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英语六级复习预习资料(必过版).doc

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.英语六级复习资料(完整版)英语六级复习专题一完形填空-固定搭配 1. account for 说明…的原因,是…的原因2. acuse…of… 控告;谴责3. allow for 考虑到,顾及,为…留出预地4. appeal to 诉诸,诉请裁决(或证实等)5. bring about 导致,引起6. call off 取消7. care for 照顾,照料;喜欢8. check in (在旅馆、机场等)登记,报到9. check out 结帐后离开,办妥手续离去10. come up with 提出,提供,想出11. count on/upon 依靠,指望12. count up 共计,算出…的总数13. draw up 起草,拟订;(使)停住14. fall back on 借助于,依靠15. get at 够得着,触及;意思是,意指;查明,发现;指责16. go in for 从事,参加;爱好17. hang on to 紧紧抓住;保留(某物)18. turn out 制造,生产;结果是;驱逐;关掉,旋熄19. take over 接受,接管;借用,承袭20. take in 接受,吸收,接纳;理解,领会;欺骗;包括21. stick out (把…)坚持到底;突出,显眼22. stick to 坚持,忠于,信守;紧跟,紧随;粘贴在…上23. set out 陈述,阐明;动身,起程;开始;摆放24. set forth 阐明,陈述25. set about 开始,着手26. put in for 正式申请27. refer to…as… 把…称作,把…当作28. pay off 还清(债);付清工资解雇(某人);向…行贿;得到好结果,取得成功29. make up for 补偿,弥补30. look over 把…看一遍,把…过目;察看,参观31. look through 详尽核查;(从头至尾)浏览32. live on 靠…生活,以…为食物lie in (问题、事情等)在于33. lie in (问题、事情等)在于34. let go(of) 放开,松手35. hold out 维持,保持;坚持(要求),不屈服36. hold back 踌躇,退缩;阻止,抑制;隐瞒,保守(秘密等)37. have an advantage over 胜过. have the advantage of 由于…处于有利条件 have the advantage of sb。知道某人所不知道的事38. take advantage of (=make the best of, utilize, make use of, profit from, harness)利用。39. attribute…to…(=to believe sth. to be the result of…)把。.归因于.., 认为。.是。.的结果40. begin with 以…开始. to begin with (=first of all) 首先, 第一(经常用于开始语)41. on behalf of (=as the representative of) 以…名义42. believe in(=have faith or trust in; consider sth.sb. to be true) 相信,依赖,信仰。43. get the better of (=defeat sb。) 打败, 胜过。44. by birth 在出生上,论出身,按血统 at birth 在出生时; give birth to 出生、45. blame sb. for sth. 因…责备某人 . blame sth. on sb. 把…推在某人身上46. in blossom开花(指树木) be in blossom开花(强调状态) come into blossom开花(强调动作)47. take the floor 起立发言48. be capable of 能够, 有能力 be capable of being +过去分词是能够被…的49. compare…with … 把…与…比较50. compare…to… 把…比作…51. complain of (or about)抱怨;诉苦;控告;complain about 抱怨某人或事情; complain to sb. about sth. (or sb。) 向某人抱怨…; complain (抱怨); complement (补充); compliment (恭维)52. delight in(=take great pleasure in doing sth。)喜欢, 取乐53. take (a) delight in 喜欢干…, 以…为乐54. demand sth. from sb. 向某人要求(物质的)东西55. deprive sb. of sth. 剥夺某人某物56. deviate from 偏离, 不按…办57. on a diet 吃某种特殊饮食, 节食58. differ from…in 与…的区别在于…59. dispose of (=get rid of ,throw away)处理掉60. beyond dispute不容争议的,无可争议61. in dispute 在争议中62. (be) distinct from ( = be different from) 与…截然不同63. distinguish between (=make or recognize differences) 辨别64. distinguish…from 把…与…区别开65. do away with(=get rid of; abolish; discard eliminate) 除去,废除,取消; do away with (=kill) 杀掉, 镇压66. come off duty 下班67. at large(=at liberty, free) 在逃, 逍遥法外 at large(=in general) 一般来说, 大体上 at large(=at full length; with details)详细地68. accuse…of…(=charge…with; blame sb. for sth. ; blame sth. on sb. ; complain about) 指控,控告69. allow for (=take into consideration, take into account) 考虑到, 估计到 。70. amount to (=to be equal to) 总计, 等于。71. answer for (undertake responsibility for, be liable for, take charge for) 对…负责。72. abide by(=be faithful to ; obey)忠于;遵守73. comply with (=act in accordance with a demand, order, rule etc。) 遵守, 依从74. apply to sb. for sth. 为…向…申请 ; apply for申请; apply to 适用。75. apply to 与…有关;适用76. arise from(=be caused by) 由…引起。77. arrive on 到达; arrive at 到达某地(小地方);得出,作出; arrive in 到达某地(大地方);78. be ashamed of (=feel shame, guilt or sorrow because of sth. done) 以… 为羞耻79. assure sb. of sth. (=try to cause to believe or trust in sth。) 向…保证, 使…确信。