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(新东方)新概念第二册笔记.doc

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新东方 新概念 第二 笔记
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NEW CONCEPT ENGLISH BOOK 2practice : 训练, progress : 进步If you practice more, then you can make great progress.五项综合训练技能listening : 听力speaking : 说话grammar : 语法 writing : 写作reading : 阅读 translation : 译 knowledge +skillsLesson 1 A private conversation 【New words and expressions】(12)private adj. 私人的conversation n. 谈话theatre n. 剧场,戏院seat n. 座位play n. 戏loudly adv. 大声地angry adj. 生气的angrily adv. 生气地attention n. 注意bear v. 容忍business n. 事rudely adv. 无礼地,粗鲁地★private adj.私人的 ① adj. 私人的private life 私生活private school 私立学校It's my private letter. (如果妈妈想看你的信) It's my private house. (如果陌生人想进你的房子) ② adj. 普通的private citizen 普通公民I’m a private citizen. (citizen n. 公民)private soldier 大兵《Private Ryan》(《拯救大兵瑞恩》)public adj. 公众的,公开的(private的反义词)public school 公立学校public letter 公开信 public place 公共场所privacy n.隐私It’s privacy. 这是我的隐私!(不愿让别人知道的)★conversation n.谈话have a + talk/chat/dialogue/conversation/gossip 名词变动词conversation 一般用于正式文体中, 内容上往往不正式subject of conversation 话题They are having a conversation.talk 内容可正式可不正式, 也可以私人 Let’s have a talk.dialogue 对话, 可以指正式国家与国家会谈 China and Korea are having a dialogue.chat 闲聊,就是北京人说的“侃”,说的是无关紧要的事。gossip 嚼舌头, 说长道短★theatre n.剧场, 戏剧cinema n.电影院★seat n.座位 have a good seat/place,这里的seat指place(指地点),而不是chair. take a seat/take your seat 坐下来, 就坐Is the seat taken? 这个位置有人吗?请坐的3种说法 : Sit down, please. (命令性)Take your seat, please.Be seated, please. (更礼貌)作为动词的seat与sit的区别sit(sat,sitten) vi. 就座He is sitting there. 他坐在那儿。seat vt.让某人就座 seat sb. 让某人就坐,后面会加人Seat yourself.You seat him.你给他找个位置. When all those present(到场者)_D_ he began his lecture.A. sit B. set C. seated D. were seatedsit down 坐下;be seated=take a seat 就坐★angry adj. 生气的★angrily adv. 生气的 angry =cross I was angry. /He was cross.annoyed: 恼火的; be blue in the face 脸上突然变色程 I was annoyed. 度 I was angry/cross.加 I was very angry.深 I am blue in the face. (脸色都青了, 相当生气了)★attention n. 注意Attention ,please. 请注意(口语)pay attention 注意pay attention to … 对……注意You must pay attention to that girl.pay a little attention 稍加注意pay much attention 多加注意pay more attention 更多注意pay no attention 不用注意pay close attention 特别注意★bear(bore, born) v. 容忍① vt. 承受,支撑,承担,负担Can the ice bear my weight?Who will bear the cost? 谁来承担这笔费用?② vt. 忍受(一般与can/could连用于疑问句及否定句中)She eats too fast. I can’t bear to watch/watching her. 她吃得太快。我看着受不了。How can you bear living in this place? 你怎么能受得了住在这个地方?bear =stand =put up withI can't bear/stand you.endure:忍受,容忍put up with :忍受I got divorced(离婚).I could not put up with himbear/stand/endure 忍受的极限在加大bear n.熊 white bear 白熊bear hug :热情(热烈)的拥抱give sb. a bear hug★business n. 事, 生意① n. 生意business man :生意人do business: 做生意go to some place on business:因公出差I went to Tianjin on business.② n. 