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人教出版高中英语必修语法考点总结分析.doc

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出版 高中英语 必修 语法 考点 总结 分析
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.高中必修一到必修五主要语法点 必修一:直接引语和间接引语(宾语从句);现在进行时表将来;定语从句必修二:定语从句(非限定定从、定从中的介词前提);被动语态(一般将来时、现在完成时及现在进行时的被动语态)必修三:情态动词;名词性从句(主语从句、宾语从句、表语从句及同位语从句)必修四:主谓一致;非谓语动词(V-ing) ;构词法必修2 第一单元,非限制性定语从句的 第二单元 一般将来时的主被动 第三单元现在完成时的主被动 第四单元 现在进行时的主被动 第五单元 介词+which/whom的用法必修3 一二单元 情态动词的用法 三单元 宾语从句和表语从句 四单元 主语从句五单元 同位语从句必修4 第一单元 主谓一致 第二单 v-ing作主语和宾语的用法 第三单元 v-ing作表语,定语和宾语补足语 第四单元 v-ing作状语 第五单元 构词法必修5 第一单元 过去分词作定语和表语 第二单元 过去分词作宾语补足语 第三单元 过去分词作状语 第四单元 倒装句 第五单元 省略句必修一各单元知识点总结Unit One Friendship一、重点短语1.go through 经历,经受 get through 通过;完成;接通电话2. set down 记下,放下 3. a series of 一系列4 on purpose 有目的的5. in order to 为了6. at dusk 傍晚,黄昏时刻7. face to face 面对面8. fall in love 爱上9. join in 参加(某个活动); take part in 参加(活动) join 加入(组织,团队,并成为其中一员)10. calm down 冷静下来11. suffer from 遭受12. be/get tired of…对…感到厌倦13. be concerned about 关心14. get on/along well with 与…相处融洽15. be good at/do well in 擅长于…16. find it + adj. to do sth. 发现做某事是…17. no longer / not …any longer 不再…18. too much 太多(后接不可数n.) much too 太…(后接adj.)19. not…until 直到… 才20. it’s no pleasure doing sth 做… 并不开心21. make sb. sth. 使某人成为… make sb. do sth. 使某人做某事二、语法----直接引语和间接引语概 念:直接引语:直接引述别人的原话。一般前后要加引号。间接引语:用自己的话转述别人的话。间接引语在多数情况下可构成宾语从句且不要加引号。例: Mr. Black said, “ I’m busy.” Mr. Black said that he was busy.变化规则(一)陈述句的变化规则直接引语如果是陈述句,变为间接引语时,用连词that(可省略)引导,从句中的人称、时态、指示代词、时间状语、地点状语都要发生相应的变化。人称的变化——人称的变化主要是要理解句子的意思例:1. He said, “ I like it very much.” → He said that he liked it very much.2. He said to me, “I’v left my book in your room.”→ He told me that he had left his book in my room.时态的变化直接引语间接引语一般现在时一般过去时现在进行时过去进行时现在完成时过去完成时一般过去时过去完成时一般将来时过去将来时过去完成时过去完成时例:“I don’t want to set down a series of facts in a diary,” said Anne.→Anne said that she didn’t want to set down a series of facts in a diary.The boy said, “I’m using a knife.” → The boy said that he was using a knife. ▲注意:如果直接引语是客观真理,变为间接引语时,时态不变,如:He said, “Light travels much faster than sound.”He said that light travels much faster than sound.指示代词、时间状语、地点状语和动词的变化直接引语间接引语thisthat these thosenowthenagobefore/earliertodaythat dayyesterdaythe day beforetomorrowthe next/following daythe day after tomorrowIn two day’s timecomegohere therethe day before yesterdaytwo days before/earlier(二) 祈使句的变化规则如果直接引语是祈使句,变为间接引语时,要将祈使句的动词原形变为带to的不定式,并根据句子意思在不定式前加上tell/ask/order等动词,如果祈使句是否定句,在不定式前面还要加上not。例:The hostess said to us, “Please sit down.”→ The hostess asked us to sit down.He said, “Don’t make so much noise, boys.” → He told the boys not to make so much noise.(三)疑问句的变化规则如果直接引语是疑问句,变为间接引语时要把疑问句语序变为陈述句语序,句末用句号。一般疑问句:如果直接引语是一般疑问句,变为间接引语时,谓语动词是say或said时,要改为 ask 或asked,原问句变为由if/whether 引导的宾语从句。例:“Do you think a diary can become your friend?” the writer says. → The writer asks us if we think a diary can become our friend.2) 特殊疑问句:如果间接引语是特殊疑问句,变为间接引语时,仍用原来的引导词,但疑问句要变为陈述句。