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新一代大学英语综合教程2 教师用书-U1.pdf

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新一代大学英语综合教程2 教师用书-U1 新一代 大学 英语 综合 教程 教师 U1
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Philosophy and Thoughts 1 1 Philosophy and Thoughts Overview About the topic This unit introduces the life and essential ideas of two great philosophers null Socrates and Confucius. The key is to help Ss discover the differences between the two philosophers and explore how the differences might have influenced the Western and Eastern philosophical traditions. One difference is that Socrates pursued wisdom by asking questions, while Confucius pursued a better world for the common people in his teaching, political career and journeys. The two texts have rich contents covering diverse aspects of the two philosophers’ life, so the T can encourage Ss to explore the two texts from different perspectives. Teaching objectives Upon completion of this unit, the T is expected to enable Ss to: Objectives Tasks introduce Socrates and his major achievements Viewing (iExplore 1) Reading (iExplore 1) Identifying and synthesizing information (iExplore 1) Building your language (iExplore 1) Preparing for the structure (iExplore 1) Sharing your ideas (iExplore 1) introduce Confucius and his essential ideas Viewing (iExplore 2) Reading (iExplore 2) Identifying and synthesizing information (iExplore 2) Building your language (iExplore 2) Sharing your ideas (iExplore 2) compare the two philosophers and their thoughts in a structured way Unit project (iProduce) 1 2 Teaching plan The following plan is designed for a six-period class. If there are only four periods, “Sharing your ideas” in iExplore 2 can be carried out online and the “Unit project” can be assigned in the end of Period 4 so that Ss can prepare for the project after class. Period 2 • iExplore 1 Information • iExplore 1 Language • Assign task Period 3 • iExplore 1 Sharing your ideas • iExplore 2 Reading Philosophy and Thoughts Period 4 • iExplore 2 Information • iExplore 2 Language • Assign task Period 5 • iExplore 2 Sharing your ideas • Prepare for Unit project Period 6 Present Unit project Period 1 • Scenarios • iExplore 1 Viewing • iExplore 1 Reading iPrepare Additional scenarios Scenario 1 One day, you and your foreign friends are having dinner together; they mention that many college and postgraduate courses in Western universities adopt the teaching method of Socratic seminar or Socratic questioning. Not knowing much about Socratic seminar, you remain silent on this topic. Thus you decide to do some research and gain a better understanding of this concept. Philosophy and Thoughts 3 Scenario 2 You are taking a group of newly admitted international students around your campus and they are attracted by the statue of Confucius in front of the library. They ask you who the man is and why he is put in front of the library. How do you answer their questions? Scenario 3 You are going to the cinema with your foreign friends to watch the movie Confucius. Your friends ask you to tell them something about Confucius so that they can understand the movie better. What will you tell them? In the movie, Confucius called himself a stray dog. How will you explain this to your friends? Scenario 4 You are going to participate in the “FLTRP Cup” English Public Speaking Contest and the topic of this year is “When Socrates Meets Confucius.” What would you say in this speech? Why are Socrates and Confucius still important for us over 2000 years after they passed away? iExplore 1 VIEWING Scripts Ohas Upadhyay: He was a famous guy a long time ago. Alexandra Becker: It’s a person who asked a lot of questions to people. Miles McDuffie: Yeah, I’ve seen his picture. He is not even around right now. Though I haven’t seen him. Maggie Werner: I think Socrates was like, this guy. Who . um, he was very smart and he, I think he might have invented the Socratic Seminar idea . He was smart and he used it and so people kind of like … like “Oh, that’s a good idea” and so they started using it, too. Connor Whitehill: Uh, he was a Greek Philosopher, um, who had many ideas but the Greek just . the Greek just didn’t like him. They thought he was ruining the minds of young Greeks so they pretty much sentenced him to death, by drinking hemlock, which is a poisonous plant . Pretty much what happens is you get a big group of people. And, uh we start with a main idea or topic. The teacher will ask a question. And the group has to uh, keep asking questions. Maggie Werner: You get to relate with other people and what they think about it, too. Ohas Upadhyay: So that you can know more stuff. Interviewer: What do you want to know? Ohas Upadhyay: Why do the people … why do people wear clothes? Why do people . What kind of house do you live in? Do you live in an apartment building? How to divide 100 and 120? How to do 2 minus 1? I want to know negatives? How to climb a building all the way up the air? How do you do that? 1 4 Reference answers A √ 1 2 (Socrates lived in Athens.) 