early climbers were looking for the easiest way to the topbecause the summit was the prize they sought, especially if it had never been attained before. It is true that during their explorations they often faced difficulties and dangers 新概念英语第四册课文 3 of the most perilous nature, equipped in a manner which would make a modern climbershudder at the thought, but they did not go out of their way to court such excitement.They had a single aim, a solitary goal--the top!It is hard for us to realize nowadays how difficult it was for the pioneers. Except for oneor two places such as Zermatt and Chamonix, which had rapidly become popular, Alpinevillages tended to be impoverished settlements cut off from civilization by the highmountains. Such inns as there were were generally dirty and flea-ridden; the food simply local cheese accompanied by bread often twelve months old, all washed down withcoarse wine. Often a valley boasted no inn at all, and climbers found shelter whereverthey could--sometimes with the local priest (who was usually as poor as his parishioners),sometimes with shepherds or cheese-makers. Invariably the background was the same:dirt and poverty, and very uncomfortable. For men accustomed to eating seven-coursedinners and sleeping between fine linen sheets at home, the change to the Alpsmust have been very hard indeed. Lesson4In the Soviet Union several cases have been reported recently of people who can readand detect colours with their fingers, and even see through solid doors and walls. Onecase concerns an 'eleven-year-old schoolgirl, Vera Petrova, who has normal vision butwho can also perceive things with different parts of her skin, and through solid walls.This ability was first noticed by her father. One day she came into his office andhappened to put her hands on the door of a locked safe. Suddenly she asked her father 新概念英语第四册课文 4 why he kept so many old newspapers locked away there, and even described the waythey were done up in bundles.Vera's curious talent was brought to the notice of a scientific research institute in thetown of UIyanovsk, near where she lives, and in April she was given a series of tests bya special commission of the Ministry of Health of the Russian Federal Republic. Duringthese tests she was able to read a newspaper through an opaque screen and, strangerstill, by moving her elbow over a child's game of Lotto she was able to describe the figures and colours printed on it; and, in another instance, wearing stockings andslippers, to make out with her foot the outlines and colours of a picture hidden under acarpet. Other experiments showed that her knees and shoulders had a similar sensitivity.During all these tests Vera was blindfold; and, indeed, except when blindfold she lackedthe ability to perceive things with her skin. It was also found that although she couldperceive things with her fingers this ability ceased the moment her hands were wet. Lesson5The gorilla is something of a paradox in the African scene. One thinks one knows himvery well. For a hundred years or more he has been killed, captured, and imprisoned, inzoos. His bones have been mounted in natural history museums everywhere, and he hasalways exerted a strong fascination upon scientists and romantics alike. He is thestereotyped monster of the horror films and the adventure books, and an obvious(though not perhaps strictly scientific) link with our ancestral past. 新概念英语第四册课文 5 Yet the fact is we know very little about gorillas. No really satisfactory photograph hasever been taken of one in a wild state, no zoologist, however intrepid, has been able tokeep the animal under close and constant observation in the dark jungles in which helives. Carl Akeley, the American naturalist, led two expeditions in the nineteen-twenties,and now lies buried among the animals heloved so well. But even he was unable to discover how long the gorilla lives, or how orwhy it dies, nor was he able to define the exact social pattern of the family groups, or indicate the final extent of their intelligence. All this and many other things remainalmost as much a mystery as they were when the French explorer Du Chaillu firstdescribed the animal to the civilized world a century ago. The Abominable Snowmanwho haunts the imagination of climbers in the Himalayas is hardly more elusive.Lesson6People are always talking about' the problem of youth '. If there is one—which I take leave to doubt--then it is older people who create it, not the young themselves. Let usget down to fundamentals and agree that the young are after all human beings--peoplejust like their elders. There is only one difference between an old man and a young one:the young man has a glorious future before him and the old one has a splendid futurebehind him: and maybe that is where the rub is.When I was a teenager, I felt that I was just young and uncertain--that I was a new boyin a huge school, and I would have been very pleased to be regarded as something so 新概念英语第四册课文 6 interesting as a problem. For one thing, being a problem gives you a certain identity, andthat is one of the things the young are busily engaged in seeking.I find young people exciting. They have an air of freedom, and they have not a drearycommitment to mean ambitions or love of comfort. They are not anxious social climbers,and they have no devotion to material things. All this seems to me to link them with life,and the origins of things. It's as if they were in some sense cosmic beings in violent anlovely contrast