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英美概况考试整理.pdf

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师出教育 电话:400-600-2690 咨询QQ:1400700402 第 1 页共10 页 2016 安徽教师统考《英语学科专业知识》 CommonLaw( 判例法) Common Law is one part of The British Constitution, it has never been precisely defined. It is deduced from custom or legal precedents and interpreted in court cases byjudges. 判例法: 英国法院特别是高等法院在司法实践中对某些案例的判决和解释 。 TheOpposition (反对党) 指某些国家中的在野党,指实行多党制的国家中不执政的政党。与执政党相对。 ShadowCabinet( 影子内阁) 某些行内阁制的民主国家, 其在野党为准备上台执政而设的预备内阁班子; 往往由下议院中最大的反对党领袖,物色下院中有影响的同党议员,按内 阁形式组建而成。这种制度由英国保守党首创,也叫“预备内阁” 、“在野内 阁” 。 下面这段中英文互译的文字清楚地解释了反对党和影子内阁: Britainhasanumberofparties,butthereareonlytwomajorparties.Thesetwo partiesaretheConservativePartyandtheLabourParty.Since1945,eitherthe ConservativePartyortheLabourPartyhasheldpower.Thepartywhichwins sufficientseatsataGeneralElectioncommandsamajorityofGovernment.The party leaderofthemajoritypartyisappointedPrimeMinister.Thepartywhichwinsthe secondlargestnumberofseatsbecomestheOfficialOpposition,withitsownleader and“shadowcabinet”.Theroleofoppositionistohelptheformulationofpolicy, criticizetheGovernmentanddebatewiththeGovernment. 英国有很多政党, 但有两个主要的政党---- 保守党和工党。 从1945 年以来, 两党 一直轮流执政, 在大选中获多数议席因而在下议院拥有多数支持者的政党组建政 府,多数党领袖由君主任命为首相。获得第二多数议席的政党则正式成为“ 反对 党” ,有自己的领袖和影子内阁 。反对党的目的是帮助制定政策,给政府提出批 评性的建议和修正议案。 thePrivyCouncil( 枢密院): 1.abodyofadvisors(450members) 2.currentandformerCabinetmembersandimportantpublicfigures 3.Itsmaindutyistogiveadvice ChecksandBalances( 制衡原则) 制衡原则, 指西方政治结构中为防止滥用职权, 在立法, 司法, 行政三权之间或师出教育 电话:400-600-2690 咨询QQ:1400700402 第 2 页共10 页 在各政府各部门之间实行相互牵制的原则。 “ChecksandBalances ”isoneofthecharacteristicsintheConstitutionoftheUnited States.ItgoesbacktothetraditionthateveryoneintheUnitedStateswasafraidthat onepersonorgroup,includingthemajority,mightbecometoopowerfulorbeableto seizecontrolofthecountryandcreatea tyranny.Toguardagainstthispossibility,the delegateswhodraftedtheConstitutionsetupagovernment consistingofthreeparts, orbranches:thelegislature,theexecutive,andthejudiciary.Eachbranchhaspowers thattheothersdonothaveandeachbranchhasawayofcounteractingandlimiting anywrongful actionbyotherbranches. Renaissance( 文艺复兴) theperiodinEurope,especiallyItaly,inthe14th,15th,and16thcenturies,when therewasanewinterestinLatinandGreekart,literature,science,andlearning. Classicism They favor a strongsocialsecuritysystem. Supporters:Poorerandless-privilegedAmericans TheDemocraticParty—liberal; Government—playing an important role in the economy and emphasizing full employment; Favor civil rights laws, a strong social security system and less restrictive abortion laws,etc.; More disposed to search out a method of living with Russia and China and to look for reductioninarmsspending. 下议院theHouseofCommons 1.646MembersofParliament,knownas“MPs”for short,whorepresentthe646 geographicalareas/constituencies 2.thepartyholdsthemostseatsformsthegovernment,withtheleaderbeingPrime Minister 3.Generalelectionheldevery5years FunctionsoftheHouseofCommons: 1.topasslaws,billsandactsofParliament 2.toscrutinize,criticizeandrestraintheactionsofthegovernment 3.toinfluencethefuturegovernment policy 启蒙运动(TheEnlightenment) 18 世纪的启蒙运动是一场遍及全欧的声势浩大的思想文化运动,主要特征是用 唯物主义思想反对唯心主义, 反对神权和宗教压迫, 提出天赋人权的理论, 崇尚 理性,倡导“总有,民主,平等” 。 