某人自己的私人的事情It's my business. (指私人的事, 自己处理的事) It's none of your business. 不关你的事。★rudely adv. 无礼地, 粗鲁地rude adj. 粗鲁的,无礼的★pay vt. &vi. 支付① vt. &vi. 支付(价款等)Have you paid the taxi-driver?You can pay a deposit of thirty pounds… 您可以先付30英镑的定金……I’ll pay by instalments.I paid 50 dollars for this skirt. (pay…for sth. 花/支付……(钱)买……)② vt. &vi. 给予(注意等);去(访问)They did not pay any attention.We paid a visit to our teacher last Sunday. 上星期天我们去拜访了老师。③ n. 工资,报酬I have not received my pay yet. 我还没有领到工资。【Text】Last week I went to the theatre. I had a very good seat. The play was very interesting. I did not enjoy it. A young man and a young woman were sitting behind me. They were talking loudly. I got very angry. I could not hear the actors. I turned round. I looked at the man and the woman angrily. They did not pay any attention. In the end, I could not bear it. I turned round again. "I can't hear a word!" I said angrily."It's none of your business," the young man said rudely. "This is a private conversation!"参考译文:上星期我去看戏. 我的座位很好, 戏很有意思, 但我却无法欣赏. 一青年男子与一青年女子坐在我的身后, 大声地说着话. 我非常生气, 因为我听不见演员在说什么. 我回过头去怒视着那一男一女, 他们却毫不理会. 最后, 我忍不住了, 又一次回过头去, 生气地说 : “我一个字也听不见了!” “不关你的事, “那男的毫不客气地说, “这是私人间的谈话!” 【课文讲解】1、Last week I went to the theatre.动词go的原义是离开一个地方去另一个地方,与介词to连用后,常加上主语所要去的目的来代表主语的动作目的。go to the +地点 表示去某地干嘛go to the theatre = go to the theatre to see a play去剧场看戏go to the cinema =see a film 去电影院看电影go to the dairy 去牛奶店go to the + 人 + 's 表示去这个人开的店go to the doctor's 去看病;go to the butcher's 买肉以下短语中名词前不加冠词:go to school 去上学;go to church 去做礼拜;go to hospital(医院) 去看病;go to bed 上床,睡觉;go home(跟home相连一定表示没有事情可做,回家休息)I am at home. 在家休息2、I had a very good seat.seat一般指戏院、汽车等配置的固定座位,也可以抽象地表示“座位”或“位子”等概念。the front seat of a car 汽车的前座Take a seat, please. 请坐。3、I did not enjoy it.enjoy vt. 欣赏,享受,喜爱① enjoy +n. 喜欢,从当中得到一种享受(后面不能跟人)I enjoy the music.enjoy the dinner/film/program/game② enjoy oneself/代词 玩的开心We always enjoy ourselves. ③ enjoy +动名词Jane doesn’t enjoy swimming. She enjoys going to the theatre.4、I got very angry. get在这里有“逐渐变得”的含义,接近become,是个表示过程的动词,表示状态的变化。而I was very angry则仅表示当时的状态是生气,并不暗示过程。I am/was angry. 是一个事实I got angry. 强调变化过程It is hot.It got hot.got取代be动词,got是一个半联系动词,可以直接加形容词。5、I could not hear the actors. I turned round.hear+人:听见某人的话I could not hear you. Beg your pardon?I couldn't hear you./I couldn't hear a word./I couldn't catch your words.I couldn't hear you clearly./I couldn't catch your words.Beg your pardon? /I couldn't catch your words.turn round =turn around 转身6、In the end, I could not bear it.in the end 最后,终于,表示一段较长的时间之后或某种努力之后 She tried hard to finish her homework by herself. In the end, she had to ask her brother for help.I could not bear it/you/the noise.7、I can't hear a word!I can't hear a word.美音:肯定I can [kAn] 否定,I can't[kAnt]/,它的/t/是吞进去的, 在读音上很难区别, 只能根据上下文来定hear a word of sb. (a word 等于一句话)He didn't say a word.May I speak to Jim?