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2019版高考英语一轮复习(课标3卷B版)课件:专题七 语篇型语法填空.ppt

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2019 高考 英语 一轮 复习 课标 课件 专题 语篇型 语法 填空
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五年高考,A组 统一命题·课标卷题组 Passage 1(2018课标全国Ⅲ) 阅读下面短文,在空白处填入1个适当的单词或括号内单词的正确形式。 I'm not sure 1 is more frightened, me or the female gorilla(大猩猩)that suddenly appears out of nowhere. I'm walking on a path in the forest in the Central African Republic. Unexpectedly, I' m face-to-face with the gorilla, who begins screaming at 2 top of her lungs. That makes her ba- by scream, and then a 400-pound male appears. He screams the 3 (loud)of all. The noise shakes the trees as the male beats his chest and charges toward me. I quickly lower myself, ducking my head to avoid 4 (look)directly into his eyes so he doesn't feel 5 (challenge). My name is Mireya Mayor. I'm a 6 (science)who studies animals such as apes and monkeys. I was searching 7 these three western lowland gorillas I'd been observing. No one had seen them for hours, and my colleagues and I were worried.,When the gorillas and I frightened each other, I was just glad to find 8 (they)alive. True to go- rilla's unaggressive nature, the huge animal 9 (mean)me no real harm. He was just saying:“I' m king of this forest, and here is your reminder!”Once his message was delivered, he allowed me 10 (stay)and watch. 答案 [语篇解读] 本文为记叙文。作者讲述了自己和大猩猩的近距离接触。尽管大猩猩表现得很 凶猛,但它们并非是好斗的动物。 1.who 此处表示“我不确定谁更感到害怕”。本题考查宾语从句。“ is more fright- ened”为宾语从句,该从句缺少主语,故填who。 2.the 句意:出乎意料的是,我正与那只大猩猩面对面,它开始声嘶力竭地尖叫。本题考查冠 词。at the top of one's lungs意为“声嘶力竭地”。 3.loudest 句意:它尖叫的声音最大。本题考查副词最高级。根据句意及本句中的“of all” 可知设空处填副词最高级,故填loudest。 4.looking 句意:我迅速弯下身,低下头以避免直视它的眼睛以便它不会感到受到了挑战。本 题考查非谓语动词作宾语。动词avoid后须用动名词形式作宾语且look与主语I为逻辑上的主 动关系,故填动名词looking。,5.challenged 本题考查非谓语动词作表语。主语he与challenge(挑战)为逻辑上的被动关系,故 填过去分词形式challenged。 6.scientist 句意:我是研究猿和猴子等动物的科学家。本题考查名词。设空处作表语,说明主 语的身份;根据提示词science可知填scientist。 7.for 句意:我正在搜寻这三只我一直在观察的西部低地大猩猩。本题考查动词短语。search for为动词短语,意为“搜寻”。 8.them 本题考查代词。设空处指代从句中的the gorillas,以避免重复,故填them。 9.meant 句意:大猩猩确实有不好斗的本性,那只巨大的动物并不是真的要伤害我。本题考查 时态。根据上下文可知,本空用一般过去时,故填meant。 10.to stay 句意:一旦它的信息传递了,它就允许我待在那里观察(它们)。本题考查非谓语动 词作宾补。allow后须加不定式作宾补;又因为宾语me与stay为逻辑上的主动关系,故填to stay。 难句分析 原句:I quickly lower myself, ducking my head to avoid looking directly into his eyes so he doesn't feel challenged.,分析:ducking.为现在分词短语作lower myself的伴随状语;to avoid looking directly into his eyes为不定式短语作ducking my head的目的状语。 译文:我迅速弯下身,低下头以避免直视它的眼睛以便它不会感到受到了挑战。 重点词汇 scream v.尖叫 unaggressive adj.不好斗的,没有攻击性的 词汇积累 out of nowhere突然出现 charge toward sb.向某人冲来 Passage 2(2018课标全国Ⅰ) 阅读下面短文,在空白处填入1个适当的单词或括号内单词的正确形式。 According to a review of evidence in a medical journal, runners live three years 1 (long)than non-runners. You don't have to run fast or for long 2 (see)the benefit. You may drink, smoke, be overweight and still reduce your risk of 3 (die)early by running. While running regularly can't make you live forever, the review says it 4 (be)more effective at lengthening life 5 walking, cycling or swimming. Two of the authors of the review also made a study published in 2014 6 showed a