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医学英语写作详解.doc

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.医学英文摘要写作How to write a medical English abstract第一章 概述一、摘要的定义、用途、和长度二、摘要的内容三、摘要的类型四、摘要的写作格式五、摘要写作的注意事项What is an abstract?An abstract is a brief summary of the most important points in a scientific paper. 摘要是作者研究过程、研究目的、研究方法和研究结果的简要陈述和概括。Purposes for AbstractsAbstracts typically serve five main goals:Help readers decide if they should read an entire article Help readers and researchers remember key findings on a topic Help readers understand a text by acting as a pre-reading outline of key points Index articles for quick recovery and cross-referencing Allow supervisors to review technical work without becoming bogged down in details二、摘要的内容Contents1. Title2. Name of the author3. Unit of the author/address4. Text of the abstract5. Keywords1)目的2)方法3)结果4)结果的分析、比较、评价以及应用,提出的问题以及建议5)其他三、摘要的类型1. descriptive abstract —— 描述性摘要2. informative abstract——资料性摘要3. descriptive-informative abstract——描述-资料性摘要1. Non-structured abstract (非结构式摘要)2. Structured abstract (结构式摘要) full-structured semi-structured1.描述性摘要 Descriptive Abstract/ Indicative AbstractThe descriptive abstracts tell what topics are taken up in the paper. They contain indicative information on purpose, scope, or methodology in the original documents, but mention little or nothing about details of results, conclusions or recommendations. The advantages of a descriptive abstract are that it is easy to write and is usually short; a serious disadvantage is that it contains little information. 一般只用两三句话概括论文或报道的主题,而不涉及具体的数据和结论,通常用于综述、会议报告等。Samples of descriptive abstracts:例一: 心得宁引起的胸膜纤维化 我们报道两例患者服用心得宁后继发胸膜纤维化Pleural Fibrosis After Practolol TherapyWe describe two patients who developed pleural fibrosis after treatment with practolol.例二:论原发性胃肠道淋巴瘤本文综述了治疗原发性胃肠道淋巴瘤的主要经验,并就该病的临床、病理及治疗等问题进行了讨论。Primary Lymphomas of the Gastrointestinal TractAn institutional experience with primary gastrointestinal lymphoma (PGL) is reviewed. The clinical, pathologic, and therapeutic aspects of PGL are discussed.2.资料性(报道性)摘要 Informative AbstractsThe informative abstracts give the gist, or essence, of a piece of writing: they include the most significant material in the original writing. It is the original document in miniature. Important information on purpose, scope and method of the research are included in this type of abstracts. They also contain key results, conclusions, or recommendations. The advantage of an informative abstracts is that it provides much more information than does a descriptive abstract. But it is usually longer than the descriptive type.概括论文的主要信息,一般阐明研究的问题和关键的研究成果, 其特点是全面、简要地概括论文的目的、方法、主要数据和结论。通常,阅读这种摘要可以部分取代阅读全文。Malignant Hypertension and Cigarette Smoking The smoking habit of 48 patients with malignant hypertension was compared with that of 92 consecutive patients with non- malignant hypertension. Thirty-three of the patients with malignant and 34 of the patients with non-malignant hypertension were smokers when first diagnosed, the difference were considered separately. Results suggest that malignant hypertension is yet another disease related to cigarette smoking.Informative-Indicative Abstracts以报道性文摘的形式表述一次文献中信息价值较高的部分,而以指示性文摘的形式表述其余部分的文摘。