/May I have a word with Jim?8、It's none of your business.one’s business 指某人(所关心的或份内)的事It's none of your business./None of your business./It's my business. 不关你的事。It is my business to look after your health. 我必须照顾你的身体健康。none相当于not any或no one,但语气较强。She kept none of his letters. 他的信件她一封也没有保留。none of 这个短语有时可以表达一种断然、甚至粗暴的口气,尤其是在祈使句中:None of your silly remarks! 别说傻话了!【Key structures】 简单陈述句的语序陈述句一定是有主语,有动词,有宾语,有句号 6 1 2 3 4 5 6when? Who? Action Who? How? Where? When? Which? Which? What? What? 1 ---主语,一般由名词、代词或名词短语构成,通常位于动词之前,动词必须与主语一致,即主语决定动词的单复数形式2 ---谓语,由动词充当3 ---宾语,一般为名词、代词或名词短语4 ---副词或介词短语,对方式或状态提问,往往做状语 I like her very much5 ---地点状语,一般在方式副词之后,时间副词之前6 ---时间状语,可以放在句首或句末 简单陈述句一定不能少的是主语, 谓语. 如果问何时何地,是一个固定搭配 when and where【Multiple choice questions】1 The writer turned round. He looked at the man and the woman angrily ___b___ .a. and they stopped talking b. but they didn't stop talkingc. but they didn't notice him d. but they looked at him rudely"They did not pay any attention." 不是没看见,只是思想上没在意pay attention: 从思想上注意、在意,如交通安全应注意. notice: 眼睛上注意(=see 眼睛看)I notice her.4 The young man and young woman were sitting behind him. He was sitting ___d___ them.a. before b. above c. ahead of d. in front ofbehind: 在……后面in front of 在……前面 (相对静止的概念)before 在……前面 (后面加词或句子,一般和时间相连)He arrived before six o'clock.before he came backabove 在……上面ahead of 在……前面 (+时间、位置)(动态的行为)ahead of timeHe goes ahead of me.5 ___c___ did the writer feel? Angry.a. Where b. Why c. How d. When特殊疑问词对后面的答案提问how(adv.)——对一个方式、状态提问,对形容词、副词、介词短语提问7 The young man and the young woman paid ___d___ attention to the writer.a. none b. any c. not any d. noany ——用在否定句和疑问句中some——用在肯定句中none——代词,没有任何东西、没有任何人 None knows./None of us knows.not——否定词,要放在非实义动词后面not any=noHe didn't pay attention.no——形容词、修饰名词I don't have any friends./I have no friends.I have no time./I don't have any time.11 The writer could not bear it. He could not ___c___ it.a. carry b. suffer c. stand d. liftbear 忍受=standsuffer 遭受,忍受 (精神或肉体上)痛苦,suffer后面必须加一种痛苦I suffer the headache.(肉体上的痛苦)He often suffers defeat.(精神上的痛苦)(defeat n. 失败)Lesson 2 Breakfast or lunch? 【New words and expressions】(5)until prep. 直到outside adv. 外面ring v. (铃、电话等)响(rang, rung)aunt n. 姑,姨,婶,舅母repeat v. 重复★until prep.直到until用于表示动作、状态等的持续,可译为“一直到……为止”或“在……以前”。在肯定句中,它与表示持续性状态的动词连用,表示持续到某一时刻:I’ll wait here until 5. 我会在这里等到5点钟。His father was alive until he came back. 直到他回来为止,他爸爸都是活着的. 在否定句中,它通常与描述短暂动作的动词连用,表示“到……为止”、“直到……才”:She cannot arrive until 6. 她到6点才能来。His father didn't die until he came back. 直到他回来,他爸爸才死. until(后的从句)的时间终止之前,这个动作做了还是没做?做了前面的主句用肯定;没做前面的主句用否定For he ___A(C)___(wait) until it stopped raining. A. waited B. didn't waitA. leave B. left C. didn't leaveI stay in bed until twelve o'clock.I didn't get up until 12 o'clock.★outside adv. 外面(作状语)He is waiting for me outside.It is cold outside.★ring(rang. rung) v.(铃、电话等)响 ① vt. 鸣,(铃、电话等)响(这种响是刺耳的, 往往是提醒人做某事)Every morning the clock rings at 6.The telephone(door bell) is ringing.