80. attach(to) (=to fix, fasten; join) 缚, 系 ,结81. attend to (=give one’s attention, care and thought)注意,照顾;attend on(upon)(=wait upon, serve, look after) 侍候,照料82. in accordance with (=in agreement with) 依照,根据83. on one’s own account 1) 为了某人的缘故, 为了某人自己的利益 2) (=at one’s own risk) 自行负责 3) (=by oneself)依靠自己 on account 赊账; on account of 因为; on no account不论什么原因也不;of …account 有…。.重要性。84. take…into account(=consider)把.。.考虑进去85. account for (=give an explanation or reason for) 解释, 说明。86. on account of (=because of) 由于,因为。87. be accustomed to (=be in the habit of, be used to)习惯于。88. be acquainted with(=to have knowledge of) 了解; (=to have met socially ) 熟悉89. act on 奉行,按照…行动; act as 扮演; act for 代理adapt oneself to(=adjust oneself to) 使自己适应于90. adapt…(for) (=make sth. Suitable for a new need) 改编, 改写(以适应新的需要)91. in addition (=besides) 此外, 又, 加之92. in addition to(=as well as, besides, other than)除…外93. adhere to (=abide by, conform to, comply with, cling to, insist on, pe rsist in, observe, opinion, belief ) 粘附; 坚持, 遵循94. adjacent(=next to, close to) 毗邻的, 临近的95. adjust。.(to) (=change slightly)调节; 适应;英语六级复习专题二翻译-语法精要Ⅰ动词(时态,语态,用法,省略,一致性等)时态1)现在完成进行时态 (have/has been + -ing 分词构成): 动作或状态从过去某时开始,继续到现在,可能继续下去,也可能刚刚结束.I’ve been writing letters for an hour.I’ve been sitting in the garden.2)过去完成进行时(由had been + ing分词构成): 过去某个时刻以前一直在进行的动作I’d been working for some time when he called.We had been waiting for her for two hours by the time she came.3)将来完成进行时: 将来某个时刻以前一直在进行的动作.By next summer, he will have been working here for twenty years.In another month’s time she’ll have been studying here for three years.4)将来完成时(由shall/will have + 过去分词构成): 将来某时会业已发生的事.I shall have finished this one before lunch.They’ll have hit the year’s target by the end of October.语态可以有两种被动结构的类型,例如:He was said to be jealous of her success.It was said that he was jealous of her success.能同时适用于上述两个句型的主动词通常都是表示“估计”,“相信”等意义的动词,常见的有assume,believe,expect,fear,feel,know,presume,report,say,suppose,understand等.It is supposed that the ship has been sunk.The ship is supposed to have been sunk.担当be supposed to 与不定式的一般形式搭配时往往表示不同的意义.例如:Why are you driving so fast in this area? You are supposed to know the speed to know the speed limit. (你应该晓得速度限制)双宾语及宾补结构的被动语态双宾语结构的被动语态: 双宾语结构变为被动语态时,可以把主动结构中的一个宾语变为主语,另一个宾语仍然保留在谓语后面,但多数是把间接宾语变为主语.He was asked a number of questions at the press conference.Two days were allowed them for making the necessary preparations.宾补结构的被动语态:She was called Big Sister by everybody.Then he was made a squad leader.He was considered quite qualified for the job.The room was always kept clean and tidy.短语动词Vi + advThe plane took off two hours late.Vi + prepThey looked round the Cathedral.Vi + prep (有被动语态)She’s looking after her sister’s children.The children were always well looked after.Vi + adv + prepI began to look forward to their visits.Vt + O + advSome women choose to stay at home and bring up their children.The children were brought up by their mother.They took him on.Vt + adv + O (无被动语态)I am trying to give up smoking.Vt + O + prepWe talked Donald into agreement.