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2019版高考英语一轮复习(课标3卷B版)课件:专题十四 阅读补全.ppt

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2019 高考 英语 一轮 复习 课标 课件 专题 十四 阅读
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,Passage 1(2018课标全国Ⅲ) 根据短文内容,从短文后的选项中选出能填入空白处的最佳选项。选项中有两项为多余选 项。 Before there was the written word, there was the language of dance. Dance expresses love and hate, joy and sorrow, life and death, and everything else in between. 1 We dance from Florida to Alaska, from north to south and sea to sea. We dance at wed- dings, birthdays, office parties and just to fill the time. “I adore dancing,”says Lester Bridges, the owner of a dance studio in Iowa. “I can't imagine doing anything else with my life.”Bridges runs dance classes for all ages. “Teaching dance is,五年高考,A组 统一命题·课标卷题组,wonderful. 2 It's great to watch them. For many of them, it's a way of meeting people and having a social life.” 3 “I can tell you about one young couple,” says Bridges. “They're learning to do tradi- tional dances. They arrive at the class in low spirits and they leave with a smile. 4 ” So, do we dance in order to make ourselves feel better, calmer, healthier?Andrea Hillier says, “Dance, like the pattern of a beating heart, is life. Even after all these years, I want to get better and better. 5 I find it hard to stop!Dancing reminds me I'm alive.” A.So why do we dance? B.Dance in the U.S. is everywhere. C.If you like dancing outdoors, come to America. D.My older students say it makes them feel young. E.I keep practicing even when I'm extremely tired. F.Dancing seems to change their feeling completely. G.They stayed up all night long singing and dancing.,答案 [语篇解读] 本文是一篇记叙文。在文中作者首先描述了跳舞在美国的受欢迎程度,接着描 述了自己一生为跳舞疯狂的生活。 1.B 本句为主旨句。空格位于段首。空格后描述跳舞在美国的流行程度:从佛罗里达州到阿 拉斯加州,从北到南到大海上。在婚礼上、在生日派对上、在办公室派对上人们都在跳舞。 由此可知到处都能看到美国人在跳舞,与B项吻合,所以答案为B项。 2.D 本句为过渡句。空格前作者用直接引语的方式描述了“教舞蹈简直太美妙了”。空格 后句子中出现的代词them指代的就是Bridges所教的学生。D项中的students和them相对应,所 以答案为D项。即我的那些年龄大的学生说舞蹈让他们感觉自己年轻。 3.A 本句为主旨句。空格位于段首。后面以一对年轻夫妻为例说明了跳舞给他们带来的好 处。由此推断出本段是描述跳舞会给一个人的情绪带来巨大的影响,这就是人们喜欢跳舞的 原因。这与A项(那么,我们为什么要跳舞呢?)相符。 4.F 本句为细节句。空格前描述这对夫妻刚来到舞蹈班时情绪低落,当他们离开的时候脸上 露出了微笑。这都是舞蹈给他们的情绪带来的变化。这与F项(舞蹈好像彻底改变了他们的 情绪。)相符。,5.E 本句为过渡句。空格前描述这么多年来Hillier想跳得越来越好。空格后描述Hillier发现 自己就是停不下来,跳舞让Hillier知道自己还活着。作为前后过渡的空格处应该与Hillier一直 不停地跳舞相关,这与E项(即使当我非常累的时候我还在练习跳舞。)相符。 Passage 2(2018课标全国Ⅰ) 根据短文内容,从短文后的选项中选出能填入空白处的最佳选项。选项中有两项为多余选 项。 Color is fundamental in home design—something you'll always have in every room. A grasp of how to manage color in your spaces is one of the first steps to creating rooms you'll love to live in. Do you want a room that's full of life?Professional?Or are you just looking for a place to relax af- ter a long day? 1 , color is the key to making a room feel the way you want it to feel. Over the years, there have been a number of different techniques to help designers approach this important point. 