3 (The author of The Republic was Plato, the student of Socrates.) 4 (Socrates was not as interested in science as Plato and Aristotle did. Socrates was more interested in ethics and philosophy.) √ 5 √ 6 B Ss might share what they know about Socrates. The following points are for the T’s reference. • Socrates was ugly. • His mother was a midwife. • Socrates was said to be a henpecked husband. • His student was Plato. • Socratic questioning is named after him. • Plato’s dialogs are among the most comprehensive accounts of Socrates to survive from antiquity. READING Suggestions for teaching The T can approach this text in different ways. Here we suggest a question-based approach. By adopting this approach, the T can prepare Ss with questions before reading the text, so that they can read with a clear purpose null looking for information needed to answer the questions or complete the tasks. Step 1: Since the title of the text describes Socrates as “the man who asked questions,” the T could ask Ss to brainstorm the questions they can ask about this title, and then ask them to read the text for answers to the questions. • What questions did Socrates ask? • How did he ask questions? • Why did he ask questions? Step 2: Call Ss’ attention to the learning objective for reading iExplore 1, i.e. to introduce Socrates and his major achievements. Ask them to brainstorm essential information for introducing a person in general and for introducing a philosopher in particular. In other words, to introduce Socrates and his essential ideas, they need to answer the following questions. Then ask Ss to read the text again for information to answer the questions. • Who was Socrates? (biographical information) • What was Socrates like? (characteristics) • What did people say about Socrates? (people’s opinions) • What was Socrates’ philosophy, since he was a philosopher? (philosophy) Philosophy and Thoughts 5 Additional activities 1 Conducting an interview Following the style in the video, an interviewing activity can be designed to help Ss identify and synthesize information from the text. After reading the text, Ss could work in groups to design questions based on the text and prepare answers to the questions. After that, they take turns to play the role of interviewers and interviewees. 2 Who said this? Who said this? Socrates, Confucius or someone else? 1 The superior man understands righteousness; the inferior man understands profit. Confucius 2 The unexamined life is not worth living. Socrates 3 A man who reviews the old so as to find out the new is qualified to teach others. Confucius 4 Virtue does not come from money, but from virtue comes money and all other good things for man … Socrates 5 Is it not a pleasure to learn and to repeat or practice from time to time what one has learned …? Confucius 6 The rest of the world lives to eat, while I eat to live. Socrates The T could ask Ss to complete the table by adding in the name of who said each quotation. Alternatively the T can use this as a quick oral quiz with groups or teams. Background information This text is adapted from Chapter one of A Little History of Philosophy. In this book, Nigel Warburton introduces philosophy in a popular way. He breaks the development of philosophy up into 40 chapters, each focused on one or two philosophers. Each chapter contains some brief biographical material of the philosophers and a discussion of one or two philosophical ideas associated with them. It is a great book to learn about Western philosophy and philosophers. The T could encourage Ss to read the book after class. Notes Socratic seminar: also known as Socratic method, Socratic questioning or Socratic debate. It is named after the classical Greek philosopher Socrates. It is a form of inquiry and discussion between individuals, based on asking and answering questions to stimulate critical thinking and to illuminate ideas. It remains a commonly used tool in a wide range of discussions, and is a type of pedagogy in which a series of questions is asked not only to draw individual answers, but also to encourage fundamental insight into the issue at hand. The oracle of Apollo at Delphi: Delphi was an ancient town in Greece, known for the temple to worship Apollo, the God of the Sun. In ancient Greece, an oracle was a priest or priestess who made statements about future events or about the truth. Here, the oracle of Apollo was believed to be the messenger of Apollo. In other words, Apollo spoke through this person. The Greeks often came to the oracle for the instruction of Apollo. 