mere five to 10 minutes a day of running reduced the risk of heart disease and early deaths from all 7 (cause).,The best exercise is one that you enjoy and will do. But otherwise.it's probably running. To avoid knee pain, you can run on soft surfaces, do exercises to 8 (strength)your leg muscles(肌肉), avoid hills and get good running shoes. Running is cheap, easy and it's always 9 (energy). If you are time poor, you need run for only half the time to get the same benefits as other sports, so perhaps we should all give 10 a try. 答案 [语篇解读] 本文为说明文。文章介绍了跑步对人们保持身体健康的好处。 1.longer 句意:根据一份医学杂志中的证据报告,跑步者比非跑步者的寿命要长3年。根据题 干中的than可知设空处需用副词比较级形式,故填longer。 2.to see 句意:你不必为了弄清跑步带来的好处而跑得很快、很久。本题考查非谓语动词。 由句意可知,此处在句中作目的状语,主语you与动词see为主动关系,故填不定式的主动式to see。 3.dying 句意:你可能饮酒、吸烟、超重,但你仍然可以通过跑步降低过早死亡的危险。本题 考查非谓语动词。介词(of)后需用动名词形式作宾语,根据提示词die可知设空处填dying。,4.is 句意:虽然经常跑步不可能使你长生不老,但报告上说与走路、骑自行车或游泳相比,跑 步对延长寿命更有效。本题考查主谓一致和时态。设空处所在从句被用来介绍一种理论,需 用一般现在时;再根据主语it及提示词be可知设空处填is。 5.than 本题考查介词。根据题干中的“more effective”可知设空处需填介词than,意为 “比”。 6.that/which 句意:该报告的其中两名作者在2014年还发表了一项研究,这项研究表明每天只 跑步5至10分钟便可以降低患心脏病或由于各种原因导致过早死亡的危险。本题考查定语从 句。先行词为study,指“物”;将先行词代入定语从句后为:The study showed a mere 5 to 10 minutes a day of running reduced the risk of heart disease and.由此可见关系词在定语从句中作 主语,故填that或which。 7.causes 本题考查名词的“数”。cause作“原因”讲,为可数名词;根据设空处前的all可知 设空处填名词复数形式,故填causes。 8.strengthen 句意:为了避免膝盖疼痛,你可以在柔软的地面上跑步、锻炼以增强你的腿部肌 肉……。设空处作目的状语,需用不定式形式,故在不定式符号to后填动词原形strengthen。,9.energetic 设空处作表语,表示主语的特征,故填形容词energetic。 10.it/running 句意:如果你时间不充裕,你只需要花费其他运动一半的时间去跑步便可获得同 样的收益,因此或许我们都应该试一试跑步。设空处作give的宾语,需填名词或代词,因此用it 代替上文中的running或直接填running作宾语。 难句分析 原句:While running regularly can't make you live forever, the review says it is more effective at lengthening life than walking, cycling or swimming. 分析:While running regularly can't make you live forever为让步状语从句,后面的句子为主句。 在主句中it is more effective at lengthening life than walking, cycling or swimming为宾语从句,作 says的宾语。 译文:虽然经常跑步不可能使你长生不老,但报告说与走路、骑自行车或游泳相比,跑步对延长 寿命更有效。 重点词汇 review n. 述评,汇报,报告 reduce one's risk of.降低某人……的风险 词汇积累 from all causes由于各种原因 give.a try试一试……,Passage 3(2018课标全国Ⅱ) 阅读下面短文,在空白处填入1个适当的单词或括号内单词的正确形式。 Diets have changed in China—and so too has its top crop. Since 2011, the country 1 (grow) more corn than rice. Corn production has jumped nearly 125 percent over 2 past 25 years, while rice has increased only 7 percent. A taste for meat is 3 (actual)behind the change: An important part of its corn is used to feed chickens, pigs, and cattle. Another reason for corn's rise: The government encourages farmers to grow corn instead of rice 4 (improve)water quality. Corn uses less water 5 rice and creates less fertilizer(化肥)run-off. This switch has decreased 6 (pollute)in the country's major lakes and reservoirs and made drinking water safer for people. According to the World Bank, China accounts for about 30 percent of total 7 (globe)fertilizer consumption. The Chinese Ministry of Agriculture finds that between 2005—when the govern- ment 8 (start) a soil-testing program 9 gives specific fertilizer recommendations to farmers —and 2011, fertilizer use dropped by 7.7 million tons. That prevented the emission(排放)of 51.8,million tons of carbon dioxide. China's approach to protecting its environment while 10 (feed) its citizens “offers useful lessons for agriculture and food policymakers worldwide,”says the bank's Juergen Voegele. 