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2019版高考英语一轮复习(课标1卷B版)教师用书:专题一 名词、代词、冠词 PDF版含答案.pdf

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2019版高考英语一轮复习课标1卷B版教师用书专题一 名词、代词、冠词 PDF版含答案 2019 高考 英语 一轮 复习 课标 教师 专题 名词 代词 冠词 PDF 答案
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专题一 名词、代词、冠词1 第一部分 语法知识 专题一 名词、代词、冠词 对应学生用书起始页码P2 知识网络清单 名词 分类普通名词 可数名词个体名词:dog,chair,child,woman等集体名词:class,family,people等{ 不可数名词物质名词:water,tea,oil,air等抽象名词:attention,love,pride,fun等{ ì î í ïï ïï 专有名词:America,China,John等 ì î í ï ïï ï ïï 单数名词变复数名词的常用规则 ★ ★ ★ 名词所有格 􀆳s 有生命的人或物的所有格:Tom and Helen􀆳s parents 表示时间、自然现象、度量衡、金额、国家或城市的名词的所有格: two years􀆳 time,an hour􀆳s ride (★ ★ ★ )􀆳s所有格的构成规则 ì î í ïï ïï of一般用于表示无生命的东西的所有格:the window of the house 双重所有格:表示其中之一或其中一部分,突出局部: a friend of Tom􀆳s, any work of Mo Yan􀆳s ì î í ï ï ïï ï ï ïï 名词句法功能 作主语:Mr. Smith was born in Canada. 作宾语:Johnson is reading a novel in his study. 作表语:She is a lovely girl. 作定语:She is a football player. 作补语:Everyone elected him monitor. ì î í ï ïï ï ïï 名词构词法(构成名词的后缀) ì î í ï ï ï ï ï ï ï ï ï ï ï ïï ï ï ï ï ï ï ï ï ï ï ï ïï 2 5年高考3年模拟 B版(教师用书) 代词 人称代词 ★ ★ ★主格(I,you,he,she,it,we,they)在句中作主语 宾格(me,you,him,her,it,us,them)在句中作宾语、表语{ 物主代词 ★ ★ ★形容词性物主代词(my,your,his,her,its,our,their)在名词前作定语 名词性物主代词(mine,yours,his,hers,its,ours,theirs) 相当于“形容词性物主代词+名词”,在句中作主语、宾语、表语{ 反身代词 ★ 形式:myself,yourself,himself,herself,itself,ourselves,yourselves,themselves 用法:宾语、表语、同位语 含有反身代词的习惯用语 You will have to see if he has gone to school for yourself.(亲自) The computer may shut off by itself.(自动地) I􀆳d like to have a room to myself.(独自享用) I can􀆳t finish my work by myself.(独立地) Seat yourself,please.请坐。 Enjoy yourself.玩得高兴。 ì î í ï ï ïï ï ï ï ì î í ï ï ï ïï ï ï ï ïï 指示代词(this,that,those,these)作主语、宾语、表语、定语 相互代词(each other,one another)作宾语 疑问代词 ★ who,whom,whose 词义用法 who谁作主语、宾语、表语 whom谁作宾语 whose谁的作主语、宾语、表语、定语 what,which 相同处不同处 均可就人或物提问;均可置于名 词前作定语 which一般用于有选择范围的情况,what用 于无选择范围或选择范围不清楚的情况 what和who的区别:what用来询问职业;who用来询问身份 what的习惯用法 ì î í ï ï ï ï ï ïï ï ï ï ï ï ïï 不定代词 ★ ★ ★ 1.both,all,either,any,neither,none 2.one,another,the other,some,others,the others 3.no one/ nobody,nothing,none 4.many,much,few,little,a few,a little 5.替代词:one,ones,the one,the ones,that,those 6.含复合不定代词的习惯用语(nothing but,anything but等) 7.全部肯定,全部否定,部分否定 ì î í ï ï ïï ï ï ïï it的用法 ★ ★ ★ 连接代词(详见名词性从句):Who can tell what will happen in the future? ★ ★ ★ 关系代词(详见定语从句):He who laughs last laughs best. ★ ★ ★ ì î í ï ï ï ï ï ï ï ï ï ï ï ï ï ï ï ï ï ï ï ï ï ï ï ï ïï ï ï ï ï ï ï ï ï ï ï ï ï ï ï ï ï ï ï ï ï ï ï ï ï ï 专题一 名词、代词、冠词3 冠词 冠词的泛指、特指 ★ ★ ★ 不定冠词的用法 ★ ★ ★不定冠词的基本用法 不定冠词的习惯用法{ 定冠词的用法 ★ ★ ★定冠词的基本用法 定冠词的习惯用法{ 零冠词的用法 ★ ★ ★零冠词的基本用法 零冠词的习惯用法{ 冠词的活用 ★ 抽象、物质名词的具体化 surprise惊奇 a surprise一件意外的事 success成功 a success一个/件成功的人或事 rain雨 a heavy rain一场大雨{ 具体名词的抽象化go to a school去一所学校 go to school去上学at a table在桌旁 at table在吃饭{ 纯专有名词的普通化 He is a Lei Feng.他是一个活雷锋。 A Mr. Smith is waiting for you outside. 一个叫史密斯的先生正在外面等你。{ 世界上独一无二的事物的名词前冠词的活用 The moon travels around the earth. 月亮围着地球转。 A new moon is hanging in the sky. 一轮新月悬挂在天空中。 ì î í ïï ïï (★ )形容词比较级前冠词的活用 Tom is the taller of the two boys.