1 6 The Sophists: In the second half of the 5th century BC, particularly at Athens, “sophist” referred to a class of intellectuals who taught courses in various subjects, speculated about the nature of language and culture and employed rhetoric to achieve their purposes, generally to persuade or convince others. Many sophists taught their skills for a price. In comparison, Socrates accepted no fee, instead he professed a self-effacing posture, which he exemplified by Socratic questioning. Language points 1 There were philosophers before him, but it was with Socrates that the subject really took off. (Para. 1, Sentence 2) take off: to suddenly start being successful 突然成功;开始走红 e.g. In 1944, he met Edith Piaf, and his career took off. 2 If philosophy has a patron saint, it is Socrates. (Para. 1, Sentence 3) patron saint: n. [C] the protecting or guiding saint of a person or place 守护神 e.g. Mother insisted that William and I each say a prayer to Saint Christopher, the patron saint of travelers. Here it means that Socrates laid the foundation of Western philosophy and made great contributions to it. 3 He saw himself as one of those horseflies that have a nasty bite — a gadfly. (Para. 2, Sentence 6) gadfly: n. [C] a large fly that annoys livestock 牛虻 e.g. Always a gadfly, he attacked intellectual orthodoxies. If you refer to someone as a gadfly, you believe that they deliberately annoy or challenge other people, especially people in authority. Socrates did just that by asking people awkward questions. 4 But the questions he asked were razor-sharp. They seemed straightforward; but they weren’t. (Para. 3, Sentences 4-5) 1) razor-sharp: a. extremely sharp, as sharp as a razor 锋利的;犀利的 e.g. Pick an argument with Lucy and you’ll quickly find that she has a razor-sharp tongue. 2) straightforward: a. uncomplicated and easy to do or understand 浅显的;易懂的 e.g. The system is perfectly straightforward. 5 Socrates by using a clever counter-example has shown that Euthydemus’ general comment that being deceitful is immoral doesn’t apply in every situation. (Para. 4, Sentence 11) counter-example: n. [C] an example that opposes or contradicts an idea or theory 反例 e.g. As a counter-example, another firm in a similar situation abandoned their original plan. 这个句子中有两个that从句,第一个是宾语从句,第二个是同位语从句,后者做comment的同位语。 6 Socrates loved to reveal the limits of what people genuinely understood, and to question the assumptions on which they built their lives. (Para. 5, Sentence 4) assumption: n. [C] a thing that is accepted as true or as certain to happen, without proof 假定;假设 e.g. Perhaps you should question your own assumptions about that before you question mine. Philosophy and Thoughts 7 7 The Western tradition in philosophy spread from Ancient Greece across large parts of the world, at time cross-fertilized by ideas from the East. (Para. 9, Sentence 2) cross-fertilize: vt. to influence someone or something with ideas from other areas(与不同地区的观念接触)使相 互影响 e.g. The company is cross-fertilized by the expertise they’ve gained from other industries. The original meaning of “cross-fertilize” is to “combine the male sex cells from one type of plant with female sex cells from another.” Here it means that the Western tradition in philosophy developed with an exchange of ideas or information. 8 An unexamined existence is all right for cattle, but not for human beings. (Para. 10, Sentence 3) unexamined: a. not thought about carefully 未经深思熟虑的 e.g. This theory is widely held but largely unexamined. Here, Socrates means that we should examine our existence, or ask why we exist in the way we do, or why we live our life in the way we do. Animals don’t have to examine their existence, but human beings must think and ask about our life. 9 Many Athenians felt that Socrates was dangerous and was deliberately undermining the government. (Para. 11, Sentence 2) undermine: vt. to gradually make someone or something less strong or effective 逐渐削弱;逐渐损害 e.g. They might have to share power and that is dangerous because it would undermine their position of power. Reference answers Identifying and synthesizing information A 1) ugly 2) shabby 3) strange 4) annoying 5) great charisma 6) a brilliant mind 7) loved 8) dangerous 9) Socrates didn’t charge for his services 10) the wisest man in Athens 11) 469 BC 12) He fought as a soldier 13) stopping people in the marketplace and asking them questions 14) sentenced to death 15) many Athenians felt that he was deliberately undermining the government B 1) shuffling around 2) straightforward 3) tough 4) being deceitful 5) being immoral 6) counter-example 7) your friend is feeling very low and might kill himself and you steal his knife 1 8 8) knots 9) the general comment that being deceitful is immoral doesn’t apply in every situation 10) revealed the limits of 11) questioned the assumptions 12) everyone realizing how little they knew 13) carry on believing that you understood something when you didn’t C 1) In Socrates’ eyes, wisdom was not knowing lots of facts, or knowing how to do something. Rather, it meant understanding the true nature of our existence, including the limits of what we can know. 2) Socrates’ questioning is valuable in that it represented human being’s pursuit of wisdom. 3) Socrates was wise because he never stopped questioning what seemed to be straightforward and he was always willing to debate his ideas. 