答案 [语篇解读] 本文是一篇说明文。自2011年以来,随着中国人的饮食结构的变化,在中国种植 玉米的数量显著增加,而种植水稻的数量下降了。 1.has grown 句意:自2011年以来,中国种植玉米的数量超过了水稻。本题考查时态和主谓一 致。根据句中时间状语Since 2011可知,此处使用现在完成时,且主语为单数,故填has grown。 2.the 句意:在过去的25年里,玉米的产量已经激增了将近125%,而水稻的产量只增长了7%。 本题考查冠词。over the past 25 years在过去的25年里。 3.actually 句意:对于肉类的喜爱实际上是这一变化背后的原因:中国的玉米有很重要的一个 作用就是,用来饲养鸡、猪和牛。本题考查副词。此处需用副词作状语,故用actual的副词形 式actually。 4.to improve 句意:玉米产量增长的另一个原因是:政府鼓励农民种植玉米而不是水稻来提高,水质。本题考查非谓语动词作状语。此处“提高水质”为鼓励农民种玉米的目的,故使用动 词不定式作目的状语。 5.than 句意:玉米用水量比水稻少,造成更少的化肥流失。本题考查介词。根据句中的less可 知,此处表示比较,故使用介词than。 6.pollution 句意:这种变化已经减少了中国主要湖泊和水库的污染,使人们的饮用水变得更 安全了。本题考查名词。空格处作decreased的宾语,故使用pollute的名词形式pollution。 7.global 句意:根据世界银行的统计,中国占了全球化肥总消耗量的大约30%。本题考查形容 词。空格处作fertilizer consumption的定语,故使用globe的形容词形式global。 8.started 句意:中国农业部发现在2005年和2011年之间,化肥的使用减少了770万吨。2005年 政府启动了土壤检测项目,它向农民推荐特定的化肥。本题考查时态。关系副词when=in 200 5,由此可知此处使用一般过去时。 9.that/which 本题考查定语从句。定语从句的先行词为program,指物,关系词在从句中作主 语,故使用关系代词that或which。 10.feeding 本题考查非谓语动词作状语。名词China和动词feed构成逻辑上的主动关系,故使 用现在分词作时间状语。,难句分析 原句:Corn production has jumped nearly 125 percent over the past 25 years, while rice has in- creased only 7 percent. 分析:本句中while为并列连词,连接两个并列分句,表示对比,意为 “然而,而”。 译文:在过去的25年里,玉米的产量已经激增了将近125%,而水稻的产量只增长了7%。 Passage 4(2017课标全国Ⅲ) 阅读下面短文,在空白处填入1个适当的单词或括号内单词的正确形式。 She looks like any other schoolgirl, fresh-faced and full of life. Sarah Thomas is looking forward to the challenge of her new A-level course. But unlike her school friends, 16-year-old Sarah is not spending half-term 1 (rest). Instead, she is earning £6,500 a day as 2 model in New York. Sarah 3 (tell) that she could be Britain's new supermodel, earning a million dollars in the next year. Her father Peter, 44, wants her to give up school to model full-time. But Sarah, 4 has,taken part in shows along with top models, wants 5 (prove) that she has brains as well as beau- ty. She is determined to carry on with her 6 (educate). She has turned down several 7 (invitation) to star at shows in order to concentrate on her stud- ies. After school she plans to take a year off to model full-time before going to university to get a degree 8 engineering or architecture. Sarah says, “My dad thinks I should take the offer now. But at the moment, school 9 (come) first. I don't want to get too absorbed in modeling. It is 10 (certain) fun but the lifestyle is a lit- tle unreal. I don't want to have nothing else to fall back on when I can't model any more.” 答案 [语篇解读] 本文为记叙文,介绍了16岁的中学生Sarah在模特界崭露头角却依然以学业为重 的故事。 1.resting 考查非谓语动词。固定结构spend some time(in) doing(sth.)花费时间做(某事)。 2.a 考查冠词。句意:相反,她现在在纽约作为一名模特每天挣6,500英镑。model为可数名词, 此处表示泛指,故填冠词a。,3.has been told/was told 考查时态和语态。句意:Sarah被告知她可以成为英国的一名超模新 星,第二年就可以挣百万美元。根据语境可知Sarah与tell之间为被动关系,故用被动语态。此 处既可以用一般过去时态表示过去发生的动作,也可以用现在完成时态,表示过去发生的动作 对现在的影响。 4.who 考查定语从句。此句两个逗号之间的内容是对Sarah的情况的补充介绍,为非限制性 定语从句,修饰Sarah。设空处引导定语从句并在定语从句中作主语。应该填入关系代词 who。 5.to prove 考查非谓语动词。此句说虽然Sarah曾与顶级模特一起参加过时装表演,但她想证 明自己除了漂亮的外表之外还有智慧的头脑。want to do sth.