(两者中较… …的) This pair of shoes is too small.Would you show me a larger pair? (更… …的){ ì î í ï ï ï ï ï ï ï ï ïï ï ï ï ï ï ï ï ï ïï 冠词的活用 ★ most前冠词的活用 It is the most useful dictionary. 它是最有用的字典。 (表示三者或三者以上中最… …的) It is a most useful dictionary.(a very) 它是一本非常有用的字典。 ì î í ïï ïï 序数词前冠词的活用 It is the second time that he has visited the city. 这是他第二次参观这个城市。 (表示次序) Can you give me a second chance? 你能再给我一次机会吗? (又一,再一) ì î í ïï ïï 乐器名词前冠词的活用 He is playing the piano.(西洋乐器前加the) He is playing a borrowed piano. (西洋乐器被当作普通名词使用时,可与不定冠词连用) He likes to play erhu.(中国乐器前不加冠词) ì î í ïï ïï ì î í ï ï ï ï ï ï ïï ï ï ï ï ï ï ï word, man前的冠词活用 For a long time they walked without saying a word and Jim was the first to break the silence. (word作“单词,话”讲,为普通名词,根据需要与相应的不定冠词连用) Word came that I was needed at home. (word作“消息,信息”讲,与零冠词连用) He is a difficult man to deal with. (man作“男人,人”讲,为普通名词,根据需要与相应的不定冠词连用) Some people think man can conquer nature.(man作“人类”讲,需与零冠词连用) ì î í ï ï ïï ï ï ïï ì î í ï ï ï ï ï ï ï ï ï ï ï ï ï ï ï ï ï ï ï ï ï ï ï ï ï ï ïï ï ï ï ï ï ï ï ï ï ï ï ï ï ï ï ï ï ï ï ï ï ï ï ï ï ï ïï 4 5年高考3年模拟 B版(教师用书) 高频考点清单 考点一 名词 一、可数名词单数变复数的规则 1.规则变化 规则例词 一般情况下,在词尾直接加⁃s book— books cap— capstree— trees 以⁃s,⁃x,⁃ch,⁃sh结尾的名词, 在词尾加⁃es glass— glasses box— boxes watch— watches brush— brushes 以辅音字母加⁃y结尾的名词, 把⁃y改为⁃i,再加⁃es story— stories country— countries 以⁃o结尾的名词变为复数时, 常在词尾加⁃s,但有些名词要 加⁃es,它们是:黑人英雄∙ ∙ ∙ ∙爱吃 土豆∙ ∙ 、西红柿∙ ∙ ∙ Negro— Negroes hero— heroes potato— potatoes tomato— tomatoes radio— radios photo— photos 以⁃f或⁃fe结尾的名词变为复 数时,一般直接加⁃s,但有些 以⁃f或⁃fe结尾的名词需把f 或fe去掉,加⁃ves,它们是:为 了自己∙ ∙活命∙ ,小偷∙ ∙和他的妻子∙ ∙ 手里拿着刀子∙ ∙和一片树叶∙ ∙ ∙ ∙站 在架子∙ ∙上,把狼∙劈成两半∙ self— selves life— lives thief— thieves wife— wives knife— knives loaf— loaves leaf— leaves shelf— shelves wolf— wolves half— halves 合成名词变复数时,通常只将 里面所含的主体名词变为复 数,如果没有主体名词,则将 最后一部分变为复数 son⁃in⁃law— sons⁃in⁃law storyteller— storytellers “man/ woman+ n.”变复数时, 作定语的man/ woman和中心 词都要变复数 man teacher— men teachers woman engineer— women engineers 2.不规则变化 内容例词 单复数 不同形 的名词 foot— feet脚 man— men男人 woman— women女人 mouse— mice老鼠 tooth— teeth牙 goose— geese鹅 gentleman— gentlemen绅士 child— children孩子 ox— oxen公牛 单复数 同形的 名词 sheep绵羊 deer鹿 spacecraft太空船 aircraft飞行 器 Chinese中国人 Japanese日本人 Swiss瑞士人 means方法 crossroads十字路口 headquarters总部 series连续 species种类 works工厂 head头,只 外来名 词的复 数形式 criterion— criteria标准 curriculum— curricula/ curriculums全部课程 phenomenon— phenomena现象 analysis— analyses分析 basis— bases基础 crisis— crises危机 thesis— theses论文 diagnosis— diagnoses诊断 bacterium— bacteria细菌 medium— media媒体 datum— data数据 注意:1.fish的“数” 用法图解例句 fish作“鱼肉” 讲时为不可 数名词 I like to eat fish.我喜欢 吃鱼。 fish指“鱼的 条数”时,单 数和复数同 形,即fish There are 2 fish in the fish tank.鱼缸里有两条鱼。 fish指“鱼的 种类”时,其 复数形式 是fishes There are 2 fishes in this fish tank.这个鱼缸里有 两种鱼。 2.penny的复数形式 用法图解例句 pennies 主要用 来指1 便士的 硬币数2 pennies Give me five pennies for this five⁃pence.请把这枚 5便士硬币换成5枚1便 士硬币。 pence主 要用于 数词后 构成复 合词或 用来谈 论价值2 pence A hundred pence make one pound.100便士为1 英镑。 Potatoes are 20 pence a pound.土豆20 便士一磅。 3.hair的“数” 用法图解例句 指头发 的总称 时为不 可数名词 Go and get your hair cut. 去理发吧。 There is a red rose in her hair.