TheEnlightenmentwasaprogressiveintellectualmovement throughoutWestern Europeinthe18thcentury.Itwasanexpressionofstruggleofthebourgeoisieagainst feudalism.Inthismovementreasonwasadvocatedastheprimarysourcefor师出教育 电话:400-600-2690 咨询QQ:1400700402 第 4 页共10 页 legitimacyandauthority.Itwas alsoknownasthe“AgeofReason”.It advocated “liberty,equality,democracy”. 光荣革命GloriousRevolution 1688:jointsovereignofWilliamandMary 1689:BillofRights removedtherulingmonarchandestablishedConstitutional Monarchy Charles ‖wascrownedonApril23,1661andhetriedtorestoretheoldsocialorder duringhisreign.Uponhisdeathin1685,hewassucceededbyhisbrother,James ‖, whowasaCatholic.JamessoonshowedhisreadinesstoreestablishCatholicismin England.ThiswassomethingtheEnglishbourgeoisiecouldnotagreeto.Agroupof importantleadingfiguresjoinedforcesandaskedWilliam,whowasthenheadofthe UnitedNetherlandsandhadmarriedMary,James ‖’sdaughter,tocomeandrule England.Heacceptedtheinvitationandpreparedtoreplacehisfather-in-law.After WilliamlandedinEnglandwithanarmyin11,1688,James ‖fledtoFrance.Anew ParliamentdeclaredthethronevacantandappointedWilliamandMaryjoint sovereigns.Thetakeoverwasrelativelysmooth,withnobloodshed,noranyexecutive oftheKing.ThiswascalledtheGloriousRevolution. TheGloriousRevolutionwascomplete,inwhichParliamentsucceededinremovinga rulingmonarchtheydidnotlikeandestablishingasystemknownasConstitutional monarchy.Fromthattime,theKingruledwithanauthoritycircumscribed( 限制)by Parliament. 工业革命TheIndustrialRevolution TheIndustrialRevolutiontookplacefirstinBritainforthefollowingreasons:  hugemarket  coloniesinAmericaandIndia—capital  enclosuremovement—labor  Aseriesofimportantinventionsinthetextileindustrymarkedthebeginningof IndustrialRevolution Bythemiddleof19thcentury,theIndustrialRevolutionwasaccomplishedin Britain.Influence:  dramaticallyincreasedindustrialproductivity  theprocessofurbanization  changesinclassstructure  Theconflictbetweenthecapitalistsandtheproletarians—themostimportant politicalissue师出教育 电话:400-600-2690 咨询QQ:1400700402 第 5 页共10 页 两党制(Bipartisanship) ThetwomajorpoliticalpartiesintheunitedstatesaretheRepublicanand DemocraticParties.Establishedandsupportedbythosewithwealthandpower,both haveruledthenationalternativelyfordifferentlengthsoftime.Thissystemisthe well-knownbipartisanshipsystempracticedintheUS. 陪审团制度(theJurySystem) Inmostcriminaljusticesystemsandsomecivilcases,panelsareinitiallyselected atrandomfromtheadultpopulationofthedistrict.Apersonwhoisservingon(is amemberof) ajuryisknownasajuror. Thenumberofjurorsisusuallytwelve,thoughsmallercasesmayrequireonlysix. Somealternatejurorsarenominatedtofollowthetrialwhenjurorsdonot completethetrialfor healthorotherreasons(buttheydonottakepartindeciding theverdict). Theroleofthejuryisthe“finderoffact”,whiletheJudgehasthesole responsibilityofinterpretingtheappropriatelawandinstructingthejury accordingly. Occasionally,ajurymayfindthedefendant“notguilty“ eventhoughheviolated thelawifthejurythinksthatthelawisinvalidorunjust. 君主立宪制(constitutionalmonarchy) TheQueenisthesymbolofthewholenation.Inlaw,sheisheadoftheexecutive,an integralpartofthelegislature,headofthejudiciary,thecommanderinchiefofallthe armedforcesandthe“supremegovernor”oftheChurchofEngland.ShegivesRoyal AssenttoBillspassedbyparliament. Themonarchactuallyhasnorealpower.Themonarch’spowerislimitedbylawand Parliament.ConstitutionalmonarchybeganaftertheGloriousRevolutionin1668. 女王是国家的象征。 从法律上讲, 她是行政首脑, 立法机构的组成部分, 司法首 脑, 全国武装部队的总司令和英国国教的最高首脑。 议会通过的议案必须经过她 给予皇家首肯。 君主政体实际无实权。