而风铃等响要用jingle,jingle (bell) (铃儿) 响叮当② vt. 打电话给(美语中用call)ring sb. 给某人打电话Tomorrow I'll ring you.③ n. (打)电话give sb. a ringRemember to give me a ring. /Remember to ring me.④ n. 戒指★aunt n. 姑,姨,婶,舅妈(所有长一辈的女性都用这个称呼)男性则是uncle: 叔叔 他们的孩子:cousin 堂兄妹(不分男女)cousin的孩子:nephew 外甥;niece 外甥女★repeat v. 重复① vt. 重复Will you repeat the last word?They are repeating that wonderful paly.② vi. 重做,重说Please repeat after me.Don’t repeat.【Text】It was Sunday. I never get up early on Sundays. I sometimes stay in bed until lunchtime. Last Sunday I got up very late. I looked out of the window. It was dark outside. 'What a day!' I thought. 'It's raining again.' Just then, the telephone rang. It was my aunt Lucy. 'I've just arrived by train,' she said. 'I'm coming to see you.''But I'm still having breakfast,' I said.'What are you doing?' she asked.'I'm having breakfast,' I repeated.'Dear me,' she said. 'Do you always get up so late? It's one o'clock!'参考译文:那是个星期天, 而在星期天我是从来不早起的, 有时我要一直躺到吃午饭的时候. 上个星期天, 我起得很晚. 我望望窗外, 外面一片昏暗. “鬼天气!” 我想, “又下雨了. “正在这时, 电话铃响了. 是我姑母露西打来的. “我刚下火车, “她说, “我这就来看你. “ “但我还在吃早饭, “我说. “你在干什么?” 她问道. “我正在吃早饭, “我又说了一遍. “天啊, “她说, “你总是起得这么晚吗?现在已经1点钟了!” 【课文讲解】1、It was Sunday.it指时间、天气、温度或距离,it被称为“虚主语”(empty subject)。作为第三人称单数的中性代词,it可以指一件东西、一件事件或用来指是什么人:It is a lovely baby.2、I never get up early on Sundays.on Sundays: 所有的星期天,每逢星期天,与一般现在时连用,表示经常性的行为。介词on一般用于表示某一天的时间短语中:on Monday,on Monday morning,on that day当使用last,next,this,that时,介词(以及定冠词)必须省略:I’ll see you next/this Friday.never 从来不 (可以直接用在动词前面)=助动词+not (变成否定句,前面一定要加助动词)I don't like her.=I never like her.3、I sometimes stay in bed until lunchtime.在表达卧床时bed前不需加冠词:It’s time for bed now.You must stay/remain in bed for another two days. 你必须再卧床两天。4、Just then, the telephone rang. It was my aunt Lucy.just then: 就在那时如果不知道对方性别, 他/她可以用it取代Who are you?/Who is it ?5、I've just arrived by train,by 直接加交通工具(不能有任何修饰词, 复数);如果加修饰词, 就要换掉by用in或onI go out by bus.I go out in/on two buses. (指具体的两辆车介词用in/on)Long ago people could go to America only by ship/sea.如果是特指的交通工具,则要加冠词或其他限定词:My aunt left by the 9:15 train.by air 乘飞机by bicycle/bike 骑自行车by boat乘船by bus 乘公共汽车by car乘小汽车by land 由陆路by plane 乘飞机by sea 由海路by ship乘船by train 乘火车6、I'm coming to see you. 我将要来看你. 用 come 的现在进行时态 be coming 表示一般将来,表示近期按计划或安排要进行的动作。同样用法的动词有:go,come,leave,arrive,land,meet,die,start,return,join…7、Dear me!天哪!英国人说Dear me!或My dear!美国人说 : My god! [^Cd] ([C]发啊的音)注意美英的发音不同. 【Key structures】 现在进行时和一般现在时现在进行时表示说话的当时正在发生或正在发生的事件,也用来表示现阶段(一段时间)的动向。现在进行时常与now,just,still等副词连用:I am working as a teacher. "现阶段"He is still sleeping. (现在还在睡觉)Jane is just dressing up. 简正在打扮。一般现在时表示习惯性动作, 真理, 是过去、现在和未来都会发生的事情。一般现在时一般与频率副词often,always,sometimes,never,frequently,rarely,ever等连用。Helen never writes to her brother Tony. She sometimes rings him.频率副词往往放在句子中的实义动词前, 非实义动词后;如果既有实义动词又有非实义动词, 要放在两个之间;疑问句中副词往往放在主语后面。