她头发上有一朵红 玫瑰。 复数形 式指几 根头发 There are hairs on your shirt.你的衬衫上有几根 头发。 He had a few white hairs. 他有几根白头发。 4.people指“人”时是person的一种复数形式,指“民族” 时其复数形式为peoples。 one person一个人 two people两个人 a people一个民族two peoples两个民族 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 专题一 名词、代词、冠词5 用所给词的适当形式填空 ① Two months (month) ago,three Negroes (Negro), who were all heroes ( hero), caught four thieves ( thief) because they had stolen some potatoes ( potato) and some bamboos from 2 zoos (zoo),where 500 sheep (sheep),200 deer (deer),100 oxen (ox)and 1,000 geese (goose)were raised. 二、名词所有格加⁃􀆳s词尾的规则 构成举例 单数名词和不以⁃s结尾的复 数名词通常在词尾加“⁃􀆳s” the boy􀆳s bag那个男孩的书包 the children􀆳s rooms那些孩子们 的房间 以⁃s结尾的复数名词,只在词 尾加“⁃􀆳” the workers􀆳 struggle工人们的 斗争 在复合名词中,在最后一个词 的词尾加“⁃􀆳s” her brother⁃in⁃law􀆳s character她 姐夫的性格 不定代词后加else,在else后 加“⁃􀆳s” somebody else􀆳s possessions别人 的财产 用所给词的适当形式填空 ② The girls􀆳 (girl)shoes were covered with mud,so I asked them to take them off before they got into Tom􀆳s (Tom) car. ③ Yesterday I was invited to the dinner at the Turners􀆳 (Turner). 三、名词构词法(构成名词的后缀) 后缀例词 ⁃ence exist— existence存在 ⁃ance accept— acceptance接受 ⁃tion produce— production生产 ⁃sion express— expression表达 ⁃ment develop— development发展 ⁃ness blind— blindness盲目 ⁃age marry— marriage婚姻 ⁃th warm— warmth温暖 ⁃ure please— pleasure快乐depart— departure离开 ⁃dom wise— wisdom智慧 用所给词的适当形式填空 ④ The expression (express)in her eyes told me something was wrong. ⑤ Due to the application ( apply ) of this medical technology, some diseases can be treated at an early stage. ⑥ She was unable to attend because of the pressure (press) of work. ⑦ Curiosity (curious) is part of children􀆳s nature. They always insist on getting to the bottom of everything. ⑧ — How can I take the medicine,sir? — Just follow the directions (direct) on the bottle. 考点二 代词 一、人称代词 1.人称代词形式 数、格 人称 单数复数 主格宾格主格宾格 第一人称I me we us 第二人称you you you you 第三人称 he him she her it it they them 2.人称代词用法 用法例句 人称代词的主格作 主语;人称代词的宾 格可作及物动词或 介词的宾语,也可作 表语 He would drown his sadness in coffee.(主格 作主语) Thank you for your letter.(宾格作及物动 词的宾语) I bought a present for him.(宾格作介词的 宾语) Hi, it􀆳s me.(宾格作表语) 在没有谓语动词的 句子中,人称代词常 用宾格 — Glad to meet you. — Me, too. 用人称代词填空 ① — Jim,can you work this Sunday? — Why me ? I􀆳ve been working for two weeks on end. ② On my desk is a photo that my father took of me when I was a baby. 二、物主代词 1.物主代词形式 意思 类别 我的你的他的她的它的我们的你们的他们的 形容 词性my your his her its our your their 名词性mine yours his hers its ours yours theirs 2.物主代词用法 用法例句 形容词性物主代词相当 于形容词。置于名词之 前,作定语 Is this your seat,sir? 这是你的座位吗,先生? 名词性物主代词相当于 “形容词性物主代词+名 词”,在句中作主语、表 语、宾语 This is not my dictionary. Mine is lent to Lucy.(作主语) 这不是我的词典。我的借给 Lucy了。 This camera is mine and that is yours. (作表语) 这部照相机是我的,那部是你的。 Every person showed his ticket,and I showed mine too.(作宾语) 每个人都出示了票,我也出示了我的。 用物主代词填空 ③ — Tom, my (I)bike is broken. Would you please lend yours (you)to me? 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 6 5年高考3年模拟 B版(教师用书) — Sorry. Mine (I)has been taken by Jack. You can ask him if you like. ④ This is our room,and yours (you)is just across the hall. 三、反身代词 1.