想要做某事,因此空白处应该填 入to prove。 6.education 考查词性转换。此句的意思是Sarah决心继续她的教育。空白处填入的词作介 词with的宾语,并受物主代词her的限定,必须用名词形式。所以须将动词educate变为其名词形 式education。 7.invitations 考查名词的复数。此句说Sarah为了集中精力学习,已经数次婉拒了出演时装秀,的邀约。由本题前面的限定词several可判断,invitation须用复数形式。 8.in 考查介词与名词的搭配。 此句说中学毕业后,她计划休学一年做全职模特,然后上大学 攻读工程或建筑方面的学位。本题前面的degree一词表示“学位”,在表达某一专业的学位 时,后接介词in。 9.comes 考查动词时态和主谓一致。此句意思是目前学业是第一位的。讲的是Sarah对自己 当前情况的理解,应该用一般现在时。主语school为第三人称单数,故谓语动词come应该加s, 变为comes。 10.certainly 此句意思是模特工作确实有趣,但那种生活方式有点不真实。空白处填入的词 修饰形容词fun,应为副词,所以考生应该将形容词certain转变为其副词形式certainly。 高级语块 1.be determined to do sth.决定做某事 2.turn down拒绝 3.concentrate on集中注 意力于 4.carry on with sth.继续某事 5.engineering n. 工程;工程学 6.architecture n. 建筑学 长难句 But Sarah, who has taken part in shows along with top models, wants to prove that she has brains as well as beauty.但是曾和顶尖模特同台表演过的Sarah想证明自己美貌与智慧并存。 本句为复合句。who引导定语从句,prove后的that引导宾语从句。,Passage 5(2017课标全国Ⅰ) 阅读下面短文,在空白处填入1个适当的单词或括号内单词的正确形式。 There has been a recent trend in the food service industry toward lower fat content and less salt. This trend, which was started by the medical community(医学界) 1 a method of fighting heart disease, has had some unintended side 2 (effect)such as overweight and heart disease— the very thing the medical community was trying to fight. Fat and salt are very important parts of a diet. They are required 3 (process)the food that we eat, to recover from injury and for several other bodily functions. When fat and salt 4 (remove) from food, the food tastes as if it is missing something. As 5 result, people will eat more food to try to make up for that something missing. Even 6 (bad), the amount of fast food that people eat goes up. Fast food 7 (be)full of fat and salt;by 8 (eat)more fast food people will get more salt and fat than they need in their diet. Having enough fat and salt in your meals will reduce the urge to snack(吃点心)between meals and will improve the taste of your food. However, be 9 (care)not to go to extremes. Like anything, it is possible to have too much of both, 10 is not good for the health.,答案 [语篇解读] 本文为说明文。本文介绍了低脂低盐食品对健康可能会造成的负面影响,并对 影响的成因进行了分析。文章认为:脂肪和盐的摄入量要足,并非越少越好。 1.as 考查介词。此处缺少表达“作为”意义的介词,故填as。 2.effects 考查名词复数。这种趋势会有些非预期的副作用,如超重和心脏病。side effect为可 数名词,根据前面的some可知,应用复数形式。 3.to process 考查非谓语动词。根据require sth. to do sth.(要求某物做某事)以及其被动形式 sth. be required to do sth.(某物被要求做某事)可知此处填动词不定式。 4.are removed 考查动词的时态、语态和主谓一致。句意:当脂肪和盐分从食物中去除,食物 尝起来就好像缺失了什么东西。结合语境可知,状语从句中用一般现在时态,fat and salt作主 语,谓语动词用复数形式,主语与remove之间为被动关系,故填are removed。 5.a 考查冠词。句意:结果,人们会吃更多的食物来努力弥补所缺的东西。as a result结果;因 此。,6.worse 考查副词。句意:更糟糕的是,人们所吃的快餐的量会上升。even worse更糟的是,此 句与上句提到的情况相比较,故用比较级。 7.is 考查时态和主谓一致。根据语境可知,此处用一般现在时态,主语fast food为不可数名词, 故系动词用is。 8.eating 考查非谓语动词。by在此处为介词,表示方式,故后面接动名词形式作by的宾语。 9.careful 考查形容词。句意:然而,小心不要走极端。设空处在系动词be之后作表语,故填形 容词。 10.which 考查定语从句。设空处指代前面的主句,引导非限制性定语从句,故填which。 高级语块 1.trend n.趋势 2.unintended adj.非预期的 3.function n.功能 长难句 This trend, which was started by the medical community as a method of fighting heart disease, has had some unintended side effects such as overweight and heart disease—the very thing the medical community was trying to fight.这种作为一种对抗心脏病的方法而被医学界发起的,趋势已经有了一些非预期的副作用,如超重和心脏病——这正是医学界正在努力对抗的事 情。 