with us suburban creatures. All that is in my mind when I meet a young person. He may be conceited, ill- mannered, presumptuous of fatuous, but I do not turnfor protection to dreary cliches about respect for elders--as if mere age were a reasonfor respect. I accept that we are equals, and I will argue with him, as an equal, if I thinkhe is wrong.Lesson7I am always amazed when I hear people saying that sport creates goodwill between the nations, and that if only the common peoples of the world could meet one another atfootball or cricket, they would have no inclination to meet on the battlefield. Even if onedidn't know from concrete examples (the 1936 Olympic Games, for instance) thatinternational sporting contests lead to orgies of hatred, one could deduce it fromgeneral principles.Nearly all the sports practised nowadays are competitive. You play to win, and the gamehas little meaning unless you do your utmost to win. On the village green, where you pick up sides and no feeling of local patriotism is involved, it is possible to play simply 新概念英语第四册课文 7 for the fun and exercise: but as soon as the question of prestige arises, as soon as youfeel that you and some larger unit will be disgraced if you lose, the most savagecombative instincts are aroused. Anyone who has played even in a school football matchknows this. At the international level sport is frankly mimic warfare. But the significantthing is not the behaviour of the players but the attitude of the spectators: and, behindthe spectators, of the nations. who work themselves into furies over these absurdcontests, and seriously believe--at any rate for short periods--that running, jumping and kicking a ball are tests of national virtue.Lesson8Parents have to do much less for their children today than they used to do, and homehas become much less of a workshop. Clothes can be bought ready made, washing cango to the laundry, food can be bought cooked, canned or preserved, bread is baked anddelivered by the baker, milk arrives on the doorstep, meals can be had at the restaurant, the works' canteen, and the school dining-room.It is unusual now for father to pursue his trade or other employment at home, and hischildren rarely, if ever, see him at his place of work. Boys are therefore seldom trained tofollow their father's occupation, and in many towns they have a fairly wide choice ofemployment and so do girls. The young wage-earner often earns good money, andsoon acquires a feeling of economic independence. In textile areas it has long beencustomary for mothers to go out to work, but this 新概念英语第四册课文 8 practice has become so widespread that the working mother is now a not unusual factorin a child's home life, the number of married women in employment having more thandoubled in the last twenty-five years. With mother earning and his older childrendrawing substantial wages father is seldom the dominant figure that he still was at thebeginning of the century. When mother workseconomic advantages accrue, but children lose something of great value if mother'semployment prevents her from being home to greet them when they return from school.Lesson9Not all sounds made by animals serve as language, and we have only to turn to thatextraordinary discovery of echo-location in bats to see a case in which the voice plays astrictly utilitarian role.To get a full appreciation of what this means we must turn first to some recent human inventions. Everyone knows that if he shouts in the vicinity of a wall or amountainside, an echo will come back. The further off this solid obstruction the longertime will elapse for the return of the echo. A sound made by tapping on the hull of a shipwill be reflected from the sea bottom, and by measuring the time interval between thetaps and the receipt of the echoes the depth of the sea at that point can be calculated.So was born the echo-sounding apparatus, now in general use in ships. Every solidobject will reflect a sound, varying ac- cording to the size and nature of the object. A shoal of fish will do this. So it is a comparatively simple step from locating the sea 新概念英语第四册课文 9 bottom to locating a shoal of fish. With experience, and with improved apparatus, it isnow possible not only to locate a shoal but to tell if it is herring, cod, or otherwell-known fish, by the pattern of its echo .A few years ago it was found that certain bats emit squeaks and by receiving theechoes they could locate and steer clear of obstacles--or locate flying insects on whichthey feed. This echo-location in bats is often compared with radar, the principle of whichis similar. Lesson10In our new society there is a growing dislike of original, creative men. The manipulateddo not understand them; the manipulators fear them. The tidy committee men regardthem with horror, knowing that no pigeonholes can be found for them. We could dowith a few original, creative men in our political life—if only to create some enthusiasm,release some energy--but where are they? We are asked to choose between variousshades of the negative. The engine is falling to pieces while the joint owners of the car argue whether the footbrake or the handbrake should be applied. Notice how the cold,colourless men, without ideas and with no other passion but a craving for success, geton in this society, capturing one plum after another and taking the juice and taste out ofthem. Sometimes you might think the machines we worship make all the chiefappointments, promoting the human beings who seem closest