2 , they can get a little complex. But good news is that there're really only three kinds of decisions you need to make about color in your home:the small ones, the medium ones, and the large ones.,3 . They're the little spots of color like throw pillows, mirrors and baskets that most of us use to add visual interest to our rooms. Less tiring than painting your walls and less expensive than buying a colorful sofa, small color choices bring with them the significant benefit of being easily changeable. Medium color choices are generally furniture pieces such as sofas, dinner tables or bookshelves. 4 . They require a bigger commitment than smaller ones, and they have a more powerful effect on the feeling of a space. The large color decisions in your rooms concern the walls, ceilings, and floors. Whether you're looking at wallpaper or paint, the time, effort and relative expense put into it are significant. 5 . A.While all of them are useful B.Whatever you're looking for C.If you're experimenting with a color D.Small color choices are the ones we're most familiar with,E.It's not really a good idea to use too many small color pieces F.So it pays to be sure, because you want to get it right the first time G.Color choices in this range are a step up from the small ones in two major ways 答案 [语篇解读] 本文为说明文,介绍了在家居装修时如何选择颜色。只需作出三个决定即可:抱 枕、镜子等小物件的颜色选择;沙发、餐桌等中等物件的颜色选择;墙面、天花板、地板等大 物件的颜色选择。 1.B 本句为细节句。上文指出,你是想要一个充满生机的房间呢?还是专业的房间?或者你只 是在寻找漫长的一天过后供你休息的场所呢?本句应该对上文的问题作出回应,B项符合语境, 句意为“无论你在找什么样的房间,要想让房间给你想要的感觉,颜色至关重要”。B项中的 looking for为原词再现。 2.A 本句为细节句。上句指出,在过去的这些年,有很多不同的技巧帮助设计者达到这重要 的一点。本句应该对这些技巧作出回应,A项符合语境,句意为“虽然所有的技巧都有用处,但 是它们有点儿复杂”。A项中的all of them代指上句中的different techniques。,3.D 本句为主题句。上段末尾指出了需要作出的三个决定(the small ones, the medium ones, and the large ones)。根据最后两段首句(Medium color choices.和The large color decisions.)可 知,这两段分别介绍了后两个决定,结合段落内容可知本段介绍第一个决定,故D项(Small color choices.)符合段落主题。 4.G 本句为过渡句。本段介绍了对家具这样的中等物件作出颜色选择。空格前的句子列举 了中等物件的例子,空格后的由and连接的两个分句从两方面与小物件的颜色选择进行了比 较,故G项符合语境。two major ways与下句内容一致。 5.F 本句为细节句。上文指出,在对大物件的颜色作出选择时,付出的时间、精力和相关的费 用都意义重大,F项为该话题的延续,符合语境,意为“因为你想要第一次就选好,所以这肯定是 划算的”。 难句分析 原句:A grasp of how to manage color in your spaces is one of the first steps to creating rooms you 'll love to live in. 分析:本句的主干为A grasp is one of the first steps,how to.结构作介词of的宾语,you'll love to,live in为定语从句,先行词为rooms,省略了在从句中作宾语的关系代词。 译文:掌握在你的空间如何选择颜色的技巧是创造你喜欢居住的房间的首要步骤之一。 重点词汇 fundamental adj. 基本的;十分重要的 approach vt. 处理;对付 complex adj. 复杂 的 commitment n. 付出;投入 Passage 3(2018课标全国Ⅱ) 根据短文内容,从短文后的选项中选出能填入空白处的最佳选项。选项中有两项为多余选 项。 If you are already making the time to exercise, it is good indeed!With such busy lives, it can be hard to try and find the time to work out. 1 Working out in the morning provides additional benefits beyond being physically fit. ●Your productivity is improved. Exercising makes you more awake and ready to handle whatever is ahead of you for the day. 2 ●Your metabolism(新陈代谢)gets a head start. 3 If you work out in the mornings, then you will be getting the calorie(卡路里)burning benefits for the whole day, not in your sleep.,● 4 Studies found that people who woke up early for exercise slept better than those who ex- ercised in the evening. Exercise energizes you, so it is more difficult to relax and have a peaceful sleep when you are very excited. ● 5 If you work out bright and early in the morning, you will be more likely to stick to healthy food choices throughout the day. Who