4) Socrates would rather die than stop asking any more difficult questions. I think he did so because he valued questioning more than his life. Building you language A 1) charisma 2) brilliant 3) ugly 4) awkward / razor-sharp 5) straightforward 6) tough B 1) Using a counter-example 2) debate their ideas 3) begin a conversation 4) question the assumption 5) reveal the limits 6) understand the nature C 1) in 2) limits 3) to 4) nature 5) debate 6) assumption Preparing for the structure Teaching suggestions How do you organize a passage about a philosopher and his or her major achievements? Basically, three elements should be included: 1) a brief introduction to the philosopher; 2) a detailed description of the philosopher’s thoughts; and 3) a statement of the philosopher’s influence. The sample passage has three paragraphs, each representing one of the three elements. Para. 1 provides a brief account of Diogenes and his philosophy. Since Cynicism is a key word for Diogenes’ philosophy and might be a difficult word, this paragraph explains the meaning of this word. Para. 2 describes the philosophy and Diogenes in more details. It starts with a topic sentence, “Diogenes developed a reputation through his philosophy of practice.” To illustrate his philosophy of practice, the paragraph provides more details and examples. Para. 3 states the influence of Diogenes and his philosophy. The following are some useful expressions for introducing a thinker, his or her philosophy and influence. Philosophy and Thoughts 9 Useful expressions Introducing a philosopher • . was one of the greatest Greek philosophers. • . was the most famous exponent of . • . was a Greek philosopher and one of the founders of . • Also known as ., he was born in . Describing a thinker’s philosophy • The doctrine of Cynicism holds that … • Diogenes maintained that . • Diogenes shared Socrates’ belief that . • Diogenes taught by . • He tried to demonstrate that . Describe a thinker’s influence • . not only influenced ., but also served as a source for . • Some scholars hold that he was deeply influenced by . • . exercised a marked influence on . • . quickly attained extensive influence, and many people began to follow him. Answers 1) Describe the philosopher’s thoughts in detail 2) State the philosopher’s influence Sharing your ideas Teaching suggestions Step 1: Assigning the task The T could assign the task at the end of one session, so that Ss have more time to prepare the report after class. Call their attention to three aspects of the report: information, structure and language. They need to select the information to be included in the report. Then, the information should be organized in a clear structure. Also, encourage them to use the expressions that they have learned from the text. However, they should not simply copy the sentences of the text but paraphrase them in their own reports. Advise Ss to write down the script and rehearse the reports so that they can improve the accuracy and fluency of their language production. However, Ss should not read from their scripts. Instead, when they make the report, they should try to talk to the audience. Therefore, they can rehearse by making the report to someone. Step 2: Pair-work Before Ss make the report to the class, ask them to work in pairs and make the report to each other. Provide Ss a checklist so that they can help each other improve their reports. Step 3: Making the report The T could invite some Ss to make their reports to the class. To avoid repetition, after the first student makes the report, other Ss can present parts of their reports which have not been covered by other reporters. Sample answer Socrates was one of the greatest philosophers in Greece. He was considered the patron saint of Western philosophy. In other words, he laid down the foundation of Western philosophy. 1 10 Socrates was born in 469 BC in Athens. As a young man he fought as a brave soldier in the war, but in his middle age he did nothing but shuffling around the marketplace and asking people awkward questions. By doing this, Socrates tried to reveal the limits of what people knew and challenge the assumptions held by people. According to Socrates, wisdom meant the understanding of the true nature of our existence, including the limits of what we knew. Socrates showed the importance of questioning and pursuing truth and wisdom. He would rather die than give up asking questions. Even today, philosophers are still doing what Socrates did: asking questions about the nature of reality, looking at reasons and evidence, and trying to answer these questions. iExplore 2 VIEWING Scripts One cannot talk about Chineseness, even today, 2,500 years later, without reference to this particular man null Confucius. Confucius is one of China’s greatest philosophers. Born 550 years before Christ, he believed in education, hard work and the capacity for every human being to succeed. His world was filled with poverty and war. China’s feudal lords battled throughout the provinces, and most men were fighters, not thinkers. Confucius