本句为复合句。句子主干为This trend has had some unintended side effects such as overweight and heart disease。which为关系代词,指代先行词this trend。the medical community was trying to fight为定语从句,修饰先行词the very thing。 Passage 6(2017课标全国Ⅱ) 阅读下面短文,在空白处填入1个适当的单词或括号内单词的正确形式。 In 1863 the first underground passenger railway in the world opened in London. It ran for just un- der seven kilometers and allowed people to avoid terrible 1 (crowd) on the roads above as they travelled to and 2 work. It took three years to complete and was built using an interesting method. This included digging up the road, 3 (lay) the track and then building a strong roof over 4 top. When all those had been done, the road surface was replaced. Steam engines 5 (use) to pull the carriages and it must have been 6 (fair) unpleasant for the passengers, with all the smoke and noise. However, the railway quickly proved to be a great,success and within six months, more than 25,000 people were using 7 every day. Later, engineers 8 (manage) to construct railways in a system of deep tunnels(隧道), which became known as the Tube. This development was only possible with the 9 (introduce) of electric-powered engines and lifts. The Central London Railway was one of the most 10 (suc- cess)of these new lines, and was opened in 1900. It had white-painted tunnels and bright red car- riages, and proved extremely popular with the public. 答案 [语篇解读] 本文为说明文,介绍了世界上第一条地铁——伦敦地铁的起源以及它逐步成为 大众所喜爱的交通方式的发展历程。 1.crowds 本题考查名词。avoid“避免”后可跟名词或动名词作宾语。因为此空前有形容 词terrible修饰,故排除动名词形式;crowd作“人群”解时,为可数名词,且前面无冠词限制,故需 用复数形式,在词尾直接加-s即可。 2.from 本题考查介词。由语境可知此处指“上下班(to and from work)”,为固定表达法。根 据文中所给的travelled to and.可推断出空格内应填入介词from。,3.laying 本题考查动名词作宾语。由上文中的included digging 和下文的and then building可 知,此处用动名词作included的宾语。 4.the 本题考查冠词。此处是说地铁开挖、铺轨完成后,要进行最后的筑顶。此处表示特指, 因此应用定冠词the。 5.were used 本题考查动词的时态、语态和主谓一致。此处是说“当初使用蒸汽机牵引地铁 车厢”,因此主语Steam engines和use之间为被动关系,且由上文可知叙述的是过去发生的事, 故需用一般过去时的被动语态;又因主语是名词的复数形式,故be动词需用were。 6.fairly 本题考查副词。此处是说伦敦地铁开通之初因使用蒸汽机而使乘客饱受烟尘和噪 声污染之苦。修饰形容词unpleasant需用副词形式,故填fairly。 7.it 本题考查代词。此处是说伦敦地铁开通不久就广受欢迎,大量民众乘地铁出行。此处指 代上文中提到的the railway,需用代词it。 8.managed 本题考查动词的时态。此处叙述的是过去的事情,需用一般过去时,故答案为动 词的过去式。manage to do sth.用于表示“成功地做了某事”。,9.introduction 本题考查名词。此处说地铁的发展得益于电力机和电梯的应用。由空前的定 冠词可知,此处需用名词形式,动词introduce去“e”加后缀-tion构成名词形式。 10.successful 本题考查形容词。此处为“one of the+形容词最高级”结构。 高级语块 1.allow v.允许,容许 2.avoid v.避免 3.prove v.证明 长难句 The Central London Railway was one of the most successful of these new lines, and was opened in 1900.伦敦中心地铁是这些新铁路线中最成功的线路之一,于1900年开放。 本句为简单句。句子含有两个并列谓语,第二个谓语使用的是一般过去时的被动语态。 Passage 7(2016课标全国Ⅲ) 阅读下面材料,在空白处填入适当的内容(1个单词)或括号内单词的正确形式。 In much of Asia, especially the so-called “rice bowl”cultures of China, Japan, Korea, 1 Vietnam, food is usually eaten with chopsticks. Chopsticks are usually two long, thin pieces of wood or bamboo. They can also be made of plastic, animal bone or metal. Sometimes chopsticks are quite artistic. Truly elegant chopsticks might 2 (make) of gold and silver with Chinese characters. Skilled workers also combine various hard- woods and metal 3 (create)special designs.,The Chinese have used chopsticks for five thousand