例: “What do you want?” he asked me. → He asked me what I wantedUnit two English around the world一、重点短语1. be different from 与…不同 be the same as 与…一样2. one another 相互,彼此(=each other)3. official language 官方语言4. at the end of 在…结束时5. because of 因为(后接名词或名词性短语) because 因为(后接句子)6. native speakers 说母语的人7. be based on 根据,依据8. at present 目前;当今9. especially 特别,尤其 specially 专门地10. make use of 利用… make the best of 充分利用…11. a large number of 大量的,很多(作主语,谓语动词用复数)the number of …的数量(作主语,谓语动词用单数)12. in fact = actually= as a matter of fact 事实上13. believe it or not 信不信由你14. there is no such thing as… 没有这样的事…15. be expected to …被期待做某事16. play a part/role in … 在…起作用17. make lists of…列清单18. included 包括(前面接包括的对象)Including包括(后接包括的对象)19. command sb. to do sth. 命令某人去做某事command + that 从句(从句用should+V原)20. request sb. to do sth. 要求某人做某事request + that 从句(从句用should+V原)二、语法----英语中的命令(command)语气和请求(request)语气命令语气:表示直接命令某人做某事,语气比较重,不怎么礼貌,一般用于上级对下级例:1. “ Look at the example”, the teacher said to us.2. Open the window!请求语气:表示请求某人做某事,语气比较缓和,非常礼貌例:1. “ Would you like to see my flat?” She asked. 2. Would you please open the window?Unit 3 Travel journal一、重点短语1. travel----泛指旅行journey----指长时间长距离的陆上旅行voyage----指长距离的水上旅行,也可以指乘飞机旅行trip----常指短时间短距离的旅行tour----指周游,巡回旅游,2. prefer to 更加喜欢,宁愿 prefer A to B 比起B,更喜欢A prefer doing to doing 比起做…,宁愿做… prefer to do rather than do 与其做…, 不如…3. flow through 流过,流经4. ever since 自从5. persuade sb. to do sth. 说服某人做某事6. be fond of 喜欢7. insist on doing 坚持做某事 insist + that 从句(用should+ V原)8. care about 关心9. change one’s mind 改变想法10. altitude 高度attitude 态度,看法11. make up one’s mind to do下定决心做某事 = decide to do = make a decision to do 12. give in 让步,屈服 give up 放弃13. be surprised to … 对…感到惊奇to one’s surprise 令某人惊讶的是…14. at last = finally = in the end 最终15. stop to do 停下来去做某事stop doing 停止做某事16. as usual 像往常一样17. so…that 如此… 以至于… So + adj + a/an + n. + that Such + a/an +adj. + n. + that 18. be familiar with 对…熟悉(人作主语)be familiar to 为…所熟悉(物作主语)二、语法:现在进行时表将来现在进行时表将来,表示最近按计划或安排要进行的动作,常见的现在进行时表将来的动词有:come/ go / leave/ arrive / travel / take / stay/ do等.例:1. I’m coming. 我就来 2. what are you doing next Sunday ? 你下个星期天做什么? 3. I hear that you are travelling along Mekong River. 我听说你将沿湄公河旅行 4. Where are you staying at night? 你们晚上待在哪里/Unit four Earthquakes一、重点短语1. right away 立刻,马上(= at once = in no time)2. asleep 睡着的;熟睡地(fall asleep 入睡) sleep 睡;睡眠 sleepy 犯困的3. it seems that/ as if … 看来好像… ;似乎4. in ruins 成为废墟5. the number of …的数量(谓语动词用单数) a number of 大量(谓语动词用复数)6. rescue workers 营救人员 Come to one’s rescue 营救某人7. be trapped 被困8. how long 多长时间 how often 多久,指平率 how soon 还要多久(用于将来时当中,用in+时间段回答)9. hundreds of thousands of 成千上万的10. dig out 挖出11. shake----泛指“动摇,震动”,常指左右、上下动摇,也可以指人“震惊,颤抖” 例:1. She felt the earth shaking under him. 2. She was shaken with anger. quake---- 指较强烈的震动,如地震 例: The building quaked on its foundation Tremble---- 指人由于寒冷、恐惧、不安等引起的身体的抖动或声音的颤抖 例:Suddenly I saw her lips begin to tremble and tears begin to flow down her cheeks. Shiver---- 多指寒冷引起的颤抖、哆嗦 例:A sudden gust of cold wind made me shiver.12. rise (rose—risen)---- vi, 上升;升起, 无被动语态;give rise to 引起 Raise(raised—raised)---- vt, 举起;筹集;养育 Arise ( arose—arisen)----vt, 出现(常指问题或现象)13. injure---- 常指因意外事故造成的损伤,也可以指感情上名誉上的伤害 例:He was injured in a car accident. harm---- 泛指“伤害,损害”,既可以指有生命的,也可以指无生命的 例:1. He was afraid that his fury would harm the child. 