反身代词形式 人称 数 第一人称第二人称第三人称 单数myself yourself himself,herself,itself 复数ourselves yourselves themselves 2.反身代词的基本用法 反 身 代 词 作宾语 动宾:Tom taught himself Chinese. 汤姆自学了汉语。 介宾:You can􀆳t leave the baby by himself. 你不能留下孩子一个人。 { 作表语:She is not quite herself today. 她今天不在状态。 作同位语:I myself can repair the bike. 我自己能修那辆自行车。 ì î í ï ïï ï ïï 用反身代词填空 ⑤ I don􀆳t believe you.Did you see it yourself ? ⑥ It is not his fault.I cut myself with a knife. ⑦ We should be independent of our parents. We should depend on ourselves . 四、疑问代词what的习惯用法 用法例句 What... for?和What for? 用于询问原因和目的 — W hat did you put it into the soup for? — — —你为什么把它放 到汤里去? — It would improve the taste. — — —那会使汤的味道更好。 — I􀆳m going to the grocery store. — — —我打算去食品杂货店。 — W hat for? We still have enough food in the fridge. 为什么?我们的冰箱里还有足够 的食物。 What if...?表示假设、建议、 征求意见或疑虑 W hat if it rains while we are on the way?要是我们在途中时天下雨 怎么办? What do you mean ( by...)? 表示愤怒、不满等情绪 W hat do you mean by shutting the door so loudly?你关门这么大声 音是什么意思? What/ How about...?用于征 求对方意见、询问对方的 情况 — We need one more player. — — —我们还需要一个队员。 — W hat about Elaine? She is a very nice girl.— — — Elaine怎么样? 她是个很不错的姑娘。 So what?那又怎么样呢? (表示不感兴趣或认为不重 要) — He took the first place in the exam!他考试得了第一名! — So what?那又怎么样? Guess what?你猜怎么着? (用以引起他人的注意) Guess what? John got married to Alice.你猜怎么着?约翰和艾丽 斯结婚了。 续表 用法例句 Like what?比如说? — I hope you will buy me a special gift for my birthday.— — —我希望你 为我买一份特殊的生日礼物。 — Like what? — — —比如说? 注意what与下列黑体名词的搭配。 What is the population of China?中国人口是多少? the distance?距离有多远? the price?价格是多少? your address?你住在哪里? your attitude?你的态度怎样? the height/ weight/ depth/ length/ width/ size? 高度/重量/深度/长度/宽度/大小是多少? ì î í ï ï ïï ï ï ï 五、不定代词 1.both,all,either,any,neither,none的区别 词义 指代 都任何一个都不 两个人或物both either neither 三个或三个以上的人 或物;不可数名词all any none I􀆳ve bought two books;you can have either. 我买了两本书,你要哪本都行。 I am sorry I can􀆳t lend you any(money). 对不起,我不能借给你钱。 None of this money is mine. 这笔钱都不是我的。 用适当的代词填空 ⑧ He had lost his temper and his health in the war and never found either of them again. ⑨ The research group produced two reports based on the survey,but neither contained any useful suggestions. 2.one,another,the other,some,others,the others的区别 一个/一些另外一个/一些剩余的一个/一些 单数one another the other 复数some others the others 一本/一些书另外一本/一些书剩余的一本/一些书 单数one book another book the other book 复数some books other books the other books 注意: (1)the other后通常加可数名词(单数或复数),但不能 加不可数名词;短语the rest of(剩余的)后既可以加可数名词 (单数或复数),也可以加不可数名词;else一般放在不定代 词或特殊疑问词后。 — What else did you do last weekend? — Oh,nothing else. — — —上周末你还做什么了? — — —哦,没做什么别的事。 (2)体会下列句子中黑体词的用法 ① I have two books:one is English,and the other(one)one{ }is French. 我有两本书:一本是英语书,一本是法语书。 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 专题一 名词、代词、冠词7 ② He will stay here for another three three other three more { }days. 他在这里还要待上3天。 ③ There are many books on the table:some are English; the others the rest{ }are French. 桌子上有很多书。一些是英语书,剩下的是法语书。 ④ He􀆳ll be in a wheelchair for the rest of his life. 他的余生将在轮椅上度过。 ⑤ Would you please make it some other dayanother day{ }? 你能改天吗? ⑥ I saw him in London the other day/ week/ month.