would want to ruin their good workout by eating junk food?You will want to continue to focus on positive choices. There are a lot of benefits to working out, especially in the mornings. Set your alarm clock an hour early and push yourself to work out!You will feel energized all day long. A.You will stick to your diet. B.Your quality of sleep improves. C.You prefer healthy food to fast food. D.There is no reason you should exercise in the morning. E.You can keep your head clear for 4—10 hours after exercise. F.After you exercise, you continue to burn calories throughout the day. G.If you are planning to do exercise regularly, or you're doing it now, then listen up!,答案 [语篇解读] 本文为说明文。早上锻炼不仅有利于身体健康,而且还可以提高效率、促进新 陈代谢、提高睡眠质量并帮你保持良好的饮食习惯。 1.G 本句为过渡句。空格前的句子指出在繁忙的生活中很难找到时间锻炼,空格后的句子则 指出了早上锻炼具有许多益处,G项意为“如果你计划定期锻炼或者现在正在锻炼,那么注意 听!”,能很好地连接上下文,故G项正确。 2.E 本句为细节句。本段指出早上锻炼有助于提高效率,让你更加清醒地处理这一天的事 情,E项意为“锻炼后的4到10个小时内,你可以保持清醒的头脑”。awake与E项中的keep your head clear意思一致。 3.F 本句为细节句。F项中的“continue to burn calories throughout the day(整整一天持续燃 烧卡路里)”与设空处后句中的“will be getting the calorie burning benefits for the whole day (整整一天都会受益于卡路里的燃烧)”意义一致,故F项正确。 4.B 本句为主旨句。本段指出,研究发现早起锻炼的人比晚上锻炼的人睡眠更好,故B项符合 本段主旨,意为“你的睡眠质量会有所提高”。,5.A 本句为主旨句。阅读本段可知,早上锻炼,你会更有可能全天坚持健康饮食,因为你不想 因为吃垃圾食品而毁掉锻炼的积极效果。A项符合本段主旨,意为“你会坚持你的饮食习 惯”。stick to为原词再现。 难句分析 原句:Studies found that people who woke up early for exercise slept better than those who exer- cised in the evening. 分析:本句中found后为that引导的宾语从句,在从句中people后为关系代词who引导的定语从 句,those后仍为who引导的定语从句。 译文:研究发现,早起锻炼的人比晚上锻炼的人睡眠质量更好。 重点词汇 additional adj. 额外的;附加的 stick to坚持 energize vt. 给……添加能量;使充满活力,Passage 4(2017课标全国Ⅰ) 根据短文内容,从短文后的选项中选出能填入空白处的最佳选项。选项中有两项为多余选 项。 If anyone had told me three years ago that I would be spending most of my weekends camping, I would have laughed heartily. Campers, in my eyes, were people who enjoyed insect bites, ill- cooked meals, and uncomfortable sleeping bags. They had nothing in common with me. 1 The friends who introduced me to camping thought that it meant to be a pioneer. 2 We slept in a tent, cooked over an open fire, and walked a long distance to take the shower and use the bath- room. This brief visit with Mother Nature cost me two days off from work, recovering from a bad case of sunburn and the doctor's bill for my son's food poisoning. I was, nevertheless, talked into going on another fun-filled holiday in the wilderness. 3 In- stead, we had a pop-up camper with comfortable beds and an air conditioner. My nature-loving friends had remembered to bring all the necessities of life. 4 We have done a lot of it since. Recently, we bought a twenty-eight-foot travel trailer com- plete with a bathroom and a built-in TV set. There is a separate bedroom, a modern kitchen with a refrigerator. The trailer even has matching carpet and curtains.,5 It must be true that sooner or later, everyone finds his or her way back to nature. I recom- mend that you find your way in style. A.This time there was no tent. B.Things are going to be improved. C.The trip they took me on was a rough one. D.I was to learn a lot about camping since then, however. E.I must say that I have certainly come to enjoy camping. F.After the trip, my family became quite interested in camping. G.There was no shade as the trees were no more than 3 feet tall. 