在否定句中not必须放在always之前,而且也出现在generally、normally、often、regularly和usually之前;not必须出现在sometimes和frequently之后。表示肯定的速记可以用在句尾;在特别强调和需要对比时,frequently、generally、normally、sometimes、usually等副词可用于句首。 I get paid on Friday usually. Very often the phone rings when I’m in bath.非实义动词 : ① 系动词(be)② 帮助动词构成时态的助动词(do, does, will, shall, have, had, has)③ 情态动词(must, can, may) 除此之外都是实义动词. I frequently go to bed hungry. (形容词作状语)He went to school hungry.饿着肚子上学. You must come here hungry.空腹来这里. 【Special Difficulties】 以what开头的感叹句:在英语中可用what引导的感叹句来表示惊奇、愤怒、赞赏、喜悦等感情,在感叹中主谓语采用正常语序。What 对名词感叹,感叹句的结构为:What +a/an (+adj.)+n.(+主语+谓语)!What a good girl (she is)! (主、谓可省)有上下文和一定的语境, 才能省略形容词。一般省略形容词表示批评或不大好的意思。What a thing to say! 多么难听的话啊!What (a lot of) trouble( he is causing)!【Multiple choice questions】5.He doesn't get up early on Sundays. He gets up ___a___ .a. late  b. lately c. slowly d. hardlylate 晚的lately =recently 最近的, 近来的. How are you going lately? 最近一段时间身体还好吗?8  He ___a___ out of the window and saw that it was raining.a. looked b. saw c. remarked d. watchedlook 表示看的动作,后面一定要加介词see 表示看的结果,后面直接加宾语watch 表示观看,后面直接加宾语, 但宾语一定是能够活动的东西look at pictures (对);watch pictures(错)11  Breakfast is the first ___d___ of the day.a. food b. dinner c. lunch d. meallunch 中餐 food 食物dinner 正餐 一天中最丰盛的那顿饭, 可能是中餐, 也可能是晚餐, 但决不会是早餐. meal 一顿饭Lesson 3 Please Send Me a Card 【New words and expressions】(11)send v. 寄,送postcard n. 明信片spoil v. 使索然无味,损坏museum n. 博物馆public adj. 公共的friendly adj. 友好的waiter n. 服务员,招待员lend v. 借给decision n. 决定whole adj. 整个的single adj. 唯一的,单一的★send v. 寄, 送send a letter 寄信send sth. to sb. /send sb. sth. 给某人送(寄)什么东西send/take children to school:take强调某人亲自送;send则是通过第三人去送, 如美国的校车 take flowers to his wife 自己送send flowers to his wife 叫店里的人送★postcard n. 明信片两个爆破音在一起,前者失去爆破音。这里/t/和/k/前者失去爆破音name card /visiting card 名片Here is my name card. (口语常用, 同时伴随着递出的动作)ID card 身份证 (ID 身份)credit card 信用卡cash card 现金卡, 储蓄卡, 工资卡(不能透支的那种)★spoil(spoiled,spoilt) v. 使索然无味, 损坏① vt. 弄坏,损坏,糟蹋The sad news spoiled our weekend. 这不幸的消息使我们没能过好周末。The rain spoiled the school sports. 这场雨把学校运动会弄得一团糟。This spoiled my day.What you said spoiled me.His arrival spoiled my holiday.② vt. 宠坏,惯坏,溺爱Don’t spoil your children. 不能太惯孩子。His parents spoiled the boy.spoil: 把东西的质量变得不好; 生活中不顺心的事;宠坏, 溺爱break: 打破; break the windows 打破玻璃damage: 破坏, 程度不一定很重destroy : 破坏, 彻底摧毁以上三个是指物理上的破坏, 而spoil主要指精神上的★museum n. 博物馆Palace Museum 故宫★public adj. 公共的① adj. 公共的,公众的,社会的There is a public library in this town.I always sit in public gardens on Sundays.② adj. 公开的,众人皆知的Their secret meeting was made public 20 years later. 他们的秘密会晤20年以后才被公开。public house(酒吧)简称pub public place 公共场所in public 公开的;in private 私下里的Let’s have a conversation in private. 让我们私下谈谈?Why not have a conversation in public? 为什么不公开谈呢?(当面说呢?)③ n. 公众,群众,大众The public is/are pleased with his explanation. 公众对他的解释很满意。The museum is open to the public on Sunday.★friendly adj. 