省略在以as, than, when, if, unless等引导的从句中的省略: 在有些状语从句中,如果谓语包含有动词be,主语又和主句的主语一致a),或者主语是it b),就常常可以把从句中的主语和谓语的一部分(特别是动词be)省略掉.Look out for cars when crossing the street.When taken according to the directions, the drug has no side effects.While there he joined in voluntary labour on a project.Although not yet six months old, she was able to walk without support.If not well managed, irrigation can be harmful.Though reduced in numbers, they gained in fighting capacity.This viewpoint, however understandable, is wrong.Enemies, once discovered, were tightly encircled and completely wiped out.She hurriedly left the room as though/if angry.She worked extremely hard though still rather poor in health.Fill in the application as instructed.Whenever known, such facts should be reported.The documents will be returned as soon as signed.He said that no acrobat could ever perform those daring feats unless trained very young.Once having made a promise, you should keep it.If necessary I’ll have the letter duplicated.Fill in the blanks with articles where(ver) necessary.If possible, I should like to have two copies of it.As scheduled, they met on January 20 at the Chinese Embassy.在以than a) 或 as b) 引起的从句中,常会有一些成分省略.He told me not to use more material than (it is) necessary.We should think more of the collective than of ourselves.They worked with as much enthusiasm as young people (did).He is now a vice-manager, but still often works in the kitchen as before.Their training is free, as is all education.We will, as always, stand on your side.错误的省略His life is as fully committed to books as anyone I know.While standing there in her nightgown, two bullets struck the wall beside her.一致如果主语是单数,尽管后面跟有with, together with, as well as, as much as, no less than, more than等引导的短语,谓语动词仍旧用单数形式.Terry, along with her friend, goes skating every Saturday.An expert, together with some assistants, was sent to help in this work.The captain, as well as the coaches, was disappointed in the team.代词作主语时的一致each, either, neither和由some, any, no, every构成的复合代词,都作单数看待.Each of us has something to say.Is everybody ready?Somebody is using the phone.Neither of us has gone through regular training.Has either of them told you?some, few, both, many 等作复数some 可后接复数,也可接单数,表示某一.none作复数看待时较多,但也有时作单数看待,主要看说话人脑中联系想到的是复数还是单数概念, 但none 在代表不可数的东西时总是看作单数:None of the books are easy enough for usNone of us seem to have thought of it.None (= not a single one) of us has got a camera.None (= nobody) has felt it more keenly than she did.None of this worries me.all 和most 可后接复数,也可接不可数名词 (all of the…, most of the …), 动词用单数.由and 或 both… and 连接名词词组时, 后用复数; 由not only…but (also), either…or, neither…nor或 or 连接的并列主语, 谓语通常和最邻近的主语一致.Not only the switches but also the old writing has been changed.My sister or my brother is likely to be at home.Either you or Mr Yang is to do the work.Neither my wife nor I myself am able to persuade my daughter to change her mind.如果一个句子是由there 或here引导, 而主语又不止一个, 谓语通常也和最邻近的那个主语一致.There was carved in the board a dragon and a phoenix.Here is a pen, a few envelopes and some paper for you.people, police, cattle, poultry (家禽), militia (民兵) 等通常都用作复数.Cattle are grazing on the pasture.The police are looking for him.有些集体名词有时作单数看待, 有时作复数看待, 主要根据意思来决定.His family isn’t very large.His family are all music lovers.The committee meets twice a month.The committee are divided in opinion.The audience was enormous.The audience were greatly moved at the words.有些名词单复数同形, 可根据意思决定谓语动词的数:This new series is beginning next month.These new series are beginning next month.This species is now extinct.These species are now extinct.表示时间, 重量, 长度, 价值等的名词, 尽管仍是复数形式, 如果作整体看待, 动词也可用单数形式 (当然用复数动词也是可以的):Three weeks was allowed for making the necessary preparations.One hundred li was covered in a single night.其他问题书名, 国家名用单数:Tales from Shakespeare is a book by Charles Lamb.