答案 [语篇解读] 本文为记叙文。讲述了作者由讨厌露营到喜欢露营的过程。短文分为三部分: 第一部分为第一段,谈及作者三年前对露营的负面看法;第二部分为第二段,描述了作者被说服 参加的一次露营经历;第三部分为最后三段,讲述了作者从那之后参加的数次愉快的露营经历 以及作者一家人都开始享受露营带来的快乐。,1.D 过渡句。本空位置在第一段的结尾。设题处前面的句子表明作者三年前对露营的抵触 心理,后面的段落描述了露营的经历。由此可以看出本题对应的句子起到承上启下的作用,而 且具有转折的功能。D选项中的关键信息since then 和however起到明显的衔接作用,故为正确 答案。 2.C 概括句。本空位置在段落之中。前面的句子指出作者的朋友们带他参加了一次露营;后 面的句子较详细地描写了那次露营的经历,但多是比较艰苦的体验,如睡在帐篷里、野炊、洗 澡不方便等,根据上下文可知,本句应该是一个概括句,总体说明这次露营的状况。C项中的 they与前面的friends 对应,rough可以概括这次露营的特征,所以是正确答案。 3.A 细节句。本空所在段落描述了一次愉快的露营经历,本空后面的副词Instead是一个重要 的衔接标志词,表明本空后面的内容与本空的信息相反。本空后面的句子强调这次露营中他 们有了舒适的露营车(camper),这个信息是相对于上次的帐篷露营而言的。因此,根据上下文 可知选项A 为正确答案。 4.F 过渡句。设空处在段首,引出一个新话题。本空后面的代词We是一个很强的衔接标志 词,表明本空对应的句子中应该有包括作者在内的复数人群。根据这个线索,选项F中的my,family 与We恰好对应,故答案为F项。选项E有一定的干扰性,但E中的I无法与后面的We 对应, 所以不正确。 5.E 总结句。设空处在最后一段(结语段)的段首,是全文的概括,又起到承上启下的作用。选 项E中的关键信息come to enjoy camping既是对前面几段的概括总结,也能够顺畅地衔接下句 内容,即希望别人也能亲近大自然。由此可见,选项E为正确答案。 高级语块 1.heartily adv.开怀地 2.pop-up adj.有弹出功能的 3.camper n.野营车 4.trailer n.拖车;(拖车式)活动房屋 长难句 If anyone had told me three years ago that I would be spending most of my weekends camping, I would have laughed heartily.三年前如果有人告诉我我会用大部分周末的时间来野 营,我会开怀大笑。 本句为复合句,且采用了虚拟语气。因为是对过去的虚拟,故本句中条件状语从句为过去完成 时态,主句采用了“would have done”结构。that引导宾语从句。,Passage 5(2017课标全国Ⅱ) 根据短文内容,从短文后的选项中选出能填入空白处的最佳选项。选项中有两项为多余选 项。 Interruptions are one of the worst things to deal with while you're trying to get work done. 1 , there are several ways to handle things. Let's take a look at them now. 2 . Tell the person you're sorry and explain that you have a million things to do and then ask if the two of you can talk at a different time. When people try to interrupt you, have set hours planned and let them know to come back during that time or that you'll find them then. 3 . It can help to eliminate(消除)future interruptions. When you need to talk to someone, don't do it in your own office. 4 , it's much easier to ex- cuse yourself to get back to your work than if you try to get someone out of your space even after explaining how busy you are. If you have a door to your office, make good use of it. 5 . If someone knocks and it's not an important matter, excuse yourself and let the person know you're busy so they can get the hint(暗 示)that when the door is closed, you're not to be disturbed. A.If you're busy, don't feel bad about saying no,B.When you want to avoid interruptions at work C.Set boundaries for yourself as far as your time goes D.If you're in the other person's office or in a public area E.It's important that you let them know when you'll be available F.It might seem unkind to cut people short when they interrupt you G.Leave it open when you're available to talk and close it when you're not 答案 [语篇解读] 本文为说明文。本文介绍了在工作中避免被干扰的四种方法:一是直接拒绝打 扰者;二是让他人知道你何时有时间;三是去对方办公室或公共区域会见某人;四是学会利用 好自己办公室的门。 1.B 细节句。空格处为从句,空格后的部分为主句,只有B项和D项符合要求。主句指出“有 几种可以解决问题的方法”,B项意为“当你想在工作中避免受到干扰时”,符合语境要求。 D项意为“如果你在对方的办公室或者公共场所”,与主句所述内容不一致。,2.A 主旨句。此处是文章第二段的第一句。上一句为:现在让我们看看这些应对方法。由此 可见,第二段应介绍应对打扰的第一种方法。空白处后的句子提到“告诉这个人你很抱歉并 解释……”。选项A“如果你很忙,不要为拒绝他人而感到难为情”符合语境。 3.E 过渡句。该段说的是应对打扰的第二种方法。