友好的friendly是形容词,单独使用时一般做定语;作为状语表示这个人做什么事情很友好, 用短语in a friendly wayHe is not very friendly to John.She gave me a friendly greeting.He always greets me in a friendly way.以-ly结尾的形容词还有lovely,brotherly,fatherly,manly,motherly★waiter n. 服务员, 招待员waiter(男服务员), waitress(女服务员), 只出现在餐馆里chief waiter 领班 I want to see the chief waiter. 我要见你们的领班。shop assistant 商店里的店员attendant n. (其他公共场所的)服务员★lend v. 借给 lend to(借出):lend sth. to sb/lend sb. sth. Can you lend me $20 please? I’ll pay/give it back tomorrow.borrow from(借进):borrow sth. from sb./borrow sth. (borrow不能用 borrow sb sth.) He borrowed my pen yesterday. He hasn’t given me it yet.★decision n. 决定make /take a decision作出决定It was not easy for me to make/take this decision.Are you made/taken a decision?make a big/great decision (big:重大;great:伟大, 更重大)decide v. 决定★whole adj. 整个的a whole bottle of milk 一整瓶牛奶the whole…,the whole day 整天 ,two whole weeks 整整两星期all th…,all the day (the可省略) 整天all of后面如果加代词, 代词前面不需要修饰词;一旦要加名词, 前面一定要加theall of us;all of the students★single adj. 唯一的, 单一的反义词 : double 双倍的【Text】Postcards always spoil my holidays. Last summer, I went to Italy. I visited museums and sat in public gardens. A friendly waiter taught me a few words of Italian. Then he lent me a book. I read a few lines, but I did not understand a word. Everyday I thought about postcards. My holidays passed quickly, but I did not send cards to my friends. On the last day I made a big decision. I got up early and bought thirty-seven cards. I spent the whole day in my room, but I did not write a single card!参考译文:明信片总搅得我假日不得安宁. 去年夏天, 我去了意大利. 我参观了博物馆, 还去了公园. 一位好客的服务员教了我几句意大利语, 之后还借给我一本书. 我读了几行, 但一个字也不懂. 我每天都想着明信片的事. 假期过得真快, 可我还没有给我的朋友们寄过一张明信片. 到了最后一天, 我作出了一项重大决定. 我早早起了床, 买来了37张明信片. 我在房间里关了整整一天. 然而竟连一张明信片也没写成!【课文讲解】1、Last summer, I went to Italy.last:① adj. 上一个last summer里的last表示 “上一个” ② adj. 最后一个,表示“最后一个”时要加冠词thethe last day 最后一天 (具体到一天及一天的早中晚都要用on)2、A friendly waiter taught me a few words of Italian.Italian[i5tAljEn]于Italy[5itEli] : 注意重读音的位置不同teach sb. sth. 教某人做某事He teaches our English.(错)He teaches us English.(对)语言不可数, 所以要用a little Italian或a few words of ItalianI can speak a little English/a few words of English.a few可与复数可数名词连用,表示肯定,含有some,a small number of(一些,少数几个)的意思。The police would like to ask him a few questions. 警察要问他一些问题。 3、Everyday I thought about postcards. think about/of 考虑, 思考,指某一段时间一直在想/考虑某事, think of还可指想到What do you think of?What do you think of TV program last night?What do you think of the weather today? 你觉得天气怎么样?think over 仔细考虑,反复思考What’s the weather like today?cold, chilly(非常非常冷), freezeI'll freeze.我要冻僵了4、I spent the whole day in my room, but I did not write a single card!spend与表示时间的词或短语连和时,意思为“花(时间)”、“度过”spend+时间+地点 : 在什么地点我花费/度过了多少时间I spend three hours in the sea.I spend my weekend at my mother's.I spend three hours in the classroom everyday.I spend a lot of time in traffic jam.