它的权利受限于法律和议会。君主立宪制是从1688 年的 光荣革命后开始的。 课本上的注释这样说: 君主立宪制,又称“有限君主制” ,一种国家体制。在保 留君主制的前提下, 通过立宪, 树立人民主权、 限制君主权力、 实现事实上的共 和政体。 惯例法师出教育 电话:400-600-2690 咨询QQ:1400700402 第 6 页共10 页 在书本上和课件上只看到“习惯法” ,猜测它与惯例法差不多,就把习惯法 (Conventions )的相关资料写在这儿: Conventionsarerulesandpracticeswhichdonotexistlegally,butareregardedas vitaltotheworkingofgovernment. 习惯法:大多数是在立宪政治发展过程中形成的经法院承认的宪法性法律 规则。 如关于国王的“国王统而不治”、 “国王不能为非” ; 关于首相自行 组阁等宪法的惯例。 WWI OutbreakofthefirstWorldWar: Inevitableresultofcontradictionbetweentwogroupsofimperialistpowers: AlliesPowers( 协约国)—Britain,France,andRussia TheCentralEuropeanPowers( 同盟国)—Germany,Austria-Hungaryand Italy Thepolitical,economicandcolonialrivalriesofthegreatpowers. Q.WhydidAmericaenterWorldWarI? 1.Germans’submarinessankshipsgoingtoEngland—injuringAmericantrade. 2. Germany promised the Mexicans a chance “to regain its lost territory by the war againsttheUS”. 3. After two years’ fighting, both sides grew weary—a good chance for America to enterthewar. USenteredthewarin1917 Morethan4millionAmericanswenttothebattlefield—playingan importantroleinturningthetideofthewar:brokeGermandefenselineand helpedtheBritishbreakGermansubmarineblockade. TheGermanGovernmentappealedtoPresidentWilsonforpeacesettlement Anarmistice( 停火协议)wasconcludedinNovember 1918 WWII WorldWarIIbrokeoutinSeptember,1939andendedinAugust,1945. Backgroundofthewar TheWorldSpreadeconomiccrisis GermanyandItalybegantheirwaysoffascismandmilitaryexpansion. JapanmeanttoconquerChinaandSoutheastAsiabymilitaryexpansion. Asit-on-the-fencepolicy dotradewiththewarringcountries,includingtheaggressors believein“gloriousisolation” Itsnegativeeffect:师出教育 电话:400-600-2690 咨询QQ:1400700402 第 7 页共10 页 IsolationismencouragedNaziandAdolphHitlertobelievethattheycould relyonAmericanneutralityandtheirvictimscouldnotbuymunitionsin US. JapanbelievedthatpacifistUSwouldnotfightfortheintegrityofChina. OnthemorningofDecember7,1941,JapaneseairforceattackedtheUS PacificfleetatPearlHarbor,Hawaii.ItwasthedirectcauseforAmerica’s entranceintothewar. ConferenceatPotsdam:HeadsoftheUS,BritishandSovietUnionmetat Potsdam,todiscussoperationsagainstJapan,thepeacesettlementinEurope,and apolicyfor thefutureofGermany. EndofWWII TheUSairforcedroppedatomicbombs onHiroshimaOnAugust6andon NagasakionAugust 8. OnSeptember2,1945,Japansurrendered. Theprocedureoflaw-makinginUS HowaBillBecomesaLaw? 1.AmemberofCongressintroducesabill 2.Committeesreviewandvoteonthebill Committeesaremadeupofsmallgroupssenatorsorrepresntatives. Thecommitteemayrejectthebilland“table“it,meaningitisneverdiscussed again.Oritmayholdhearingstolistentofactsandopinions,makechangesin thebillandcastvotes.Ifmostcommitteemembersvoteinfavorofthebill,itis sentbacktotehSenateandtheHousefordebate. 3.ThesenateandtheHousedebateandvoteonabill. Separately,theSenateandtheHousedebatethebill,offeramendmentsandcast votes.IfthebillisdefeatedineithertheSenateortheHouse,thebilldies. IfamajorityofboththeSenateandtheHousevotesforthebill,itgoestothe Presidentforapproval.Inthiscase,thebillbecamesanact. 