believed that people become better by being educated. So he started a school and urged his students to become men of character. His fame spread and in 501 BC at the age of 50, he became a governor. His policies included feeding the poor and elderly at the state’s expense. He somehow developed a vision of learning to be human as a series of concentric circles. You start with the person, then to the family, then to the neighborhood, to the society, to the nation, to the country, to the world and beyond. The warlords did not like his reforms and he was forced from his home into exile. For almost 14 years, he walked Eastern China, talking reform and peace to local leaders. Confucius was a man with a vision. The rulers of his time were not individuals with visions. They were trying to enjoy themselves as much as they could in their private lives. And they were trying to expand their territory or their power as much as they could. At the age of 67, Confucius was invited back to his home province but never again held office. Confucius died perceiving himself to be a failure. And . so he died believing himself to . to have not really had much influence on China, which is paradoxical, ’cause Confucianism has become the dominant mode of thought and the dominant philosophy of China and the surrounding regions for so many centuries. Philosophy and Thoughts 11 Reference answers 1 Confucius believed in education, hard work and capacity for every human being to succeed; Confucius believed that people become better by being educated.Thus, Confucius pursued the “common welfare.” 2 His world was filled with poverty and war. China’s feudal lords battled throughout the provinces, and most men were fighters, not thinkers. 3 He started a school to educate people. He worked as a governor. He also walked Eastern China to talk to local leaders. 4 It is paradoxical. Confucius perceived himself to be a failure, but after his death, his philosophy has become the dominant philosophy of China and the surrounding regions. READING Suggestions for teaching The T can approach this text in different ways. Here we provide a question-based approach. The previous Viewing section lays down the foundation for reading iExplore 2 by creating the information gap. For the four questions, the video provides either insufficient information or very general descriptions. Ask Ss to read the text to find more information and answer the four questions in the “Viewing” section: • What did Confucius pursue? • Why did he pursue it? • How did he pursue it? • Did he accomplish his mission? To answer the four questions, Ss need to identify and synthesize the information from the text. Each question covers certain paragraphs: • What did Confucius pursue? (Paras. 5–7) • Why did he pursue it? (Paras. 1–4) • How did he pursue it? (Paras. 5–9) • Did he accomplish his mission? (Paras. 9–11) Additional activities Reading based on the charts Another reading activity can be designed based on the charts on Pages 16–17. First, ask Ss to read the text and complete the charts on Pages 16–17. As a variation, before Ss complete the chart on Page 17, the T could ask Ss to read Paras. 4–11 and use one word to summarize the major point of each paragraph. When Ss have completed the chart, ask them to work in pairs to talk through as many points as possible from the chart when they only look at the headings. For example, A can cover the first box so that only the heading “His Times” is visible while B tries to give the main points about Confucius’ times; then B covers the second box while A gives points under “His response,” and so on for the whole chart. 1 12 Background information About the author: This article is adapted from a chapter of the book Confucius: The Man and the Myth, written by Herrlee G. Creel. The author, who is usually known as H. G. Creel and顾立雅 in Chinese, was an American sinologist and philosopher who specialized in Chinese philosophy and history, and was a professor of Chinese at the University of Chicago for nearly 40 years. Early life of Confucius: Para.1 includes a quotation of Confucius, “When young, I was without rank and so I was able to do many menial tasks.”(吾少也贱,故多能鄙事) It is taken from the Analects (《论语》). Confucius was born into the class of shi (士), between the aristocracy and the common people. He is said to have worked in various government jobs during his early 20s, and also worked as a caretaker of sheep and horses. Confucius’ teaching of “common welfare”: Paras. 5–6 mention Confucius’ teaching of “common welfare.” Confucius described his ideal world of common wealth in “The World of Da-tong” (《礼运大同篇》). In this world, there is no war and people stay in harmony, enjoying a well-off life. Language points 1 Tradition says that he came of noble ancestry and was the descendant of kings. (Para. 1, Sentence 2) 1) ancestry: n. [C, U] onenulls family or ethnic descent 祖先;血统 e.g. He was proud of his Irish ancestry. 2) descendant: n. [
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