字数 200词左右为宜Traditional Abstract 传统式摘要 IMRADIntroduction 引言 Materials and Methods 材料与方法 Results 结果Discussion 讨论全结构式摘要(Full-structured Abstract)  1974年4月,加拿大McMaster 大学医学中心的Dr R Brian Haynes首先提出建立临床研究论文的结构式摘要。在 Dr Edward J Huth创导下,美国《内科学记事》(Annuals of Internal Medicine)在国际上率先采用了全结构式(full-structured)摘要。 1.目的(Objective):说明论文要解决的问题2.设计(Design):说明研究的基本设计,包括的研究性质3.地点(Setting):说明进行研究的地点和研究机构的等级4.对象(Patients, participants or subjects):说明参加并完成研究的病人或受试者的性质、数量及挑选方法5.处理(Interventions):说明确切的治疗或处理方法6.主要测定项目(Main outcome measures):说明为评定研究结果而进行的主要测定项目7.结果(Results):说明主要客观结果8 .结论(Conclusion):说明主要结论,包括直接临床应用意义与非结构式摘要相比,。全结构式摘要观点更明确(more explicitness),信息量更大(more information),差错更少(fewer errors).但其缺点也是显而易见的,即繁琐、重复、篇幅过长, 而且不是所有研究都能按以上8个要素分类的。于是更多的杂志扬长避短,采用半结构式摘要(semi-structured)半结构式摘要(Semi-structured Abstract)半结构式摘要也称为四要素摘要,包括:目的(objective/purpose/aim)、方法(methods)、结果(results)结论(conclusion)目前国内许多杂志正从非结构式摘要向半结构式摘要过度。Does smoking predispose to peptic ulcer relapse after eradication of Helicobacter pylori?Chan F.k.l. –Department of Medicine, Prince of Wales Hospital,..Objective: To investigate whether smoking would increase ulcer recurrence after…Methods: A total of 287 patients with gastric ulcers …Results: Of the 83 smokers,3 had ulcer recurrence,Conclusions: Cigarette smoking did not increase the recurrence of peptic ulcers after eradication of H. Pylori.About the tense 1)目的部分:背景介绍:一般现在时或现在完成时目的说明:一般现在时/现在完成时,或一般过去时2)材料、方法和结果部分:除指示性说明外,一律用一般过去时。过去完成时只用于说明研究前的情况或研究中某一点时间之前发生的情况.3)结论部分:凡陈述研究的材料、方法和结果时,一律用过去时;分析结果或发现的原因时,或者提出结论性意见时,如果作者认为具有普遍意义,可用现在时;如果作者认为自己的分析或结论只限于本研究范围或者仅是一种可能性,则用一般过去时为好。Length of Abstracts Keep abstracts of most papers and portions of monographs to fewer than 250 words, abstracts of shorter papers to fewer than 100 words, and those of reports and longer theses to fewer than 500 words. Rarely does an abstract exceed one page. Write most abstracts in a single paragraph, except those for long documents.五、摘要写作的注意事项1、要概括研究的要点2、要尽可能简洁3、要符合逻辑、重点突出4、要结构合理,用完整句表述5、要行文流畅第二章 标题(title)一、标题二、副标题三、英、汉标题特点的比较四、冠词的省略五、标题中常用名词的搭配 六、标题中常用介词的搭配 七、几种常用的标题句式一、标题 Title (一)名词性标题(二)完整句标题(三)疑问句(一)名词性标题标题一般由一个名词或若干并列的名词,加上必要的修饰语构成,一般没有谓语成分Laboratory diagnosis of SARSSARS的实验室诊断Haemorrhagic cholecystitis出血性胆囊炎Alcohol use, myocardial infarction, sudden cardiac death, and hypertension饮酒、心肌梗塞、心源性猝死及高血压病Surgery for Infective Endocarditis感染性心内膜炎的外科治疗Left Ventricular Function Before and Following Surgical Treatment of Mitral Valve Disease二尖瓣病变手术前后左心室的功能变化感染性心内膜炎的外科治疗(1)只在标题开头的第一个单词的首字母大学,收尾句不用句号(2)标题中每个词的首字母都大写,只有某些虚词才小写,句尾不用句号。某些需要小写的虚词,指的是冠词、3个字母以内的连词和介词,4个字母以上的,如with, from, during , after, against, during ,between 仍需要大写。词组型标题词组型标题是由一个或数个单词或词组单独地、并列地或按偏正关系排列组成. 按其组成关系又可分为以下三类 ①单一概念标题②多概念并列标题 ③多概念偏正标题①单一概念标题,是由一个不可再细分的、具有完整概念的单词或词组构成. 