2. His business was harmed for some reason. hurt---- 既可以指肉体上的伤害,也可以指精神上的伤害 例:1. She hurt her leg when she fell. 2. He felt hurt at your word. wound---- 一般指枪伤、刀伤等在战场上受的伤 例:The bullet wounded him in the arm.14. be prepared for …= make preparations for… 为…做准备15. in one’s honor 向…表示敬意;为纪念 Be/ feel honored to do … 做…感到很荣幸16. make /give/ deliver a speech 发言 opening speech 开幕词17. give/ provide shelter to …向…提供庇护所 seek shelter from…躲避18. happen to + n./ pron. 遭遇,发生happen to do sth. 偶然;碰巧happen ----指偶然发生take place----指事先计划好的事情发生二、语法----定语从句概念:在复合句中,修饰名词或代词的从句叫做定语从句。成分:先行词,即被定语从句修饰的名词或代词;关系代词:that,which,who(宾格为whom,所有格为whose);或者关系副词where,when,why等。关系代词或关系副词处在先行词和定语从句之间,起着连接主从句的作用。1. 关系代词that的用法关系代词that在定语从句中既能指人,也能指物;既能做主语,也能做宾语例:1)A plane is a machine that can fly. (指物,作主语)2)The noodles (that) I cooked were delicious. (指物,作宾语)3)Who is the man that is reading a book over there? (指人,作主语)4)The girl (that) we saw yesterday was Jim’s sister,(指人,作宾语)2. 关系代词which的用法 关系代词which在定语从句中只能指物,但既可以做宾语也能作主语 例:1)They planted some trees which didn’t need much water. (作主语) 2)The fish (which) we bought this morning were not fresh. (作宾语) 3. 关系代词who,whom的用法关系代词who,whom 只能指人,在定语从句中分别作主语和宾语 例:1)The foreigner who helped us yesterday is from USA.(作主语) 2)The person to whom you just talked to is Mr. Li. (作宾语)、 4. 关系代词whose在的用法 关系代词whose为关系代词who的所有格形式,其先行词既可以是人也可以是物,whose和它所修饰的名词在定语从句中既可以做主语也可以做宾语。 例:1)This is the scientist whose name is known all over the world. (指人,作主语) 2) The room whose window faces south is mine. (指物,作主语) 3)He has written a book whose name I’ve forgotten. (指物,作宾语) 5. 关系副词when的用法 关系副词when在定语从句中作时间状语 例:1)I’ll never forget the time when (=during which) we worked on the farm. 2) Do you remember the afternoon when (=on which) we first met three years ago?6. 关系副词where在定语从句中的用法 关系副词where在定语从句中做地点状语 例:1)This is the place where( =at/ in which) we first met. 2) The hotel where (= in which ) we stayed wasn’t very clean.7. 关系副词why在定语从句中的用法 关系副词why在定语从句中作原因状语 例: 1). I didn’t get a pay rise, but this wasn’t the reason why(= for which) I left. 2). The reason why (=for which) he has late was that he missed the train.Unit 5 Nelson Mandela – a modern hero一、重点词汇1. selfish 自私的 selfless 无私的2. devote oneself to… 致力于;献身于3. fight against 对抗,反对 fight for 为… 而战4. principle 原则 principal 校长;主要的5. offer guidance to …给…提供指导6. out of work 失业7. join 加入(组织,俱乐部,成为其中一员) join in 参加(活动) take part in 参加(活动)8. as + adj +as one can 尽可能… = as + adj. +as possible9. as a matter of fact 事实上(=in fact)10. blow up 爆炸,炸掉11. set up 建立 ; set about 着手,开始做( set about doing sth.) set off 出发,动身 ; set out 开始,出发(set out to do sth.)12. be sentenced to 被判…13. be equal to 与…相等;胜任14. be proud of 为…感到自豪15. give out 分发 (give off 散发出(气味))16. die for 为…而死 die of 死于(自身原因,如疾病) die from 死于(外在原因,如车祸)17. realize one’s dream of … 实现..的梦想18. only 位于句首时,要主谓倒装 例:Only then did we decide to answer violence with violence. Only in this way, can we protect the environment better. 二.语法----定语从句 详见第四单元
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