• / 34
  • 下载费用:2 金币  

知识管理和组织学习.pdf

关 键 词:
知识 管理 组织 学习
资源描述:
知识管理和组织学习 Knowledge Management What is Knowledge Management • Knowledge management, or KM, is the process through which organizations generate value from their intellectual property and knowledge-based assets • KM involves the creation, dissemination, and utilization of knowledge • It is also viewed as the intersection between People, Processes and Technology Knowledge Management Components Components: Strategies Processes Metrics Cycle: Knowledge, Creation Sharing, Measurement And Improvement Technologies: Expert systems Collaboration Training Web Components of Knowledge Management: Components, Cycle and Technologies Identification Creation Diffusion - Tacit, Explicit Integration Modification Action Organizational Learning Process Metrics Source: Reinhardt and Pawlowsky also see: Tools in Organizational Learning http://duplox.wz-berlin.de/oldb/forslin.html Six Principals of Effective Learning • Effective Learning Requires:  Understanding 1) Mental models, paradigms, context, observation, assumptions, opinion, fact, truth 2) Systems Thinking - Variation  Skills 3) Ability to challenge assumptions 4) Listen to Understand  Process 5) Complete observe, assess (reflection, gain understanding), design (develop theory, prediction, vision), implement (test), cycle 6) Teach others Knowledge Management Metrics - The Goal of Metrics  Measuring Success (How am I doing?)  Benchmarking (How am I comparatively doing?)  Tracking Improvement (Am I getting better?)  Direct  future investment (technology, employees)  strategy  alignment (culture, incentives) “One way to ensure your doing worse is to not measure” Learning By-Product Measures  Papers in Competitive Journals and Magazines  Percentage New Technology compared to all Technology  Process Cycle Time  Employee Surveys  Involvement with decisions  Recognition for work achieved  Access to information  Rewarding risk taking  Overall Satisfaction  Employee Retention  ‘Employee Suggestion Process Knowledge Management: Incentive-based Approaches Receiver Positive Incentives • Knowledge Gained • Can teach others what is learned Teacher Positive Incentives • “Knowledge Transfer Champion” prestige •Can improve knowledge Negative Incentives •Time •Unqualified teacher Negative Incentives •Time •Students not willing to learn Effective Information Access Vision  Available - If information exists, it is available for retrieval  Internal and External sources  Processed from available data  Relevant - Information retrieved applies to information need  If available, information is retrieved  Useful - Information has a positive impact  Influences behavior to improve productivity - best practices and techniques  Raises understanding of a domain  Not misinformation  Accessible - Information obtained during the time of need; In common language and ontology. Knowledge Management: Strategies, Processes, Metrics and Tools Knowledge Management: Within and Across Corporations and Agencies Strategies e.g., Management Plans; Policies; Data sharing vs. Privacy Processes e.g., best practices Metrics e.g., web usage, publications Tools e.g., Semantic Web, Data mining, Multimedia Knowledge Management Cycle Knowledge Creation and Acquisition Manager Knowledge Representation Manager Knowledge Manipulation Manager Knowledge Dissemination and Sharing Manager Knowledge Management Architecture • Knowledge management requires several components: – Access to both internal and external information sources, – Repositories that contain explicit knowledge, – Processes to acquire, refine, store, retrieve, disseminate and present knowledge, – Organizational incentives and management roles to support these activities, – People who facilitate, curate, and disseminate knowledge within the organization. – Information technology to provide automation support for many of the above activities, Knowledge Management Process Model. Acquisition Refinement Storage/ Retrieval Distribution Presentation • Expertise • Domain Model • Business Rules •Ownership; Federation Agreements, Data Sources • External Sources and Formats. •Wrappers • Politics of data • Data Cleansing • Indexing • Metadata Tagging •Concept Formulation • Information Integration •Ontology KM is just another term in the ongoing continuum of business management evolution KM: Strategy, Process and Metrics • Strategy – Motivation for KM and how to structure a KM program • Process – Use of KM to make existing practice more effective • Metrics – Measure the impact of KM on an organization Knowledge Management Strategy: Examples • Building learning organizations • Developing a knowledge strategy: from management to leadership • Building intangible assets : A strategic framework for investing in intellectual capital Building Learning Organizations • Adaptive learning and Generative learning – Need to adapt to the changing environment – Total quality movement (TQM) in Japan has migrated to a generative learning model • Look at the world in a new way • Changing roles of the leader – Migrating from decision makers to designers, teachers and stewards • Building a shared vision – Encouraging ideas, Requesting support, Moving beyond blame, Effective communication • Learning tools – Learning laboratory Developing a Knowledge Strategy • Two thrusts of strategy – Thrust 1: Making known the knowledge that already exists by sharing best practices – Thrust 2: Innovation: Convert ideas into products, services, improved