(交通堵塞)spend还可以表示“花钱”If we spend all the money, we’ll be poor again.I can’t spend any more on this car. 【Key structures】 一般过去时一般过去时通常表示过去发生的而现在已经结束的事件、动作或情况。它通常指动作何时发生,而不指动作持续多久。Do you ever catch a cold in the winter?Yes, I caught a cold last winter.【Special Difficulties】 直接宾语与间接宾语双宾语:直接宾语(表示动作结果,动作所涉及的事物)和间接宾语(动作目标,动作是谁做的或为谁做的,通常是人)。间接宾语大多数情况下置于直接宾语之前,如果间接宾语在后,间接宾主前必须加“to”(表示动作对什么人做)或“for”(表示动作为什么人而做)。give sb. sth./give sth to sb间接宾语在后面时, 其前必须加to(对……而言)或for(为……而做)。可以翻译为“给”、“替”、“为”的,就用for;如果只能翻译为“给”的, 就用to与to相连的give, take, pass, read, sell, buy,pay,hand,bring,show,promise,offer,owetake flowers to my wife.与for相连的 buy, order, make, findI buy a book for you .make a cake for youfind sth. for sb.do sb. a favor 帮某人一个忙Do me a favor please./Do a favor for me? 帮我一个忙I do something for you.Can I order something for you?Can I buy you a bottle of beer ? 意为我请你喝杯酒的意思 【Multiple choice questions】4  ___a___ him a few words of Italian? The waiter.a. Who taught b. Who did teach c. What did he teach d. Whom did he teach人做主语提问——who 对宾语提问——whomwho既可以对主语提问也可以对宾语提问, 而whom只能对宾语提问如果对主语提问, 则句子的语序和陈述句语序一样;如果对非主语来提问, 则句子要使用特殊疑问词+一般疑问句的语序Who/Whom did the waiter teach a few words of Italian?5  He was a friendly waiter. He spoke to the writer ___d___ .a. friend b. as friends c. like friends d. in a friendly wayHe spoke to the writer like a friend.in...way :以...方式作为状语表示这个人做什么事情很友好, 用短语in a friendly way7  He spent the whole day in his room. He was in his room ___c___ day.a. the hole b. the all c. all d. all ofall (the) day all of 后面如果加代词, 代词前面不需要修饰词all of us;一旦要加名词, 前面一定要加theall of the friends all of my friends all of the students10  On the last day he made a big decision. It was the ___a___ day of his holiday.a. final b. end c. latest d. bottomfinal——形容词 end——名词/动词 latest——形容词 bottom——名词 latest adj. 最新的 latest news;latest style 新款11  He made a big decision. He ___b___ .a. thought about it b. made up his mind c. changed his mind d. made a wishthink about:考虑、思考、想 make up one's mind:下定决心change one's mind:改变主意 make a wish : 许个心愿, 愿望, 许愿Lesson 4 An exciting trip 【New words and expressions】(6) exciting adj. 令人兴奋的receive v. 接受,收到firm n. 商行,公司different adj. 不同的centre n. 中心abroad adv. 在国外★exciting adj. 令人兴奋的exciting adj. 令人兴奋的;excited adj. 兴奋的-ed: 自己感到 / -ing:令人感到The news exciting.exciting boy 令人兴奋的男孩I am excited.excite v. 激动(这类动词的宾语一定是人,让后面的人感到……)The news excited me.interesting adj. 令人感到有趣的;interested adj. 感到有意思的interesting manThe man is interesting.interest v. 对……感兴趣The book interests me. 那本书让我感到很有趣★receive v. 接受, 收到① vt. 接到,收到,得到When did you receive that letter?② vt. 招待,接待You need a large room if you are going to receive so many guests.receive是“收到”,指的是一个被动的动作,主观上接受与否不清楚。receive/have a letter from sb.accept 同意接收This morning I received a bunch of flowers from a boy,but I didn't accept it.take则是主动的“拿”、“取”I received a beautiful pen from my uncle. My brother took it from me yesterday.take 也可以作收到 take the exam 接受考试; take advice 接受建议★firm n. 