上文指出,别人想干扰你时,要设定好时 间,让别人知道什么时候再来找你或你什么时候去找他们。下文指出,这样有助于消除后续的 干扰,解释了前一句所说内容的原因。结合上下文可知,E项“让他们知道你什么时候有空很 重要”符合语境。 4.D 细节句。这一段讲的是与他人谈话的地点的选择问题。上文指出,你需要和他人谈谈 时,不要在自己的办公室做这件事。空白处应填入从句。D项是一个if引导的从句,意为“如 果你在对方的办公室或公共区域”,此选项涉及地点,符合上下文语境和句子结构上的要求,故 D项正确。 5.G 过渡句。door为关键词。这一段主要讲述如何利用办公室的门,以避免忙时被打扰。上 文指出,如果办公室有一扇门的话,要充分利用。G项意为“有空交谈时就开着门,反之则关上 门”,it指代前一句中的door。故G项正确。 高级语块 interruption n.打扰;插嘴,长难句 If someone knocks and it's not an important matter, excuse yourself and let the person know you're busy so they can get the hint that when the door is closed, you're not to be disturbed. 如果有人敲门并且不是重要的事情,那你就可以为自己找个理由,让这个人知道你很忙,这样他 们就可以得到这样的暗示:门关着时,你不想受到干扰。 该句为复合句,if引导条件状语从句,so(that)引导目的状语从句。hint后为that引导的同位语从 句,从句中还含有when引导的时间状语从句。 Passage 6(2016课标全国Ⅲ) 根据短文内容,从短文后的选项中选出能填入空白处的最佳选项。选项中有两项为多余选 项。 Everyone knows that fish is good for health. 1 But it seems that many people don't cook fish at home. Americans eat only about fifteen pounds of fish per person per year, but we eat twice as much fish in restaurants as at home. Buying, storing, and cooking fish isn't difficult. 2 This text is about how to buy and cook fish in an easy way. 3 Fresh fish should smell sweet:you should feel that you're standing at the ocean's edge. Any,fishy or strong smell means the fish isn't fresh. 4 When you have bought a fish and arrive home, you'd better store the fish in the refrigerator if you don't cook it immediately, but fresh fish should be stored in your fridge for only a day or two. Frozen fish isn't as tasty as the fresh one. There are many common methods used to cook fish. 5 First, clean it and season it with your choice of spices(调料). Put the whole fish on a plate and steam it in a steam pot for 8 to 10 minutes if it weighs about one pound. (A larger one will take more time.)Then, it's ready to serve. A.Do not buy it. B.The easiest is to steam it. C.This is how you can do it. D.It just requires a little knowledge. E.The fish will go bad within hours. F.When buying fish, you should first smell it. G.The fats in fish are thought to help prevent heart disease.,答案 [语篇解读] 本文为说明文,介绍了买鱼和烹饪鱼的小窍门。 1.G 细节句。上句提到吃鱼对人的健康有益,本句是对上句的解释说明,G项符合语境,意为 “人们认为鱼的脂肪有助于预防心脏病。” 2.D 细节句。上句指出:购买、储存和烹饪鱼并不是难事。本句承接上句,D项符合语境,意 为“它只需要一点儿知识”。 3.F 主旨句。下文指出了新鲜的鱼和不新鲜的鱼都有什么气味,由此可判断F项为主题句,意 为“买鱼时应该先闻闻味道”。 4.A 细节句。上句指出有腥味或者味儿很大的鱼不新鲜,本句承接上句,指出不要购买这样 的鱼,故A项正确。 5.B 过渡句。上文指出做鱼的方法有很多种,根据下文出现的steam可知此处讲述了清蒸的 方法,故B项正确,意为“最简单的方法就是清蒸”。 高级语块 1.be good for 对……有好处 2.twice as much.as.是……的两倍 3.had better do sth. 最好做某事,长难句 When you have bought a fish and arrive home, you'd better store the fish in the refriger- ator if you don't cook it immediately, but fresh fish should be stored in your fridge for only a day or two.你买完鱼到家后,如果不立即烹饪的话,最好把它储存在冰箱里,但是鲜鱼应该在冰箱中 只存放一两天。 本句为复合句,when引导时间状语从句,if引导条件状语从句。 Passage 7(2016课标全国Ⅱ) 根据短文内容,从短文后的选项中选出能填入空白处的最佳选项。选项中有两项为多余选 项。 A garden that's just right for you Have you ever visited a garden that seemed just right for you, where the atmosphere of the garden appeared to total more than the sum(总和)of its parts? 