学科名, 如mathematics, economics用单数.many a 或more than one 所修饰的词作主语时, 谓语动词多用单数形式:Many a person has had that kind of experience.More than one person has involved in the case.a number of 后接复数, the number of后接单数:A number of books have been published on the subject.The number of books published on the subject is simply amazing.one of those 后用单数. 在“one of + 复数名词 +关系分句”结构中,关系分句中谓语动词的单复数形式在一般情况下有两形式,一是根据先行词采用复数形式:Joan is one of those people who go out of their way to be helpful.当one 之前友the only 等限定词和修饰语时,关系分句谓语动词根据one 而定,即采用单数形式:He is the only one of those boys who is willing to take on another assignment.Ⅱ 非谓语动词不定式形式主动形式被动形式一般式to doto be done完成式to have doneto have been done进行式to be doing完成进行式to have been doing完成式: 不定式的一般形式所表示的动作, 通常与主要谓语表示的动作(状态)同时(或几乎同时)发生, 或是在它之后发生. 假如不定式所表示的动作, 在谓语所表示的动作(状态)之前发生, 就要用不定式的完成式.I am glad to have seen your mother (= I am glad I have seen your mother).(比较: I am glad to see you.)He is said to have written a new book about workers.He pretended not to have seen me.进行式: 如果主要谓语表示的动作(状态)发生时, 不定式表示的动作正在进行, 这时要用不定式的进行式.You are not supposed to be working. You haven’t quite recovered yet.We didn’t expect you to be waiting for us here.He pretended to be listening attentively.完成进行式: 在谓语所表示的时间之前一直进行的动作, 就要用不定式的完成进行式.The struggle was known to have been going for twenty years.We are happy to have been working with you.被动式: 当不定式的逻辑上的主语是不定式所表示的动作的承受者时, 不定式一般要用被动形式.It is an honour for me to be asked to speak here.She hated to be flattered.He wanted the letter to be typed at once.This is bound to be found out.There are a lot of things to be done.She was too young to be assigned such work.功用: 不定式可以作主语 (a), 宾语 (b), 表语 (c), 定语 (d) 或是状语 (e).a. To scold her would not be just.b. We are planning to build a reservoir here.c. One of our main tasks now is to mechanize agriculture.d. Do you have anything to declare?e. We have come to learn from you.不带to 的不定式:在“动词+ 宾语+不定式”结构中, 如果动词是表示感觉意义的see, hear, watch, smell, feel, notice等, 或是表示“致使”意义的 have, make, let等, 其后的不定式结构不带to.John made her tell him everything.这类结构转换为被动语态时, 后面的不带to 的不定式一般还原为带to 的不定式.She was made to tell him everything.在 had better, had best, would rather, would sooner, would just as soon, might (just) as well, cannot but 等搭配之后, 动词不定式也不带to.I’d rather not have eggs and bacon for breakfast.They cannot but accept his term.在make do, make believe, let drop, let fall, let fly, let slip, let drive, let go of, let there be, hear say, hear tell, leave go of等固定搭配中, 用不带to的动词不定式.John let fly a torrent of abuse at me.I’ve heard tell of him.在动词help(或help +宾语)之后可用不带to的不定式, 也可用带to的不定式.Can I help (to) lift this heavy box?在介词except, but 之后, 如果其前有动词do的某种形式, 不定式一般不带to, 反之带to.There is nothing to do except wait till it stops raining.Smith will do anything but work on a farm.There’s no choice but to wait till it stops raining.连词 rather than, sooner than 置于句首时, 其后的不定式不带to.Rather than push the book back as he wanted to do, he forced himself to pick it up.出现在句中其他位置时, 其后的不定式有时带to, 有时不带to.He decided to write rather than telephone.The manager believes it is important to invest in new machinery rather than to increase wages.用作补语的动词不定式, 如果主语是由“all + 关系分句”,“thing +关系分句”,“what分句”或“thing +不定式结构”等构成,并带有do的某种形式,这时,作为主语补语的不定式可以省to,也可以不省.What he will do is (to) spoil the whole thing.All you do now is complete the formThe only thing I can do now is go on by myself.The thing to do now is clear up this mess.The least I can do is drive everybody else closer to the issue.不定式的其他用法too…to 结构通常表示否定意义:She was too young to understand all that.enough…to结构则表示肯定意义:She was not old enough to understand all that.not too, but too, all too, only too等和不定式连用时,不定式一般不表示否定意义:He’s only too pleased to help her.so…as (to)这种结构也可用不定式作状语:Be so kind as to drop in some time when you are free.