我那 天/个星期/个月在伦敦见过他。 ⑦ He has no other close friends like John. 他没有别的像约翰那样亲密的朋友了。 ⑧ If this dictionary is not yours,who else􀆳s can it be? 如果这本字典不是你的,会是谁的呢? 用another或the other填空 ⑩ We had a picnic last term and it was a lot of fun,so let􀆳s have another one this month. 􀃊􀁉􀁓 He raised one arm and then the other . 3.nobody/ no one,nothing,none的区别 指代用来回答相当于是否加of短语 nobody / no one人who not anyone not anybody否 nothing物what not anything否 none人或物how manyhow much not a/ an/ any+名词或no+名词是 如:— How much money do you have? — None. — — —你有多少钱? — — —一点儿也没有。 If I had some money, I would lend him some, but unfortunately,I have none.(none=not any money) 如果我有钱的话,我就借给他了,但遗憾的是,我没钱。 I wished someone could help me,but there was no one at the moment.(no one=not anyone) 我希望有人能帮我,但当时没有人。 As we were asleep,none of us heard the sound. 由于我们都睡着了,所以我们当中没人听到那个声音。 用none,nobody/ no one,nothing填空 􀃊􀁉􀁔 Nobody/ No one can be good at something for 40 years if he doesn􀆳t love it. 􀃊􀁉􀁕 Swimming is my favorite sport. There is nothing like swimming as a means of keeping fit. 􀃊􀁉􀁖 — Wow! You􀆳ve got so many clothes. — But none of them are in fashion now. 􀃊􀁉􀁗 I couldn􀆳t just stand by and do nothing . 4.many,much,few,little,a few,a little的区别 多少 复数名词概念many few 不可数名词概念much little 肯定否定 复数名词概念a few few 不可数名词概念a little little 注意:only a few = few;only a little = little;quite a few = many;quite a little=much。 用many,much,few,little,a few,a little完成下列 句子 􀃊􀁉􀁘 Many (很多)people don􀆳t have much (很多)food. 􀃊􀁉􀁙 Many (很多) of the mistakes were just caused by carelessness. 􀃊􀁉􀁚 Few (很少)people can live to be 100 years old. 􀃊􀁉􀁛 You have done very little (很少)for me. 􀃊􀁊􀁒 Come in and have a little (一点)whisky. 􀃊􀁊􀁓 She has written many books but I􀆳ve only read a few (少 数). 5.one,ones,the one,the ones,those,that的区别 不定代词替代内容例句 one a/ an +单数名词 We have various summer camps for your holiday.You can choose one ( = a summer camp)based on your own interest.我们为您 的假期提供了各种各样的夏令营,您可以 根据自己的兴趣选择一种。 ones零冠词+复数名词 Mr􀆰 Zhang gave me many valuable presents, ones( =presents)that I had never seen.张 先生给了我很多珍贵的礼物,都是一些我 从来没见过的礼物。 the one the+单数名词 The book on the desk is better than the one/ that( =the book)under the desk.书桌上的 那本书比书桌下的那本书好。 the ones the+复数名词 those the +复数 名词(尤 其是有后 置定语时) The books on the desk are better than the ones/ those( =the books)under the desk.书 桌上的那些书比书桌下的那些书好。 that the+单数 名词或不 可数名词 (尤其是 有后置定 语时) Little joy can equal that ( = the joy) of a surprising ending when you read stories.几 乎没有什么乐趣能比得上在阅读故事时 读到一个出乎意料的结局时的乐趣。 用适当的代词填空 􀃊􀁊􀁔 I􀆳m moving to the countryside, because the air there is much fresher than that in the city. 􀃊􀁊􀁕 Helping others is a habit, one you can learn even at an early age. 6.含复合不定代词的习惯用语 He is nothing but a clerk.他只是∙ ∙一名职员。 He is anything but a clerk.他根本不是∙ ∙ ∙ ∙一名职员。 He might be a scientist or something. 他大概是科学家之类∙ ∙的人物。 Your house is something like ours. 你们的房子有点像∙ ∙ ∙我们的。 They get something like 97% renewals every year. 他们每年大约∙ ∙有97%的用户续订。 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 8 5年高考3年模拟 B版(教师用书) 用anything,nothing填空 􀃊􀁊􀁖 She􀆳s always trying to get something for nothing . 