years. People probably cooked their food in large pots, 4 (use) twigs(树枝)to remove it. Over time, 5 the population grew, people be- gan cutting food into small pieces so it would cook more quickly. Food in small pieces could be eaten easily with twigs which 6 (gradual)turned into chopsticks. Some people think that the great Chinese scholar Confucius, 7 lived from roughly 551 to 479 B.C., influenced the 8 (develop) of chopsticks. Confucius believed knives would remind peo- ple of killings and 9 (be) too violent for use at the table. Chopsticks are not used everywhere in Asia. In India, for example, most people traditionally eat 10 their hands. 答案 [语篇解读] 本文为说明文。文章主要介绍了筷子及其发展的历史。 1.and 考查并列连词。此处表示并列关系而不是选择关系,其模式为“A,B,C and D”。故填 并列连词and。 2.be made 考查情态动词和被动语态。be made of表示“由……制成”,根据设空前的情态动 词might可知,此处填be made。,3.to create 考查不定式。此处不定式作目的状语。 4.using 考查现在分词。现在分词在此处作伴随状语。 5.as/when 考查连词。根据语境可知,此处用连词as/when引导时间状语从句。 6.gradually 考查副词。此处用副词修饰turned into。 7.who 考查定语从句。此处为非限制性定语从句,先行词Confucius(孔子)指人,故须用关系代 词who引导定语从句。 8.development 考查名词。由设空前的冠词the和设空后的of可知应用名词。 9.were 考查动词时态和主谓一致。由并列连词and连接宾语从句中的两个并列结构可知和 would remind并列的应为谓语动词,故用be动词的过去式,又因knives为复数形式,故用were。 10.with 考查介词。由语境可知设空处意为“用”,故填with。 高级语块 1.be made of 由……制成 2.turn into 变成 3.remind.of 使……想起 长难句 Some people think that the great Chinese scholar Confucius, who lived from roughly 551 to 479 B.C., influenced the development of chopsticks.一些人认为中国伟大的学者孔子,他大约 生活在公元前551年至公元前479年,影响了筷子的发展。 本句为复合句。that引导宾语从句,who引导非限制性定语从句。,Passage 8(2016课标全国Ⅱ) 阅读下面材料,在空白处填入适当的内容(1个单词)或括号内单词的正确形式。 If you feel stressed by responsibilities at work, you should take a step back and identify(识别) those of 1 (great) and less importance. Then, handle the most important tasks first so you'll feel a real sense of 2 (achieve). Leaving the less important things until tomorrow 3 (be) of- ten acceptable. Most of us are more focused 4 our tasks in the morning than we are later in the day. So,get an early start and try to be as productive 5 possible before lunch. This will give you the confi- dence you need to get you through the afternoon and go home feeling accomplished. Recent 6 (study) show that we are far more productive at work if we take short breaks 7 (regular). Give your body and brain a rest by stepping outside for 8 while, exercising, or doing something you enjoy. If you find something you love doing outside of the office, you'll be less likely 9 (bring) your work home. It could be anything—gardening, cooking, music, sports—but whatever it is, 10 (make) sure it's a relief from daily stress rather than another thing to worry about.,答案 [语篇解读] 如果在工作中你感到了压力,如何解决?作者给出了几种实用的减压方式,可让身 心得到放松。 1.greater 考查形容词比较级。根据此句中less,可知应该用great的比较级和less并列。 2.achievement 考查名词。根据介词of,可知设空处应该填名词形式,a sense of achievement一 种成就感,此处achievement是不可数名词。 3.is 考查主谓一致和时态。动名词作句子主语,谓语动词用单数形式且描述一般事实,故用 is。 4.on 考查介词。我们大多数人早晨比一天中晚些时候更集中注意力于我们的工作。根据句 意,此处填on。 5.as 考查短语。as.as possible 尽可能……。,6.studies 考查名词单复数。根据句中的谓语动词show,可知主语应该用复数形式,故填stud- ies。 7.regularly 考查副词。此处应该用副词形式作状语。 8.a 考查冠词。for a while是固定短语,意为:一会儿。 9.to bring 考查不定式。be likely to do sth. 为固定短语,意为:有可能做某事。 10.make 考查祈使句。但是无论是什么事,确保它是消除日常压力的事情而不是另一件让人 担心的事情。 