如果要说明不定是表示的动作是谁做的, 可以在不定式前加一个for引起的短语:It is not hard for one to do a bit of good.It is a great honour for us to be present at this rally.在以某些形容词(如 kind, good, nice, wise, unwise, clever, silly, wrong, right, foolish, stupid, careless, considerate, rude, naughty, impolite等)作表语时, 不定式前可加一个of引起的短语, 来说明不定式指的是谁的情况:It’s kind of you to think so much of us.(It is) Awfully good of you to come and meet us.It’s very nice of you to be so considerate.It’s unwise of them to turn down the proposal.V+ing形式(现在分词及动名词)形式完成式: 如果要表示动名词代表的动作在谓语所表示的动作之前发生, 通常用动名词的完成形式.He didn’t mention having met me.I regret not having taken her advice.在某些动词后(或成语中), 常用(或可以用)动名词的一般形式, 尽管动作是在谓语所表示的动作之前发生的.Excuse me for coming late.I don’t remember ever seeing him anywhere.现在分词的完成式主要用在状语中, 表示这动作在谓语所表示的动作之前发生.Having been there many times, he offered to be our guide.Having found the cause, they were able to propose a remedy.另外, 独立结构也可用现在分词的完成形式.The guests having left, they resumed their discussion.The children, having eating their fill, were allowed to leave the table.被动式: 当一个动名词逻辑上的主语所表示的是这动作的对象时, 动名词一般要用被动形式.His being neglected by the host added to his uneasiness.He couldn’t bear being made fun of like that.但要注意, 在want, need, deserve, require 等动词后, 尽管表示的是被动的意思, 却用动名词的主动形式.My pen needs filling.The point deserves mentioning.This problem requires studying with great care.在worth这个形容词后情形也是这样.Her method is worth trying.现在分词的被动式可以用来作定语, 宾语补足语, 状语及用于独立结构中.This is one of the experiments being carried on in our laboratory.You’ll find the topic being discussed everywhere.Being asked to give a performance, she couldn’t very well refuse.These are sold at reduced prices, the defects always being pointed out to the customers.完成被动式: 如果表示的动作在谓语表示的动作之前发生, 有时需要用动名词的完成被动式.I don’t remember having ever been given a chance to try this method.但在多数情况下都避免使用这一形式, 而用一般被动形式代替, 以免句子显得累赘.现在分词的完成被动式一般用来作状语或用于独立结构中.Having been given such a good chance, how could she let it slip away?The decision having been made, the next problem was how to make a good plan.All the compositions having been written and collected, the teacher sent the students home.句法功用作主语:Walking is good exercise.It’s nice talking to you.There is no denying the fact that the new method has greatly raised labour productivity.作宾语:Your shoes need polishing.You mustn’t delay sending the tractors over.He avoided giving us a definite answer.作介词宾语: 动名词作介词宾语用的时候最多. 它常可以用在某些成语后面, 常见的有: insist on, persist in, think of, dream of, object to, suspect…of, accuse…of, charge…with, hear of, approve of, prevent…from, keep…from, stop…from, refrain from, be engaged in, look forward to, opposed to, depend on, thank…for, feel like, excuse…for, aim at, devote…to, set about, spend…in, get (be) used to, be fond of, be capable of, be afraid of, be tired of, be sick of, succeed in, be interested in, feel (be) ashamed of, be proud of, be keen on, be responsible for.作表语:The real problem is getting to know the needs of the people.动名词和不定式都可以作主语或表语. 一般说来, 在表示抽象的一般的行为时多用动名词; 在表示具体某词动作, 特别是将来的动作时, 多用不定式.作宾语补足语: 分词可以在see, hear, notice, watch, feel, find, keep, get, have等动词后作宾语补足语.The words immediately set us all laughing.Once we caught him dozing off in class.His remark left me wondering what he was driving at.在see, hear, feel, watch, notice等动词后, 及可用现在分词, 也可用不定式构成宾语补足语. 用现在分词时, 表示动作正在发生, 用不定式时表示动作发生了.Do you hear someone knocking at the door?Yes, I did. I heard him knock three times.