􀃊􀁊􀁗 They work very hard.They are anything but lazybones. 􀃊􀁊􀁘 The visit is boring.It is nothing but a waste of time. 7.全部肯定、部分否定和全部否定 全部肯定部分否定全部否定 both all(+名词) everybody/ every one;everything; every+名词 当not出现在含 有表示全部肯 定的不定代词 的句子中时 neither none;not any(+名词);no+名词 no one/ nobody;nothing Not all of them smoke.=All of them don􀆳t smoke. 他们当中不是所有的人都抽烟。 All of the boys are clever,but none of them can work out this problem.这些男孩都很聪明,但他们当中没有一个能解出 这道题。 此外,not与总括性副词如everywhere, always, wholly, altogether等连用时也表示部分否定。 Such a thing can􀆳t be found everywhere. 这种事并非到处可见。 六、it的用法 1.it的指代用法 用法例句 指代上文提到的 某样东西 Where is my dictionary? I left it right on the desk. 我的字典在哪里?我就把它放在书桌上了。 用以代替指示代 词this,that — What􀆳s this? — — —这是什么? — It􀆳s a flag.— — —是一面旗。 指不知性别的婴 儿(baby)或身份 不明确的人(由于 某种原因而不知 道对方是谁) The baby cried because it was hungry.这个婴 儿因饥饿而啼哭。 — Who is knocking at the door? — It must be the milkman. — — —谁在敲门? — — —一定是送奶工。 指时间、距离、价 值、天气、气候或 温度 It is nine o􀆳clock sharp now.现在是9点整。 It is raining hard outside.外面雨下得正大。 It is a long way to the factory.到工厂有很长 一段路。 it常用来代替不 定式、动名词短语 或名词性从句作 形式主语或形式 宾语而将真正的 主语或宾语后置 It􀆳s not easy to learn a foreign language.学习 一门外语不容易。 (代替不定式短语作形式 主语) I have made it clear that nobody is allowed to smoke here.我已经讲得很清楚了,任何人都不准 在这儿吸烟。 (代替名词性从句作形式宾语) 用it作形式主语或形式宾语补全下列句子 􀃊􀁊􀁙我认为我们开这个会是必要的。 I think it(is)necessary that we have the meeting. 􀃊􀁊􀁚众所周知,在世界上中国人口最多。 It is well known that China has the largest population in the world. 􀃊􀁊􀁛据说他们都去看电影了。 It is said that all of them have gone to the cinema. 2.熟记下列有关it的固定结构 I take it that you don􀆳t agree with me. 我的理解是:你不同意我的见解。 I hate it when I have to speak in French on the phone. 不得不用法语打电话,我感到很厌烦。 I like it when she sings me a song. 我喜欢她为我唱歌。 I can􀆳t help it if he is always late. 如果他总是迟到,我也没办法。 I would appreciate it if you can help me. 如果您能帮我,我将不胜感激。 I don􀆳t mind it if you are late. 如果你迟到,我不会介意的。 Please see to it that( make sure that) you bring enough money when you go out. 当你出门时请务必带够钱。 You can count on it that he is very smart. 你就相信吧,他非常聪明。 As someone puts it:Practice makes perfect. 像某人所说的那样:熟能生巧。 You needn􀆳t go if you don􀆳t feel like it. 你如果不愿意去,就不必去了。 W hen it comes to football,he is more excited. 一提到足球,他就更兴奋了。 3.it用于强调句型 分类用法例句 陈述句 It is/ was/ might be +被 强调部分+that/ who+其 他成分。被强调部分 为“人”时可用who/ that,被强调部分是“非 人”时用that It is I who/ that am right.(强调 主语)我是对的。 It was him that/ who we met at the school gate.(强调宾语) 我们在学校门口遇到的是他。 It was in the park that Tom lost his watch.(强调状语)汤姆是 在公园捡到的那块手表。 一般疑 问句 Is/ Was it+被强调部分 +that/ who+其他成分? W as it in 1939 that the Second World War broke out?第二次 世界大战是在1939年爆发 的吗? 特殊疑 问句 特殊疑问词+is/ was it that+其他成分? W ho was it that broke the window?打破窗户的是谁? not... until... It is/ was not until+被强 调部分+that+其他成分 It was not until ten o􀆳clock that he went to bed.直到10点 他才上床睡觉。 根据句子意思填空 􀃊􀁋􀁒 Was it because Jack came late for school that Mr􀆰 Smith got angry? 􀃊􀁋􀁓 It was only after he had read the papers that Mr􀆰 Gross realized the task before him was extremely difficult to complete. 􀃊􀁋􀁔 It was not until I came here that I realized this place was famous for not only its beauty but also its weather. 