长难句 It could be anything—gardening,cooking,music,sports—but whatever it is,make sure it's a relief from daily stress rather than another thing to worry about. 它可能是任何事情——园艺 活,做饭,音乐,运动——但是无论是什么事,确保它是消除日常压力的事情而不是另一件让人 担心的事情。 本句为but构成的并列复合句。后一分句中含有whatever引导的状语从句,主句为祈使句。,Passage 9(2016课标全国Ⅰ) 阅读下面材料,在空白处填入适当的内容(1个单词)或括号内单词的正确形式。 Chengdu has dozens of new millionaires, Asia's biggest building and fancy new hotels. But for tourists like me, pandas are its top 1 (attract). So it was a great honour to be invited backstage at the not-for-profit Panda Base, where ticket money helps pay for research. I 2 (allow)to get up close to these cute animals at the 600-acre centre. From tomorrow, I will be their UK ambassador. The title will be 3 (official)given to me at a ceremony in London. But my connection with pandas goes back 4 my days on a TV show in the mid-1980s, 5 I was the first Western TV reporter 6 (permit)to film a special unit car- ing for pandas rescued from starvation in the wild. My ambassadorial duties will include 7 (in- troduce)British visitors to the 120-plus pandas at Chengdu and others at a research centre in the misty mountains of Bifengxia. On my recent visit, I held a lively three-month-old twin that had been rejected by 8 (it)mother. The nursery team switches him every few 9 (day)with his sister so that while one is being bot- tle-fed, 10 other is with mum—she never suspects.,答案 [语篇解读] 本文为记叙文。文章描述了作者和熊猫结下的不解之缘。 1.attraction 考查名词。设空处作表语。句意:但是对于像我这样的旅行者,熊猫是成都最吸 引人的东西。attraction n.吸引人的事物。 2.was allowed 考查动词的时态和语态。由句子结构可知此处为谓语动词。主语“I”和动 词“allow”之间为被动关系,根据上句中的谓语动词was可知,文章叙述的是过去发生的事,需 用一般过去时,故此处需用一般过去时的被动语态。 3.officially 考查副词。此处用副词修饰动词。 4.to 考查介词。go back to“追溯到,回溯到”,为固定短语。 5.when 考查定语从句。先行词the mid-1980s为表示时间的名词,且关系词在定语从句中作 时间状语,故用关系副词when引导。 6.permitted 考查非谓语动词。此处应用过去分词作后置定语。 7.introducing 考查动名词。动词include后缺宾语,需用所给动词的动名词形式作宾语。 8.its 考查代词。此处为it的形容词性物主代词,意为“它的”。 9.days 考查名词的复数形式。few修饰可数名词复数,故其后的名词需用复数形式。 10.the 考查冠词。one.the other.“(两者中的)一个……另外一个……”,为固定结构。,长难句 But my connection with pandas goes back to my days on a TV show in the mid-1980s, when I was the first Western TV reporter permitted to film a special unit caring for pandas rescued from starvation in the wild.但是,我同熊猫的联系可追溯到二十世纪八十年代中期我做一档电 视节目的日子,当时我是第一个被允许拍摄一个照料在野生环境下被从饥饿中拯救的熊猫的 特别单元的西方电视台记者。 本句为主从复合句。when引导非限制性定语从句。过去分词短语permitted.作定语修饰re- porter。 Passage 10(2015课标全国Ⅱ) 阅读下面材料,在空白处填入适当的内容(1个单词)或括号内单词的正确形式。 The adobe dwellings(土坯房) 1 (build)by the Pueblo Indians of the American Southwest are admired by even 2 most modern of architects and engineers.In addition to their simple beauty, what makes the adobe dwellings admirable is their 3 (able)to “air condition”a house without 4 (use)electric equipment.Walls made of adobe take in the heat from the sun on hot days and,give out that heat 5 (slow)during cool nights,thus warming the house.When a new day breaks, the walls have given up their heat and are now cold enough 6 (cool)the house during the hot day; 7 the same time,they warm up again for the night.This cycle 8 (go)day after day:The walls warm up during the day and cool off during the night and are thus always a timely offset(抵 消)for the outside temperatures.As 9 (nature)architects,the Pueblo Indians figured out exactly 10 thick the adobe walls needed to be to make the cycle work on most days. 