由于这些单词或词组是文章所讨论的唯一对象,即文章标题的中心词.因此,英译标题时可以直接对译. 创伤性血胆症 Traumatic hemobilia[中华肝胆外科杂志, 2004, 10(7)];颅底软骨肉瘤 Chondrosarcoma of the skull base[中华神经外科杂志, 2003, 19(6)].②多概念并列标题,由两个或两个以上具有独立完整概念的词组并列组成. 由于词或词组之间没有说明或被说明、修饰或被修饰的关系,而是无主次的并列关系. 因此,英译标题时可按表达各个概念的词或词组的先后顺序译出. 例如:催乳素和免疫系统Prolactin and immune system[中华内分泌代谢杂志, 2004, 20(6)];嗜铬细胞瘤病人的临床特点及围术期麻醉管理Clinical features of pheochromocytoma and anesthetic management during perioperative period[中华医学杂志, 2002, 82(8)].③多概念偏正标题,由多个具有独立、完整概念的词或词组构成. 而其中有一个受其它词或词组所修饰、限制或说明. 这个被修饰、限制或说明的词或词组就是文章标题的中心词,它位于标题末,与修饰、限制或说明它的词构成偏正关系. 多概念偏正标题是科技论文标题中最常见的一种,它又可分为并列偏正结构标题和递进偏正结构标题.并列偏正结构标题是以联合词组充当标题中心词的定语. 英译标题时,可按顺序译出各并列成分,并置于中心词之后. 例如:泮托拉唑三联与奥美拉唑三联疗法根除幽门螺杆菌的对比研究Comparison of pantoprazole and omeprazole- based triple therapy regimens in the treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection[中华医学杂志, 2002, 82(18)]  递进偏正结构标题以偏正词组充当标题的中心词. 定语中的各组成部分总是前一个修饰后一个,层层相叠,最后作为一个整体来限定代表标题重心概念的中心词. 英译标题时,代表标题重心的中心词置于题首,定语中的各组成部分,在多数情况下,按由小到大,由近到远的次序排列. 例如:抑郁症患者红细胞儿茶酚氧位甲基转移酶活性的研究The erythrocytes catechol O methyl transferase activity in patients with depression[中华精神科杂志, 2005, 38(3)];(二)完整句标题医学论文标题一般都是名词性标题。有的医学杂志,如美国的 Journal of the National Cancer Institute 甚至规定标题不得写成完整的句子。但是,在其他英美医学杂志中,仍可以看到标题为完整句,只是句尾没有句号。如: Dietary cholesterol is co-carcinogenic for human colon cancer胆固醇饮食--- 人类结肠癌的协同致癌因素Cytochrome b is present in neutrophils from patients with chronic granulomatous disease存在于慢性肉芽杂红患者嗜中性白细胞里的细胞色素把b(三)疑问句标题也可以是疑问句。疑问句标题尾一般有疑问号,如有疑问副词或疑问代词,也可不用疑问句。 如:Home or hospital births?在家分娩还是住院分娩?Genetic damage form diagnostic radiation ?诊断性放射检查能否导致遗传性损害?What to look for rib fractures and how肋骨骨折时应检查什么及如何检查?Is treatment of borderline hypertension good or bad?治疗临界型高血压是利是弊?Are potassium supplements for the elderly necessary?中年以上的患者是否比须补钾?What does exercise mean for the menstrual cycle?锻炼对月经周期有什么影响?二、副标题副标题往往用于突出论文某一方面的内容,如病例数、研究方法等。正、副标题可用不同字体字号加以区别,也可用冒号隔开(一)突出病例数Abdominal pain in the emergency room: A study of 176 consecutive cases腹痛急诊——176 连续收治的病例研究Surgical treatment of pancreatic pseudocysts: Analysis of 119 cases 假性胰腺囊肿手术治疗 ——119例分析(二)突出研究方法Diffuse pulmonary infiltrates in immunosuppressed patients: Prospective study of 80 casesHeparin therapy: A randomized prospective studyDiabetes after infectious hepatitis: A follow-up study免疫抑制患者弥漫性肺浸润——前瞻性研究80例肝素疗法前瞻性随机研究传染性肝炎继发糖尿病患者随访调查(三)突出重点内容Diabetes mellitus: New diagnostic criteria Digitalis therapy in practice : Correlation between clinical evaluation and plasma digoxin concentration Aorto-arteritis: Chest X-ray appearance and its clinical significance糖尿病诊断的新标准洋地黄疗法的实际应用——地高辛血浆浓度与临床疗效的关系大动脉炎胸部X线表现及其临床意义(四)表示同位关系哌唑嗪——一种新的治疗高血压的血管扩张剂乳腺癌组织中的癌胚抗原——一种有用的预后指标Prazodine: A new vasodilator used for treatment of hypertension Carcinoembryonic antigen in breast-cancer tissue: A useful prognostic indicator(五)提出疑问句Drug regulation: Evolution or revolution?Chronic abdominal pain: A surgical or psychiatric symptom?药物调节:进化还是革命?慢性腹痛是手术症状还是精神症状?