􀃊􀁋􀁕 It was from only a few supplies that she had bought in the village that the hostess cooked such a nice dinner. 考点三 冠词 一、冠词的泛指、特指 泛指∙ ∙是指首次提到的、不限定的人或事物。特指∙ ∙是指在 上文已提到的人或事物,也可以指说话双方心目中所默认的 特定的人或事物。冠词的泛指、特指用法归纳如下: 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 专题一 名词、代词、冠词9 泛指 a/ an+单数名词。如: A( =One)horse is enough. (表数量) a/ an+单数名词。如:A horse is a large four⁃legged animal.(强调类别中任何一个的特点) the+单数名词。如:I think the most useful animal is the horse.(强调整个类别) 零冠词+复数名词或不可数名词。如: Horses are useful animals.(强调类别中的许多个体) ì î í ï ï ïï ï ï ïï 特指:the+单数名词/复数名词/不可数名词。 ì î í ï ïï ï ï 冠词填空 ① Laszlo Biro invented the ballpoint pen. ② The biggest whale is the blue whale,which grows to be about 29 meters long— the height of a 9⁃story building. 二、不定冠词 1.不定冠词的基本用法 用法例词/句 不定冠词有a,an两种形 式,当紧跟着冠词的第一个 音素为辅音音素∙ ∙ ∙ ∙ (注意:不 是辅音字母∙ ∙ ∙ ∙ )时用a;当紧跟 着冠词的第一个音素为元∙ 音音素∙ ∙ ∙ (注意:不是元音字∙ ∙ ∙ 母∙ )时用an a university,a useful animal, a one⁃eyed dog,a European car,an hour,an honest boy,an X⁃ray, an ugly man,an honor 表示one,the same或every 的意思 They are of an age.( =the same)他 们年龄相同。 I will return in a day or two.( =one) 我将在一两天后回来。 冠词填空 ③ I earn 10 dollars an hour as a supermarket cashier on Saturdays. ④ The teacher asked us to write an 800⁃word⁃long composition. ⑤ Christmas is a special holiday when the whole family are supposed to get together. ⑥ They are twins,so they are of an age. 2.含有不定冠词的常考短语 have a cold得了感冒have a good time玩得高兴 have a gift for有… …的天赋 have a word with与… …谈话 have/ take a rest休息一下 have a holiday度假make a living谋生 get a lift/ ride搭便车go on a diet节食 as a result因此as a matter of fact事实上 as a rule通常,照例after a while一会儿后 in a hurry匆忙地in a sense在某种意义上 in a word总之in a moment立刻 once in a while偶尔at a loss困惑,不知所措 at a distance离一段距离for a while暂时,一时 once upon a time从前all of a sudden突然 a waste of...… …的浪费a matter of...… …的问题 have a population of有… …人口 have a history of有… …的历史 a collection of一批… … a knowledge of( =know)知道 an understanding of( =understand)懂得 注意:通常成对出现的名词(被视为一套),一般只用一 个不定冠词。如:a knife and fork一副刀叉。 冠词填空 ⑦ I don􀆳t want to have words with you.I prefer to have a word with you. ⑧ The power supply was cut off.All of a sudden,the lights went out. ⑨ China has a far larger population than Canada. ⑩ The quality of the ambulance service is a matter of life and death. 三、定冠词 用法例词/句 用在表示特指的人或物的名 词前 The book on the desk is mine.书 桌上的那本书是我的。 用在姓氏复数前,表一家人或 夫妇二人 The Chens are going to move to Langfang.姓陈的一家要搬到廊 坊去。 用在年代、朝代名词及逢十的 数词(表某个年代)前或用在 表示方位的名词前 the Tang dynasty唐朝;the Spring and Autumn Period春秋时期;in the 1990􀆳s/1990s在20世纪90 年代;the south南方/部 用在表度量单位的名词前,表 示“每一”。如by the hour/ day/ week/ month/ year/ dozen/ yard/ ton/ kilo,但是size/ weight/ time这类名词跟by连 用时不加定冠词 We got paid by the month.我们 按月计酬。 Meat is sold by weight.肉按重量 出售。 “the+形容词或分词”有时也 可表类指 the wounded伤员 the dying垂死之人 the unknown未知的事物 the deaf聋人 “动词+sb.+介词+the+身体某 一部位”结构中的the不可用 物主代词代替。此外,在be red in the face(脸红),be lame in the right leg (右腿瘸),be blind in the left eye (左眼失 明)等结构中,名词前也要 用the An apple fell from the tree and hit him on the head.一个苹果从树 上落下,砸在了他的头上。 He was blind in the left eye and lame in the right leg.