答案 [语篇解读] 你见过不用空调却能自动调节温度的房子吗?美国西南部的普韦布洛村落的印 第安人就能修建这样的房子。本文介绍了普韦布洛村落的印第安人的神奇土坯房以及其自 动调温的过程和原理。 1.built 考查非谓语动词作定语。非谓语动词所表示的动作与其逻辑主语为逻辑上的被动关 系,故用built。 2.the 考查冠词。该空后面是最高级标志词most,表示“最……”,故用定冠词the。,3.ability 考查词性转换。该空由their修饰,根据句意及the/one's ability to do的固定搭配可知 应填名词ability。 4.using 考查非谓语动词作宾语。该空前有介词without,故用using。 5.slowly 考查词性转换。该空修饰动词短语give out,故用副词形式。 6.to cool 考查非谓语动词作状语。be+形容词+enough+to do sth.足够……能……,故用to cool。 7.at 考查介词。根据固定搭配at the same time (同时)可知答案。 8.goes 考查动词的时态和主谓一致。整篇文章均用一般现在时叙述,且This cycle为第三人 称单数,故用goes。 9.natural 考查词性转换。该空修饰名词architects,应用形容词natural。 10.how 考查宾语从句的引导词。此处说的是“普韦布洛村落的印第安人可以精确地计算 出土坯房的墙需要有‘多'厚”,故填how。,Passage 11(2015课标全国Ⅰ) 阅读下面材料,在空白处填入适当的内容(1个单词)或括号内单词的正确形式。 Yangshuo,China It was raining lightly when I 1 (arrive)in Yangshuo just before dawn.But I didn't care.A few hours 2 ,I'd been at home in Hong Kong,with 3 (it)choking smog.Here,the air was clean and fresh,even with the rain. I'd skipped nearby Guilin,a dream place for tourists seeking the limestone mountain tops and dark waters of the Li River 4 are pictured by artists in so many Chinese 5 (painting).Instead,I'd headed straight for Yangshuo.For those who fly to Guilin,it's only an hour away 6 car and of- fers all the scenery of the better-known city. Yangshuo 7 (be)really beautiful.A study of travelers 8 (conduct)by the website TripAdvisor names Yangshuo as one of the top 10 destinations in the world.And the town is fast becoming a popular weekend destination for people in Asia.Abercrombie & Kent,a travel company in Hong Kong,says it 9 (regular)arranges quick getaways here for people 10 (live)in Shanghai and Hong Kong.,答案 1.arrived 考查动词的时态。由语境可知说的是过去的事,故用一般过去时。 2.before/earlier 考查副词。由句子的谓语动词是过去完成时可知,该动作发生在“过去之 前”,故填before或earlier。 3.its 考查代词。此处为形容词性物主代词作定语修饰名词smog。 4.that/which 考查定语从句。先行词为the limestone mountain tops and dark waters of the Li River,指物,且关系词在定语从句中作主语,故填关系代词that或which。 评析 定语从句是高考语法的必考点。主要考查关系代词和关系副词的选用。试题难度不 大,关键是准确地找到先行词,然后判断关系词在定语从句中的句法作用。 5.paintings 考查名词的复数形式。名词前有many修饰,故需用复数形式。 6.by 考查介词。by乘,坐(交通工具等)。by car坐小汽车。 7.is 考查动词的时态和主谓一致。此处叙述的是客观事实,故用一般现在时,主语是第三人 称单数,故填is。 8.conducted 考查过去分词短语作定语。主语a study和动词conduct之间为被动关系,故用过 去分词形式。,9.regularly 考查副词。修饰动词arranges应用副词形式。 10.living 考查现在分词短语作定语。被修饰的名词与动词live之间为主动关系,故用现在分 词形式。 评析 本题考查非谓语动词作定语。非谓语动词是高考语法考查的重点。本题同8题一样,考 查分词作定语。解题的关键是弄清动词和其逻辑主语之间是主动关系还是被动关系。 Passage 12(2014课标全国Ⅱ) 阅读下面材料,在空白处填入适当的内容(不多于3个单词)或括号内单词的正确形式。 One morning,I was waiting at the bus stop,worried about 1 (be)late for school.There were many people waiting at the bus stop, 2 some of them looked very anxious and 3 (disap- point).When the bus finally came,we all hurried on board.I got a place next 4 the window,so I had a good view of the sidewalk.A boy on a bike 5 (catch)my attention.He was riding beside the bus and waving his arms.I heard a passenger behind me shouting to the driver,but he refused 6 (stop)until we reached the next stop.Still,the boy kept 7 (ride).He was c
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