1 .But it doesn't happen by accident. It starts with looking inside yourself and understanding who you are with respect to the natural world and how you approach the gardening process. ● 2 Some people may think that a garden is no more than plants, flowers, patterns and masses of color.,Others are concerned about using gardening methods that require less water and fewer fertilizers (肥料). 3 .However, there are a number of other reasons that might explain why you want to garden. One of them comes from our earliest years. ●Recall(回忆) your childhood memories Our model of what a garden should be often goes back to childhood. Grandma's rose garden and Dad's vegetable garden might be good or bad, but that's not what's important. 4 —how being in those gardens made us feel. If you'd like to build a powerful bond with your garden, start by taking some time to recall the gardens of your youth. 5 .Then go outside and work out a plan to translate your childhood memories into your grown-up garden. Have fun. A.Know why you garden B.Find a good place for your own garden C.It's our experience of the garden that matters D.It's delightful to see so many beautiful flowers E.Still others may simply enjoy being outdoors and close to plants,F.You can produce that kind of magical quality in your own garden, too G.For each of those gardens, write down the strongest memory you have 答案 [语篇解读] 本文是一篇说明文,介绍了如何种植和经营好自己的花园和菜园。 1.F 过渡句。上句提到了氛围,F项中that kind of magical quality指代上句中的内容,故选F 项。 2.A 主旨句。本段列举了一些人的观点之后,提到other reasons that might explain why you want to garden,由此可以推断出本段的主旨就是:你要知道自己为什么要种植花木。 3.E 细节句。根据本段中的Some people may think that.Others are concerned about.可推断 出此处应该是:Still others may.。 4.C 过渡句。上句提到:但是那并不重要。本句应为:重要的是我们自己种植花木的经历。 matters=is important,故选C项。 5.G 过渡句。上句提到:通过花费时间回想你青年时期的园子开始吧。本句应为:为记忆中 的每一个园子,写下你最深刻的记忆。引出下文:然后走出去,制订一个计划把你小时候的记忆 转化为你成年后的园子。,Passage 8(2016课标全国Ⅰ) 根据短文内容,从短文后的选项中选出能填入空白处的最佳选项。选项中有两项为多余选 项。 Secret codes(密码)keep messages private. Banks, companies, and government agencies use secret codes in doing business, especially when information is sent by computer. People have used secret codes for thousands of years. 1 Code breaking never lags(落后)far be- hind code making. The science of creating and reading coded messages is called cryptography. There are three main types of cryptography. 2 For example, the first letters of “My elephant eats too many eels”spell out the hidden message“Meet me.” 3 You might represent each letter with a number, for example. Let's number the letters of the alphabet, in order, from 1 to 26. If we substitute a number for each letter,the message “Meet me”would read“13 5 5 20 13 5.” A code uses symbols to replace words, phrases, or sentences. To read the message of a real code,,you must have a code book. 4 For example, “bridge”might stand for “meet”and“out” might stand for “me”.The message“Bridge out”would actually mean“Meet me.” 5 However, it is also hard to keep a code book secret for long. So codes must be changed frequently. A.It is very hard to break a code without the code book. B.In any language, some letters are used more than others. C.Only people who know the keyword can read the message. D.As long as there have been codes, people have tried to break them. E.You can hide a message by having the first letters of each word spell it out. F.With a code book,you might write down words that would stand for other words. G.Another way to hide a message is to use symbols to stand for specific letters of the alphabet. 