商行, 公司company n. 公司★different adj. 不同的① adj. 不同的,相异的(经常与from连用)We are planning something different this year. 我们今年有不同的打算。My room is different from yours.② adj. 各种各样的,不同的This department store sells a large number of different things.这家百货商店出售许多各种各样的东西。He has visited many different places in China. 他去过中国的不少地方。★abroad adv. 在国外(副词, 直接和动词连用)go abroad 去国外live abroad 国外定居study abroad 国外学习【Text】I have just received a letter from my brother, Tim. He is in Australia. He has been there for six months. Tim is an engineer. He is working for a big firm and he has already visited a great number of different places in Australia. He has just bought an Australian car and has gone to Alice springs, a small town in the centre of Australia. He will soon visit Darwin. From there, he will fly to Perth. My brother has never been abroad before, so he is finding this trip very exciting.参考译文 我刚刚收到弟弟蒂姆的来信, 他正在澳大利亚. 他在那儿已经住了6个月了. 蒂姆是个工程师, 正在一家大公司工作, 并且已经去过澳大利亚的不少地方了. 他刚买了一辆澳大利亚小汽车, 现在去了澳大利亚中部的小镇艾利斯斯普林斯. 他不久还将到达达尔文去, 从那里, 他再飞往珀斯. 我弟弟以前从未出过国, 因此, 他觉得这次旅行非常激动人心. 【课文讲解】1、I have just received a letter from my brother, Tim.同位语:一个名词(或短语等)与另一个名词(或短语)并列而作为其说明或限定成分时称为同位语。同位语与它所补充说明的成分之间用逗号隔开。在译成汉语时,同位语或者插入主句中,或者另译为一句,很少像英语中那样用逗号隔开。This is John, one of my best friends. 这位是约翰。他是我最好的朋友之一。Mrs. Smith, my neighbore, has never been abroad. 我的邻居史密斯夫人从来没有出过国。2、He has been there for six months.one month[mQnW];two months[mQnWs] 注意读音 将/W/省略I have arrived in Beijing. (arrive 是瞬间动词不能和段时间连用)has been + in 地点He has been in Beijing for one year.He has been in America for tow years.3、He is working for a big firm and he has already visited a great number of different places in Australia.work for 在……上班/任职,强调workI am working for a school.work in 强调地点(在哪个地方上班)  I am working in the New Oriental school.work at 上班 She works at a department store.a number of后面一定要加可数名词复数;通常number前有great,large,good,small,certain等形容词,数量大小也随之改变。a great number of 类似于, 约等于a lot of;A large/great number of our students are Danish.There are a small number of spelling mistakes in your homework.a lot of 可加可数名词也可加不可数名词I have a lot of friendsI have a great number of friends.4、He has just bought an Australian car and has gone to Alice springs, a small town in the centre of Australia. has gone to 去了某地没回来has been to 曾经去过某地, 现在不在那个地方Have you been to Paris?5、From there, he will fly to Perth.from there:从那地方起from 即可以加时间又可以加地点from half past 8 to half past 11from Beijing to Tianjingfly to Perth = go to Perth by air6、My brother has never been abroad before, so he is fending this trip very exciting.before在句子后是副词, 译为“在此之前”,是现在完成时态的标志find作“发现”、“发觉”讲时宾语往往带补足语(一般为形容词),说明宾语的状况、性质等。find +宾语+形容词做宾补   find the room cleanfind her happybe finding在口语中经常使用 I'm finding... . . We’re finding... ... 下面表示状态、感觉、情绪、精神活动的动词不可用于进行时:
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