(六)表示长篇连载论文各分篇的主题Physical and chemical studies of human blood serum:A study of normal subjects Physical and chemical studies of human blood serum:II . A study of 29cases of nephritis人类血清的理化研究:I 正常人的研究人类血清的理化研究:II. 29例肾炎患者的研究(七)说明研究时间A collaborative study of burn nursing in China: 2002~2006 A collaborative study of burn nursing in China: 2002~2006 Endoscopic varicose sclerosis: One year clinical experience中国烧伤护理综合研究: 2002~2006曲张静脉内镜硬化疗法:一年临床经验研究 Exercises 1. 将下列标题改为带有副标题的格式1) A light and electron microscopic study of two cases of primary sarcoma of the heart2) Experimental study of laser surgery of the liver3) A report of60 cases of primary vaginal carcinoma4) Clinical analysis of 55 cases of subacute thyroiditis5) A study of 127 cases of deafness due to noise trauma 6) A review of 37 cases of diffuse malignant mesothelioma of the pleura7) Clinical, angiographic, and myocardial scintigraphic observations on unstable angina pectoris8) Fifteen years’ experience with carcinoma of the pancreas9) Experiences in the treatment of 50 cases of vascular injuries 10) Physiopathologic mechanisms for jaundice and cirrhosis将下列完整句标题改为名词性标题1) Angiodysplasia is a cause of colonic bleeding in the elderly2) Thyroid cancer is a late consequence of head-neck irridation.3) Coronary heart disease: Overweight and obesity are risk factors4) Prostaglandins serve as mediators of inflammation.5) Ferritin serves as an index of bone marrow stores.6) High uric acid serves as an indicator of cardiovascular disease7) Pernicious anemia is a risk factor for cancer of the stomach8) Inferior vena cava obstruction is a complication of prostate cancer三、英、汉标题特点的比较(一)Study of, Report of 等词的使用 (二)带 as 的句式 (三)带 and 的句式 (四)病例数的处理(五)汉语标题中几个常用词的翻译(一)Study of, Report of 等词的使用18世纪,科技论文中可以 some thoughts on… a few observations on…现代科技论文Study of… 、investigation of…、 a report of… 也不多见标题越来越趋向简短扼要。如:Ultrasound in the diagnosis of cholestatic jaundice超生诊断胆汁郁积性黄疸Cardiovascular disease in hemodialysis patients血液透析患者的心血管病变Toxic effect of benzene on leucocytes苯对白细胞毒性作用的研究Clinical efficacy of disopyramide in the treatment of cardiac arrhythmias双异丙吡胺治疗心律失常的疗效观察Studies on the diuretic effects of Etozolin in heart failure乙氧唑啉对心力衰竭患者利尿效应的研究An angiographic and clinical study of coronary collateral circulation冠状动脉侧枝循环的血管造影与临床研究(二)带 as 的句式 在需要用表语(或同位语)的概念时,常用带as 的句式Pernicious anemia as a risk factor for cancer of the stomachGastrocolic fistula as complication of benign gastric ulcer(三)带 and 的句式表相互关系的意义时,可用and来表示Viral hepatitis and medical professionsMalignant hypertension and cigarette smoking(四)病例数的处理在我国医学论文标题,为吸引读者注意,往往将病例数置于正标题中1. 779例气道异物的治疗2. 系统性红斑狼疮80例分析在国外,病例数大多置于副标题中。3. 软骨肉瘤——附26例报告4.输血后肝炎60例报告5. 55例亚急性甲状腺炎临床分析The treatment of 779 cases of foreign bodies in the air passageAnalysis of 80 cases of SLE Chondrosarcoma : Report of 26 casesPosttransfusion hepatitis : A report of 60 casesSubacute thyroiditis: Clinical analysis of 55 cases有时根据英文标题不列出病例数这一特点,在英译时可将病例数不译。