to them. Betweenmid-night and dawn, when sleep will not come and all the old wounds begin to ache, Ioften have a nightmare vision of a future world in which there are billions of people, all 新概念英语第四册课文 10 numbered and registered, with not a gleam of genius anywhere, not an original mind, arich personality, on the whole packed globe. The twin ideals of our time, organizationand quantity, will have won for ever.Lesson11Alfred the Great acted as his own spy, visiting Danish camps disguised as a minstrel. Inthose days wandering minstrels were welcome everywhere. They were not fighting men, and their harp was their passport. Alfred had learned many of their ballads in his youth,and could vary his programme with acrobatic tricks and simple conjuring.While Alfred's little army slowly began to gather at Athelney, the king himself setout to penetrate the camp of Guthrum, the commander of the Danish invaders. Thesehad settled down for the winter at Chippenham: thither Alfred went. He noticed at oncethat discipline was slack: the Danes had the self-confidence of conquerors, and theirsecurity precautions were casual. They lived well, on the proceeds of raids on neighbouring regions. There they collected women as well as food and drink, and a lifeof ease had made them soft.Alfred stayed in the camp a week before he returned to Athelney. The force thereassembled was trivial compared with the Danish horde. But Alfred had deduced that theDanes were no longer fit for prolonged battle : and that their commissariat had noorganization, but depended on irregular raids.So, faced with the Danish advance, Alfred did not risk open battle but harried the enemy. He was constantly on the move, drawing the Danes after him. His patrols halted 新概念英语第四册课文 11 the raiding parties: hunger assailed the Danish army. Now Alfred began a long series ofskirmishes--and within a month the Danes had surrendered. The episode couldreasonably serve as a unique epic of royal espionage!Lesson12What characterizes almost all Hollywood pictures is their inner emptiness. This iscompensated for by an outer impressiveness. Such impressiveness usually takes the form of truly grandiose realism. Nothing is spared to make the setting, the costumes, allof the surface details correct. These efforts help to mask the essential emptiness of thecharacterization, and the absurdities and trivialities of the plots. The houses look likehouses, the streets look like streets; the people look and talk like people; but they areempty of humanity, credibility, and motivation. Needless to say, the disgracefulcensorship code is an important factor in predetermining the content of these pictures.But the code does not disturb the profits, nor the entertainment value of the films; it merely helps to prevent them from being credible. It isn't too heavy a burden for theindustry to bear. In addition to the impressiveness of the settings, there is a use of thecamera, which at times seems magical. But of what human import is all this skill, all thiseffort, all this energy in the production of effects, when the story, the representation oflife is hollow, stupid, banal, childish ?Lesson13 新概念英语第四册课文 12 Oxford has been ruined by the motor industry. The peace which Oxford once knew, andwhich a great university city should always have, has been swept ruthlessly away; and nobenefactions and research endowments can make up for the change in character whichthe city has suffered. At six in the morning the old courts shake to the roar of busestaking the next shift to Cowley and Pressed Steel, great lorries with a double deck cargoof cars for export lumber past Magdalen and the University Church. Loads ofmotor-engines are hurried hither and thither and the streets are thronged with a population which has no interest in learning and knows no studies beyondservo-systems and distributors, compression ratios and camshafts.Theoretically the marriage of an old seat of learning and tradition with a new andwealthy industry might be expected to produce some interesting children. It might havebeen thought that the culture of the university would radiate out and transform the livesof the workers. That this has not happened may be the fault of the university, for at bothOxford and Cambridge the colleges tend to live in an era which is certainly not of the twentieth century, and upon a planet whichbears little resemblance to the war-torn Earth. Wherever the fault may lie the factremains that it is the theatre at Oxford and not at Cambridge which is on the verge ofextinction, and the only fruit of the combination of industry and the rarefied atmosphereof learning is the dust in the streets, and a pathetic sense of being lost which hangs oversome of the colleges. Lesson14 新概念英语第四册课文 13 Some old people are oppressed by the fear of death. In the young there is a justificationfor this feeling. Young men who have reason to fear that they will be killed in battle mayjustifiably feel bitter in the thought that they have been cheated of the best things thatlife has to offer. But in an old man who has known human joys and sorrows, and hasachieved whatever work it was in him to do, the fear of death is somewhat abject andignoble. The best way to overcome it- so at least it seems to me----is to make yourinterests gradually wider and more impersonal, until bit by bit the walls of the ego recede, and your life becomes increasingly merged in the universal life. An individualhuman existence should be like a river--small at first, narrowly