答案 [语篇解读] 本文是一篇说明文,介绍了密码的用途、历史以及三种密码方式。 1.D 过渡句。上句提到:人们使用密码已经几千年了。下句提到:密码的破解从未太落后于 密码的设定。由此可知D项符合语境,意为“只要有密码,人们就会尽力去破解它们。”,2.E 过渡句。上句提到:有三种主要的密码设定方式。下句提到:例如,“My elephant eats too many eels”的首字母就拼出了“Meet me”这一隐藏起来的信息。由此可知本句应该为一种 密码的设定方式,根据下句举到的例子,可知E项正确,意为“你可以用每个单词的首字母拼写 出一条信息,以此来隐藏它。” 3.G 主旨句。上段指出有三种主要的密码设定方式,上段已经提到了一种,本段应该指出另 外一种。下文举例说明了用数字来代替字母的密码方式,由此可知G项能起到统领本段的作 用,意为“另外一种隐藏信息的方式就是用符号来代替字母表中特定的字母。” 4.F 细节句。上句指出:要解读某个真实密码的信息,你必须要有密码本。本句是对上句的 解释说明,结合下文举到的例子,可推断出本句主要解释如何利用密码本来破解隐藏起来的信 息。F项符合语境,意为“拥有了密码本,你也许就能写出代表其他单词的单词。” 5.A 细节句。上文指出了利用密码本来破解密码的方式。A项是总结上文内容得出的结论, 意为“没有密码本就很难破解密码”,而且根据下句“.it is also hard to.”的句型结构也可 得知A项符合语境。,长难句 Banks, companies, and government agencies use secret codes in doing business, espe- cially when information is sent by computer.银行、公司和政府机构在办公时都使用密码,尤其 是当信息是由电脑发出的时候。 本句为主从复合句。本句中use.in.为常用结构,意为“在某方面使用……”,when引导时间 状语从句。 Passage 9(2015课标全国Ⅱ) 根据短文内容,从短文后的选项中选出能填入空白处的最佳选项。选项中有两项为多余选 项。 Training for a marathon requires careful preparation and steady,gradual increases in the length of the runs. 1 ,buy the best-fitting,best-built running shoes you can find. No one can say which brand will work best for you or feel best on your feet,so you have to rely on your experience and on the feel of each pair as you shop.When you have found shoes that seem right,walk in them for a few days to double-check the fit. 2 .As always,you should stretch(伸展)at least ten minutes be- fore each run to prevent injuries. During the first week,do not think about distance,but run five minutes longer each day. 3 ,it is,wise to take a day off to rest.But during the next week,set a goal of at least a mile and a half per run. 4 .After two weeks,start timing yourself. 5 .Depending on the kind of race you plan to enter,you can set up a timetable for the remaining weeks before the race. A.After six days B.For a good marathon runner C.Before you begin your training D.With each day,increase the distance by a half mile E.If they still feel good,you can begin running in them F.Time spent for preparation raises the quality of training G.Now you are ready to figure out a goal of improving distance and time 答案 [语篇解读] 本文介绍了马拉松训练需要认真的准备和稳定、渐进的过程。 1.C 根据第二段中的During the first week可知这里是指训练前的准备工作,故选C。 2.E 设空处与其前一句是顺承关系,故选E。,3.A 根据上文During the first week 和下文 take a day off to rest 可知,一周七天里训练六天后 休息一天是明智的,故选A。 4.D 根据本段第一句中的During the first week,do not think about distance 和第二个But可知, 这里要考虑距离的问题了,故选D。 5.G 设空处对上文进行总结,根据下文的timetable和设空处前两句话可知,这里是增加距离和 设定时间的目标。故选G。 Passage 10(2015课标全国Ⅰ) 根据短文内容,从短文后的选项中选出能填入空白处的最佳选项。选项中有两项为多余选 项。 Building Trust in a Relationship Again Trust is a learned behavior that we gain from past experiences. 