business processes • Some Knowledge Levers – Customer knowledge – Knowledge in people, products, services, processes, relationships – Organizational memory – Knowledge assets – Some Knowledge Levers • Link Knowledge Strategy with Business strategy Building Intangible Assets • Elements of Intellectual Capital – Human capital, Structural capital, Social capital • Integrating three types of knowledge – Avoid focusing on one element of intellectual capital; anticipate change in intellectual capital • Where to invest? – Understand core business processes and business drivers – Knowledge that will support decision making at all levels • Getting started – Start with prototypes and build up Knowledge Management Process: Examples • Theory of Organizational Knowledge Management • Knowledge Management: Linking Theory with Practice • Enabling Complex Adaptive Processes through Knowledge Management • Evolution Through Knowledge Management: Implementing Business quality Processes Theory of Organizational Knowledge Management • Two dimensions of knowledge creation – Ontological: knowledge is created by individuals not about individuals – Epistemological: humans create knowledge by involving them with objects • Knowledge Conversion: Interaction between Tacit and Explicit knowledge – Socialization: tacit to tacit – Externalization: tacit to explicit – Combination: explicit to explicit – Internatlization: explicit to tacit Linking Theory with Practice • Organizational learning theory – Learning levels – Learning modes – Learning types – Learning process • Practical Knowledge Management – Identification/creation – Diffusion – Integration/Modification – Action Knowledge Management in Process Management • Types of Processes – Simple processes: Low level operation – Complex and nonadapative processes: Systems that sue the same rules – Complex and adaptive: Agents carrying out the processes are intelligent and adaptive • Linking knowledge management with processes – Knowledge management is needed for all processes; critical for complex and adaptive processes – Learn from experience and use the experience in unknown situations Knowledge Management Metrics: Examples • The Balanced Scorecard: Learning and Growth Perspective • Measuring Intangibles and Intellectual Capital • Knowledge Sharing Metrics for Large Organizations The Balanced Scorecard • Employee Capabilities: Measuring the following – Employee satisfaction – Employee retention – Employee productivity • Information system capabilities: Measuring the following – Whether each employee segment has information to carry out its operations. • Motivation and Empowerment: Measuring the following – Suggestions made and implemented – Improvement – Team performance Measuring Intangibles and Intellectual Capital • Identify the Intangible assets – External to an organization, Internal to the organization, Individual • Develop an approach to measure the intangible assets • Measure the intangible assets – Example: the flow of knowledge; the commercial value of knowledge; individual competence • Link to financial assets – Knowledge managers and economists have to work together to determine the indicators Knowledge Sharing Metrics • Number of shared documents published • Number of improvement suggestions made • Number of patents approved • Number of presentations made • Number of web page hits • Number of subscriptions to journals • Number of members in discussion lists • Number of conferences attended • Number of contacts made • Number of times advice is sought In Conclusion: • An organization must determine its knowledge management strategies, processes and metrics • It must review its strategies., processes and metrics periodically • Technology evolves rapidly. Therefore the strategies, processes and metrics should not depend on technology • Select appropriate technologies and evaluate them from time to time Where did knowledge management come from • Is it a replacement for business process reengineering? Is it due to globalization? • Intellectual antecedents – Economics, Sociology, Philosophy and psychology – Rigor in economics, observational richness of sociology and the understanding of philosophy and psychology give knowledge management its intellectual scope • Practices – Information management – Human factors/human capitol movement Transforming knowledge • Tacit to Tacit – E-meetings, Synchronous collaboration (chat) • Explicit to Tacit – Visualization, Browsable video/audio of representations • Tacit to Explicit – Answering questions, Annotations • Explicit to Explicit – Text search, Document categorization Data Mining for Knowledge Management • Data Mining is a key technology for knowledge management • Mine the data to determine the competitor strategy to improve business; also to enhance one’s own strategy • Targeted marketing to customers to improve sales • Determine strategies for employee retention and benefits • In summary data mining is key to better business intelligence and business intelligence is key to effective knowledge management
展开阅读全文
  语墨文库所有资源均是用户自行上传分享,仅供网友学习交流,未经上传用户书面授权,请勿作他用。
0条评论

还可以输入200字符

暂无评论,赶快抢占沙发吧。

关于本文
本文标题:知识管理和组织学习.pdf
链接地址:http://www.wenku38.com/p-65801.html

                                            站长QQ:1002732220      手机号:18710392703    


                                                          copyright@ 2008-2020 语墨网站版权所有

                                                             经营许可证编号:蜀ICP备18034126号

网站客服微信
收起
展开