contained within its banks,and rushing passionately past boulders and over waterfalls. Gradually the river growswider, the banks recede, the waters flow more quietly, and in the end, without any visiblebreak, they become merged in the sea, and painlessly lose their individual being. Theman who, in old age, can see his life in this way, will not suffer from the fear of death,since the things he cares for will continue. And it, with the decay of vitality, weariness increases, the thought of rest will be not unwelcome. I should wish to die while still atwork, knowing that others will carry on what I can no longer do, and content in thethought that what was possible has been done.Lesson15When anyone opens a current account at a bank, he is lending the bank money,repayment of which he may demand at any time, either in cash or by drawing a cheque in favour of another person. Primarily, the banker-customer relationship is that of debtor 新概念英语第四册课文 14 and creditor--who is which depending on whether the customer's account is in credit oris overdrawn. But, in addition to that basically simple concept, the bank and its customerowe a large number of obligations to one another. Many of these obligations can giverise to problems and complications but a bank customer, unlike, say, a buyer of goods,cannot complain that the law is loaded against him.The bank must obey its customer's instructions, and not those of anyone else. When, forexample, a customer first opens an account, he instructs the bank to debit his account only in respect of cheques drawn by himself. He gives the bank specimens of hissignature, and there is a very firm rule that the bank has no right or authority to pay outa customer's money on a cheque on which its customer's signature has been forged. Itmakes no difference that the forgery may have been a very skilful one: the bank mustrecognize its customer's signature. For this reason there is no risk to the customer in themodern practice, adopted by some banks, of printing the customer's name on hischeques. If this facilitates forgery it is the bank which will lose, not the customer. Lesson16The deepest holes of all are made for oil, and they go down to as much as 25,000 feet.But we do not need to send men down to get the oil out, as we must with other mineraldeposits. The holes are only borings, less than a foot in diameter. My particularexperience is largely in oil, and the search for oil has done more to improve deep drillingthan any other mining activity. When it has been decided where we are going to drill, weput up at the surface an oil derrick. It has to be tall because it is like a giant block and 新概念英语第四册课文 15 tackle, and we have to lower into the ground and haul out of the ground great lengthsof drill pipe which are rotated by an engine at the top and are fitted with a cutting bitat the bottom.The geologist needs to know what rocks the drill has reached, so every so often a sampleis obtained with a coring bit. It cuts a clean cylinder of rock, from which can be seen hestrata the drill has been cutting through. Once we get down to the oil, it usually flows tothe surface because great pressure, either from gas or water, is pushing it. This pressure must be under control, and we control it by means of the mud which we circulate downthe drill pipe. We endeavour to avoid the old, romantic idea of a gusher, which wastesoil and gas. We want it to stay down the hole until we can lead it off in a controlledmanner.Lesson17The fact that we are not sure what 'intelligence' is, nor what is passed on, does not prevent us from finding it a very useful working concept, and placing a certain amountof reliance on tests which 'measure' it.In an intelligence test we take a sample of an individual's ability to solve puzzles andproblems of various kinds, and if we have taken a representative sample it will allow usto predict successfully the level of performance he will reach in a wide variety ofoccupations.This became of particular importance when, as a result of the 1944 Education Act, secondary schooling for all became law, and grammar schools, with the exception of a 新概念英语第四册课文 16 small number of independent foundation schools, became available to the wholepopulation. Since the number of grammar schools in the country could accommodate atmost approximately 25 per cent of the total child population of eleven-plus, some kindof selection had to be made. Narrowly academic examinations and tests were felt, quiterightly, to be heavily weighted in favour of children who had had the advantage ofhighly-academic primary schools and academically biased homes. Intelligence tests weredevised to counteract this narrow specialization, by introducing problems which were not based on specifically scholastically-acquired knowledge. The intelligence test is anattempt to assess the general ability of any child to think, reason, judge, analyse andsynthesize by presenting him with situations, both verbal and practical, which are withinhis range of competence and understanding.Lesson18Two factors weigh heavily against the effectiveness of scientific in industry. One is the general atmosphere of secrecy in which it is carried out, the other the lack of freedomof the individual research worker. In so far as any inquiry is a secret one, it naturally limitsall those engaged in carrying it out from effective contact with their fellow scientistseither in other countries or in universities, or e
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