慢性胃炎分类探讨(附71例分析)Evaluation of classification of chronic gastritis 肾下腹主动脉瘤39例治疗经验Experience in the treatment of infra-renal abdominal aortic aneurysm(五)汉语标题中几个常用词的翻译1. “探讨”Discussion , evaluation , approach, study, investigation 如1)实验性肺功能不全的探讨2)中西医治疗肝炎的探讨3)亚临床肝癌诊断问题的探讨4)心源性猝死51例临床病理探讨5)原发性肝癌临床诊断的探讨6)脑血管病1000例临床分析及若干问题探讨Discussion on experimental pulmonary insufficiencyAn evaluation of treatment for hepatitis by combined traditional Chinese and western medicineAn approach to diagnosis of subclinical liver cancerSudden cardiac death: Clinicopathologic investigation of 51 casesOn clinical diagnosis of primary carcinoma of liverCerebral vascular disorders: Clinical analysis of 1000 cases“体会” experience1) 818例糖尿病患者治疗体会2)治疗革兰氏阴性杆菌菌血症的新体会3)全胃切除治疗贲门癌的体会Experience in treating 818 patients with diabetes mellitusRecent experience with bacillemia due to gramnegative organismsThe treatment of cancer of the esophago-gastric junction by total gastrectomy3 “总结” experience 如:先天性心脏病20年临床资料总结Congenital heart disease: A twenty year clinical experience 4. “问题” problem , aspect1) 完全肠道外营养临床实践中的几个问题Certain problems of total parental nutrition in clinical practice2)关于门脉高压症手术治疗的几个问题Some aspects on surgical treatment of portal hypertension5. “初步体会”1)肝移植术麻醉的初步报告A preliminary report on anesthesia for liver transplantation 10例二尖瓣膜置换术临床初步小节Clinical experience of mitral valve replacement in ten patients四、冠词的省略(一)一般名词前的冠词在报纸、杂志和书本中的标题,往往省略冠词(the)Treatment of gram-negative shockShock caused by gram-negative microorganisms: (an)Analysis of 169(二)疾病名称Carcinoma of the anal canalDiabetes after infectious hepatitis: A follow-up study五、标题中常用名词的搭配(一)studyStudy on/ of/ in Studies / study如果Study 之前有表示研究对象的定语,后接疾病名称时,往往不用of, 而用in e.g.Platelet function studies in heart disease(二)reportReport of /on E.g. Thyroid carcinoma induced by irradiation for Hodgkin’s disease: Report of / on a case放射治疗何杰金氏病引起甲状腺癌1例报告(三)survey Survey of/ on(四)observation Observation on/of/ in (六)各种治疗与检查名称的搭配用法治疗方法与疾病名称连用时,一般用介词forShunting operations for obesitySurgery for portal hypertensionBlindness after treatment for malignant hypertensionSurgical treatment of hyperthyroidism治疗方法、检查方法还可后接介词 in同for Surgery in active infective endocarditis Parathyroidectomy in chronic renal failure六、标题中常用介词的搭配in1 各种生理病理现象+in+ 生物名词Epidemic mealses in young adultsThyroid function in patients with breast cancer 2 in+ 动源性名词Steroid in the treatment of clinical septic shockUltrasound in the diagnosis of cholestatic jaundice3 治疗方法、检查方法、药物名称各种病理现象名称+in+疾病Parathyroidectomy in chronic renal failure An analysis of pancreatic sonography in suspected pancreatic disease(二)due to 标题中表示原因,应用due to , 不可用because of , owing to , 可以用caused by代替Bacteremia due to gram-negative bacillliInfections due to group C streptococci in man (三)after, following Postoperative syndromes after / following liver surgeryExercises 1.检查标题中介词的用法1) Gram-negative infections of cancer2) Circulatory failure of metastatic carcinoma of the lung 3)Hypercalcemia on malignant lymphoma 4)Acute renal infections of adults5)Tiberculosis in the liver6) Sonography in the common bile duct7) The use of radioactive iodine at the evaluation of thyroid noduels2. 