4.ThePresidentsignsthebillornot. IfthePresidentapprovesthebillandsignsit,thebillbecomesalaw.However, ifthePresidentdisapproves,hecanvetothebillbyrefusingtosignit. Congresscantrytooverruleaveto.IfboththeSenateandtheHousepassthe billbyatwo-thirdsmajority,thePresident'svetoisoverruledandthebill becomesalaw. IndustrialRevolution( 工业革命) TheIndustrialRevolutiontookplacefirstinBritainforthefollowingreasons:师出教育 电话:400-600-2690 咨询QQ:1400700402 第 8 页共10 页  hugemarket  coloniesinAmericaandIndia—capital  enclosuremovement—labor  Aseriesofimportantinventions inthetextileindustrymarkedthebeginningof IndustrialRevolution Bythemiddleof19thcentury,theIndustrialRevolutionwasaccomplishedin Britain. Influence:  dramaticallyincreasedindustrialproductivity  theprocessofurbanization  changesinclassstructure  Theconflictbetweenthecapitalistsandtheproletarians—themostimportant politicalissue AmericanCivilWar 美国内战 1.CausesofCivilWar EconomicReason:twodifferenteconomicsystems Twodifferenteconomicsystemsexistedsidebyside IntheSouth—slaverywasthefoundation Theslaveeconomy—anobstacletoindustrialgrowthandexpansion IntheNorth—commerceandindustryledtheeconomy Industrialeconomyrequiredtherestrictionofslaveryandterritoryfor rawmaterials,marketsandlaborsupply Economicantagonismledtoincreasedconflictsbetween NorthandSouth. PoliticalReason: TheNorth—FederalGovernmentasaunion TheSouth—TheConfederateGovernment 2.ComparisonofPower TheNorth: twenty-threestates,22millionpopulation abundantfacilitiestomanufacturearmsandammunition,clothing, andothersupplies merchantmarinesandthenavyremainedinUnionhands federalgovernmentwasbetterabletoraisefundforwar TheSouth: elevenstates,9millionpopulation militaryadvantages: activelypreparingfor war师出教育 电话:400-600-2690 咨询QQ:1400700402 第 9 页共10 页 inpossessionofmanyfederalfortsandarsenals superiormilitaryleadership:athirdoftheregulararmy's officerswerefromtheSouth fightingonitsownsoil 3.TheFierceWar OnFeb4,1861,AbrahamLincolntookoffice.AbrahamLincoln,ayoungman& lawyerinIllinois,beganhispoliticalcareerbyservingfour termsinthestate legislatureandthenonetermintheHouseofRepresentatives.Heinsistedslavery wasevilandshouldberestrictedandultimatelyabolished ChallengesAbrahamLincolnfaced: firstpriority—keepingtheUnitedStatesonecountry 11southernstatessecededfromFederalUnionproclaimedanindependent nation freedomforblackpeople—secondaryobjective issuedtheEmancipationProclamation( 解放宣言),grantingfreedomtoall slaves. Gettysburg—turningpointofthewar UnionarmydefeatedoneConfederatearmy laterallotherConfederateforcessoonsurrendered OnApril14,LincolnwasassassinatedbyactorJohnWilkesBooth. 4.InfluenceoftheCivilWar TheSignificanceoftheCivilWar 1)abolishedtheslavesystem 2)swepttheobstaclestothedevelopmentofUScapitalistproduction NormanConquest 诺曼征服(1066) 1.theReasons a.TheKing,Edward,apiousChristian,wasmoreconcernedwiththebuildingof WestminsterAbbey. b.HegrewupinNormandy,sohewassaidtohavepromisedhisEnglishthroneto William,theDukeofNormandy. c.WarbetweenWalliamandHarold 2.Thefighting a.ThefightingnearHastingswasendedwithinaday,forAnglo-Saxonmenhadno experienceoffightingagainstthefinesthorsemeninEurope. b.BattleinHastings师出教育 电话:400-600-2690 咨询QQ:1400700402 第 10 页共10 页 3.TheimpactoftheConquest Government: – TheweakSaxonrulewasreplacedwithastrongNormangovernment. – ThefeudalsystemwascompletelyestablishedinEngland. – theGreatCouncil(theembryonicform oftheEnglishParliament) – theTowerofLandon Culture: – RelationswiththeContinentopened,withtheScandinavianscutoff – Civilizationandcommerceextended – Norman-Frenchculture,language,manners,andarchitectureintroduced: bi-linguisticperiod,MiddleEnglish Religion —TheEnglishwasbroughtintocloserconnectionwithRomanCatholic
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