他左眼失明 右腿瘸。 用于江河湖海、山脉群岛、海 湾海峡等地理名词前 The Yellow River is the cradle of Chinese culture.黄河是中国文化 的摇篮。 The West Lake is famous for its beautiful scenery.西湖以美景 著称。 用于含普通名词的国家、组织 机构、建筑物、报纸杂志、会议 条约等名称前 I shall never forget seeing the Great Wall for the first time.我永 远不会忘记第一次参观长城的 情景。 用在same, very, only前构成 “the same/ only/ very +名词” 结构 He is the very person( = just the person) I am looking for.他正是 我在找的人。 He is the only poet in this country that deserves the name.他是这个 国家唯一的一位名副其实的 诗人。 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 􀪋 10 5年高考3年模拟 B版(教师用书) 续表 用法例词/句 用在某些固定结构中 in the end最后,终于 in the daytime在白天 in the habit of习惯于 make the most/ best of充分利用 in the distance在远处 in the way挡路 on the whole总的来说 on the right/ left在右/左面 at the same time同时 at the moment此刻 for the time being暂时 in the public eye广为人知的 go to the doctor􀆳s去看医生 by the way顺便说,附带地说说 the other day前几天 on the radio/ phone通过无线电/ 电话 on the spot在场,到场,立即,马 上,当场 to tell(you)the truth说实话,老 实说 go to the cinema去看电影 not in the least( =not at all)一点 也不 on the one hand...,on the other hand...一方面… … ,另一方 面… … for the most part通常,多半 冠词填空 􀃊􀁉􀁓 The little boy took the blind man by the arm and walked him across the street. 􀃊􀁉􀁔 Then, the Smiths were listening to the boy who was playing the piano. 􀃊􀁉􀁕 In fact, the Chinese language is the most difficult one in the world. 􀃊􀁉􀁖 I think Tom is the cleverer of the two boys who is the first to solve the problem. 􀃊􀁉􀁗 Marco Polo is said to have sailed on the Pacific Ocean on his way to Java in the thirteenth century. 四、零冠词 用法例句 不可数名词、复数名词表泛 指,用零冠词 He likes to read novels.他喜欢读 小说。 My father went to his doctor for advice about his heart trouble.我 父亲去了医生那里寻求关于他 的心脏病的建议。 名词前已有this, that, my, your,some,each,no,any等限 定时不再用冠词 She is not my type of woman.她不 是我心目中的那类女人。 He went to some place in France. 他到法国某地去了。 Each student must hand in his exercise book.每个学生必须上 交作业本。 续表 用法例句 零冠词的用法口诀 月、季、星期、节假、洲, 称呼、头衔、职务前; 三餐、球类、惯用语; 学科、棋类名词前。 但以上用法是相对而言的,在 不同的句子中,可能会用到不 定冠词或定冠词。因此,用哪 种冠词要视情况而定 A year can be divided into four seasons— spring,summer,autumn and winter.一年可以分为四个季 节— — —春、夏、秋、冬。 Mr􀆰 Li is chairman of the meeting.李先生是本次会议的 主席。 (注:表示称呼、头衔的名词作表 语、同位语、补足语时用零冠词) The organization was founded in the spring of(the year)2010.这个 组织是在2010年春天成立的。 高考中常见的纯不可数名词, 它们是: baggage, luggage, furniture, health, weather, fun, space(太空),advice,progress, information, news, luck, wealth (财产)等。以上不可数名词 不能与不定冠词连用 Beyond the stars,the astronaut saw nothing but space.除了星星,那 个宇航员只看见太空,看不到别 的东西。 系动词turn(变成)后的单数 名词作表语,用零冠词 Has he turned scientist?他成为 科学家了吗? “零冠词+单数名词+as/ though +主语+谓语+主句”,意为“虽 然/尽管… … ,但是… … ” Hero as he is, he has some shortcomings.他虽然是英雄,但 是也有一些缺点。 五、有无冠词的短语的区别 in front of在… … (外部)的前面 in the front of在… … (内部)的前面{ at table吃饭 at the table在桌旁(不一定是吃饭){ by day在白天 by the day按天计算{ take place发生 take the place of代替{ in possession of sth.拥有某物 in the possession of sb.为某人所拥有{ in sight of能看到 in the sight of在… …看
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本文标题:2019版高考英语一轮复习(课标1卷B版)教师用书:专题一 名词、代词、冠词 PDF版含答案.pdf
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