填空Jaundice _ a rare cause: Tuberculous lymphadenitis结核性淋巴结炎——引起黄疸的罕见原因Restrictive antibiotherapy_ renal transplantation肾移植后有节制的使用抗生素Hyperparathyroidism _ head and neck irradiation 头颈部放疗后的甲状旁腺机能亢进Tumor emboli _ pulmonary hypertension表现为肺动脉高压的瘤拴Portal vein thrombosis_ cirrhosis肝硬化合并门静脉血栓形成七、几种常用的标题句式(一)表示药物治疗的标题句式药物名称+in /for + 病名药物名称+in the treatment (management) of+ 病名药物名称+treatment (therapy)of + 病名treatment of+病名+ with+药物名称Use of+药物名称+in the treatment of + 病名1. vasodilator drugs in peripheral vascular disease2.Prednisone for chronic active liver disease3. Penicillin in the treatment of severe respiratory infections.Revised: Treatment of severe respiratory infections with penicillin4. Vancomycin therapy of bacterial meningitis5. Use of diuretics in the treatment of hypertension secondary to renal disease(二)表示非药物治疗的标题句式治疗方法+for /in +病名治疗方法+ in the treatment (management) of +病名Treatment (management) of +病名+by +治疗方法血液透析治疗牛皮癣Hemodialysis for psoriasisHemodialysis in the treatment of psoriasisTreatment of psoriasis by hemodialysis(三)表示诊断方法的标题句 式诊断方法+in+ 病名诊断方法+ in the diagnosis of +病名Assay (detection) of +某种成分+in +病名Diagnosis of 病名+by /with +诊断方法Detection of 病名+by +诊断方法Application of +诊断方法+ to the diagnosis of +病名Exercises 1.将下列词次组编写标题1) splenectomy, myeloid metaplasia2) splenic irradiation myelofibrosis3) leukemia, marrow transplantation4) computer tomography, acute pancreatitis5)ultrasound, cholestatic jaundice 2. 英译下列标题1)结核病患者的黄疸2)婴儿及儿童的血管创伤3)一例慢性肾功能衰竭患者的胃肠道综合征和休克4)剂量是肿瘤化疗的关键因素5)青霉胺(penicillamine)治疗类风湿性关节炎6) 高选择性迷走神经切断术(hyperselective vogotomy)治疗十二指肠溃疡的经验7) 放射免疫测定(radioimmunoassay)诊断肠道及胰脏的内分泌(endocrine)肿瘤8) SLE患者的胰腺炎: 一例报道及文献综述第三章 作者姓名、学位和工作单位一、作者姓名欧美人的name既指名也指姓。如诺贝尔的全名是Alfred Bernhard Nobel.Alfred 是first name。 Bernhard 是second name Nobel 是last name.First name 与 second name 相当于我国的“名”。 last name 相当于“姓”。也有只有first name 而无second name。在论文署名时,一般将first name, last name用全文写出,而将 second name缩写 如: Afred B. Nobel, Wilhelm C. Roentgen李时珍 雷锋 司马光 司徒汉城二、学位1. M.B.(MB)= Bachelor of Medicine2.M.C.(MC)=Magister Chirurgiae3.M.S.(MS)= Master of Surgery4.M.D.(MD)= Doctor of Medicine5.Ph.D.(PhD) =Doctor of Philosophy三、工作单位(一)“教研室”与“科”Department Department of Physiology, university of California, San Francisco, California 94143Department of Anatomy, Ningxia Medical College重庆医学院传染病教研室(二)“组”division , section, unitDivision of Gastroenterology, Department of MedicineDivision section 除后接 of介词短语外还可前接名词或形容词定语Gastroenterology Division, Department of Medicine, University of Texas Medical School, Huston, TexasUnit 前 往往有名词限定语Oncology Unit of the Department of Medicine在科研机构,“组”还可用branch表示 Pulmonary Branch, National Heart, Lung, and Blood InstituteLaboratory 实验室,研究室可以后接of介词短语,也可前接名词或形容词定语Renal Division and Cardiovascular-pulmonary Research Laboratory, Department of Medicine常用医疗、医学教学和科研单位名称附属医院 省人民医院药学院 县医院中医医院 胸科医院教学医院 综合医院针灸研究所关键词、缩略语和致谢1 关键词 Key words, Key Words, Keywords 《中国学术期刊检索与评价数据规范》Key wordsKey words: …… Key words ……...