1 Trust is a risk.But you can't be successful when there's a lack of trust in a relationship that results from an action where the wrongdoer takes no responsibility to fix the mistake. Unfortunately,we've all been victims of betrayal.Whether we've been stolen from,lied to,misled,,or cheated on,there are different levels of losing trust.Sometimes people simply can't trust any- more. 2 It's understandable,but if you're willing to build trust in a relationship again,we have some steps you can take to get you there. ● 3 Having confidence in yourself will help you make better choices because you can see what the best outcome would be for your well-being. ● 4 If you've been betrayed,you are the victim of your circumstance.But there's a difference between being a victim and living with a“victim mentality”.At some point in all of our lives,we' ll have our trust tested or violated. ●You didn't lose“everything”.Once trust is lost,what is left?Instead of looking at the situation from this hopeless angle,look at everything you still have and be thankful for all of the good in your life. 5 Instead,it's a healthy way to work through the experience to allow room for posi- tive growth and forgiveness. A.Learn to really trust yourself. B.It is putting confidence in someone.,C.Stop regarding yourself as the victim. D.Remember that you can expect the best in return. E.They've been too badly hurt and they can't bear to let it happen again. F.This knowledge carries over in their attitude toward their future relationships. G.Seeing the positive side of things doesn't mean you're ignoring what happened. 答案 [语篇解读] 人和人之间需要相互信任,赢得别人的信任并不是一件容易的事。我们也曾在 某个特定的关系群中失去了对别人的信任,成了背叛的受害者。如何重新在这个关系群中建 立起那份信任呢?本文给出了几条建议。 1.B 第一段阐述了什么是“信任”。空格前说Trust is a learned behavior.,空格后说Trust is a risk.由此推断出选B项。,2.E 空格前列举了遭遇背叛的几种情况:被偷、被撒谎、被误导、被欺骗,这些事情的发生 使人们受到了深深的伤害,他们不能容忍它再次发生。故选E项。 3.A 根据后面句子中的Having confidence in yourself可知此处作者建议:学会真正信任你自 己。故选A项。 4.C 根据后面句子中的you are the victim和being a victim以及a “victim mentality”可知此处 作者的建议是:不要再把自己当成一个受害者。故选C项。 5.G 空格前作者建议:不要从绝望的角度看局面,而要感激你生活中所有的好的方面。空格 后作者说:这是一种健康的方式……。由此推断出此处答案为G项:看到事情积极的方面并不 意味着你在忽视已经发生的事情。,B组 自主命题·省(区、市)卷题组 Passage 1(2018浙江) 根据短文内容,从短文后的选项中选出能填入空白处的最佳选项。选项中有两项为多余选 项。 Moving into a new home in a new neighborhood is an exciting experience. Of course, you want to make sure that you become an accepted and valuable part of your new neighborhood. The easiest way to accomplish this is to make sure you conduct yourself as a good neighbor should. 1 Perhaps one of the most important things you can do as a good neighbor is to keep your property (房产) neat, clean, and in good repair. 2 By choosing to keep the outside of the home in great shape, you will help to improve the look and feel of the area. Second, take the overall appearance of the neighborhood seriously. When going for a walk, take a- long a small garbage bag. 3 This small act will let your neighbors know that you care about the area. 4 If a neighbor is going to be out of town, offer to collect mail and newspapers. If a neighbor suffers an illness, offer to do the grocery shopping. Let them know that you are there to help in any,way that is acceptable, while still respecting the privacy of your neighbor. 5 By following the basic rules of respecting others, taking care of what belongs to you, and taking pride in the appearance of the neighborhood in general, you will quickly become a good n
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