首字母的大小写不统一关键词之间的标点 分号/逗号选词 应参考MeSH( medical subjects headings) 词表,以使用规范的词语2 缩略语HIV 摘要标题中不宜使用缩略语,(CT、MRI、LASER、DNA)正文中第一次出现缩略语,前面应有术语全称缩略语各个字母一般均大写,如 CNS,COPD,SARS3 致谢从作者本身出发表示感谢1)The author deeply thank of Prof B for his valuable suggestions and comments on this work.2) We wish to express our thanks for the valuable suggestions made by Prof. B3) The author is particularly grateful to Prof. B for his guidance and encouragement in this work.4) I wish to express my deep gratitude to Dr. A, who read the manuscript and made many valuable suggestions and comments5) We wish to acknowledge our sincere thanks to Dr. B for his kind help.6) I am much obliged to Dr. B for his help in writing this paper.从客观角度表示感谢1)Thanks are due to … for their invaluable suggestions and comments which have helped us greatly in the revision of this paper .2) Appreciations goes to … for his encouragement in carrying out this study.3) Appreciation is extended to … for their assistance in… .4) For her many suggestions and comments, special thanks go to Dr. A第四章 摘要中动词时态与语态的应用一、语态(voice) 二、时态(tense)在医学论文摘要中 动词使用什么语态往往与人称代词有关。医学论文中往往用第三人称的被动语态如:We suggested that… (我们建议)往往写成 It is suggested that… We concluded that… (我们的结论是) It is concluded that…科技论文中,对人称代词的使用有两种 截然不同的主张。一种主张少用第一人称和第二人称代词,尤其是反对单数第一人称代词。如 I think, I feel, I believe另一种主张 科技论文也应当写得亲切、自然、直截了当。如 It was decided that 应为I decided that目前国外医学文摘中,仍以第三人称占优势。基本上不用单数第一人称和第二人称代词。如何表达“我”1、用复数第一人称 we。在报道性文章中,编者、著者第一人称,无论单复数多用 we.1) We still consider, due to the above, that enterolithotomy alone is a sufficient primary procedure, and that only in cases of new biliary tract complaints can cholecystectomy and closure of an eventual fistula be considered.由于上述原因,我们仍然认为最初单纯做肠结石切除手术就已经足够了。 只有出现了新的胆道症状 时才考虑切除胆囊已经可能产生的瘘管。2、用被动语态2) 我们报道了2例心脏血管肉瘤 Two cases of angiosarcoma of the heart are described.3) 我们测量了61名患者的血清钙水平。Levels of serum calcium were measured in 61 patients.3、用 the author代表I ,the authors 代表 we。应注意,英语习惯不用 the writer 代表I 。4) The author presents the experience with 264 patients with secondary renovascular hypertension.我们(作者)介绍了264例继发性肾血管性高血压的治疗经验。5) The authors report their experience with more than 5o patients with the Zollinger-Ellison syndrome我们(作者)介绍了50例Zollinger-Ellison综合征的治疗体会。4、在科技论文中,也可用代替this study , this report, this paper, this article 第一人称代词. This article describes the unique behaviour of the pulmonary circulation under condition of acute and chronic stress.本文报道急性或慢性应激状态下肺循环的特异表现。This study reports our first year’s experience of endoscopic sphincterotomy for common bile ducts stones.本文报道作者第一年经内窥镜切开括约肌治疗胆总管结石的经验。exercise1)We saw bone marrow necrosis in a case of acute myelomoncytic leukemia.2) Over a two-year period, we studied prospectively 80 cases of diffuse pneumonia at Qilu Hospital.3)This article describes severe involvement and proteinuria in a young black woman with Gaucher’s disease.4) This paper discusses current concepts that involve the mechanism of endogenous pyrogen production.5) The author reports a new series of 270 cases in support of this assertion.6) The study presents the results of comparison of hepatic fat content with hepatic xenon retention in 45 patients.7) These data suggested that dialysis and transplantation may allow previously acquired atherosclerosis to manifest itself clinically.8) The author conclude that patients with anorexia nervosa and associated leukopenia do not have increased infection propensity.2、将下列句子中的被动语态改为主动语态1) Three new cases of gastroduodenal Crohn’s disease are presented.2) Clinical and chemical findings in 6 patients with u-chain disease are reported.3) A patient with duodenal plasmacytoma is described.4) The diastolic blood pressure response to treadmill exercise testing was analyzed in 281 patients.5) Gastric function and histology were investigated in 24 patients with untreated chronic renal failure.. 6) The probable mode of evolution is discussed.7) It is suggested that for such patients with myocardial disease in sinus rhythm, treatment should begin with diuretics.8) It is concluded that levmepromzine is better tolerated than pethidine in acute myocardial infarction.9) It is recommended that patients undergo a mammographic examination before having a breast biopsy.10) The benefits over open biopsy are indicated二、时态(一)过去时(二)过去完成时(三)现在时(四)现在完成时(五)将来时Objective 1. This study is to observe the blood dynamics in the brain tissues after intracerebral hemorrhage with MR perfusion technology.不定式短语To observe the blood dynamics in the brain tissues after intracerebral hemorrhage with MR perfusion technology.Methods 284 percutaneous biopsies had been done for pulmonary lesions from October 2003 to September2005.Complications are related to the lesion’s size and depth, puncture numbers, sizes of needles and patients’ ages .Results Of the 6 patient with FAIREST images, there is an observable cerebral blood flow decreasing in relation to collateral symmetric area in patients.Conclusion A model of ischemia reperfusion with MRI can be set up by using this method. It laid a foundation for further study.(一)过去时1.研究过程中所进行的活动。2.研究目的作者连续对37例肾移植患者是否有关节病变做了前瞻性观察。通过前瞻及回顾性研究观察了盐酸丙咪嗪对血压的影响。对65例早期胃癌疗效作了分析Thirty-seven consecutive renal transplant recipients were studied prospectively for joint disease.The effect of imipramine hydrochloride on blood pressure was examined in a prospective and retrospective study.The results of treatment of early gastric carcinoma were analyzed in 65 patients.本研究旨在调查产生非病理性喷射杂音的可能因素。这篇前瞻性研究的目的,是确定病程早期采用呼气末正压呼吸对成人窘迫综合症的效用。The purpose of this study was to investigate factors that may participate in the production of innocent ejection murmurs.This prospective study was designed to determine the effect of positive end-expiratory pressure instituted early in the course of adult respiratory distress syndrome.(二)过去完成时1. 在着手研究之前就已经进行过的工作或已存在的状态。2.在研究过程中有两个前后相连的动作,先发生的动作往往用过去完成时。In a 22-year-old male, who had been irridated 16 years previously for Hodgkin
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