作状语: 现在分词作状语时, 通常都表示主语正在进行的另一动作, 来对谓语表示的主要动作加以修饰或作为陪衬.I ran out of the house shouting.I got home, feeling very tired.Driving to Chicago that night, I was struck by a sudden thought.现在分词短语有时可以用作状语表示原因, 相当于一个表示原因的状语从句.Not knowing her address, we couldn’t get in touch with her.Seeing nobody at home, she decided to leave them a note.Having already seen the film twice, she didn’t want to go to the cinema.现在分词短语有时可用作时间状语, 相当于when引起的从句:Seeing those pictures, he couldn’t help thinking of those memorable days they spent together.如果两个动作是完全同时发生的, 多用when 或while加分词这种结构.Be careful when crossing the street.When leaving the airport, they waved again and again to us.She got to know them while attending a conference in Beijing.前面带有代词或名词的动名词结构: 一个动名词前面可以加一个物主代词(或名词的所有格结构), 来表示这个动名词逻辑上的主语.Their coming to help was a great encouragement to us.Our sole worry is your relying too much on yourself.Do you mind my reading your paper?They insisted on my staying there for supper.如果不是在句子开头, 这个结构常常可以用名词的普通格(或人称代词宾格), 这比用所有格更自然一些.I don’t mind him going.She hates people losing their temper.只能用动名词作宾语的动词: suggest, finish, avoid, stop, can’t help, mind, admit, enjoy, leave off, require, postpone, put off, delay, practise, fancy, excuse, pardon, advise, consider, deny, endure, escape, miss既可用动名词, 也可用不定式作宾语的动词: love, like, hate, dislike, begin, start, continue, intend, attempt, can’t bear, propose, want, need, remember, forget, regret, neglect, try, deserve, can’t afford等.有时两种结构之间意义差别不大, 有时却有不同的意思. 在remember, regret, want, try等词后差别是比较明显的.I remember seeing her once somewhere.I must remember to take my notebooks with me.I regret not having accepted your advice.I regret to say I haven’t given you enough help.She doesn’t want (need) to come.The house wants (needs) cleaning.We must try to get everything done in time.Let’s try doing the work some other way.悬垂修饰: 分词作状语时, 表示的必须是主语的一个动作或状态.Walking through the park, we saw a lot of flowers. (walking是we的动作, 正确)Walking through the park, the flowers looked very beautiful. (错误)Standing on the tower, we could see the whole city. (正确)Standing on the tower, the whole village could be seen. (错误)分词意义: 过去分词通常来自及物动词, 带有被动意义和完成意义; 而现在分词有的来自及物动词, 有的来自不及物动词, 通常带有主动意义和未完成意义.frozen fooda freezing winda bored travellera boring journeya lost causea losing battlea conquered army a conquering armya finished articlethe last finishing touchthe spoken worda speaking birda closed shopthe closing houra recorded talka recording machine来自不及物动词的过去分词很少能单独用作前置修饰语, 能作这样用的仅限于下面几个词, 仅表示完成意义, 不表示被动意义.the risen sun, fallen leaves, faded/withered flowers, returned students, retired workers, departed friends, escaped prisoners, the vanished jewels, newly-arrived visitors用作后置修饰语的过去分词一般都带有修饰语或其他成分, 在意义上相当于关系分句.Most of the people invited to the reception were old friends.句法作用作定语: distinguished guest 贵宾, unknown heroes 无名英雄, armed forces武装部队, canned food罐头食品, boiled water开水, steamed bread馒头, stricken area灾区分词还可构成合成词作定语: simply-furnished room陈设简单的房间, clear-cut answer明确的答复, highly-developed industry高度发展的工业, heartfelt thanks衷心的感谢, hand-made goods手工制品, man-made satellite人造卫星作补足语: 可以带过去分词作宾语补足语的动词有:see, hear, feel, find, think等表示感觉和心理状态的动词.I saw the students assembled in the hall.We found her greatly changed.make, get, have, keep等表示”致使”意义的动词:I have my hair cut every ten days.She got her bad tooth pulled out.Please keep us informed of the latest developments.like, want, wish, order等表示希望, 要求, 命令等意义的动词:I don’t want any of you (to be) involved in the scandal.He won’t like such questions (to be) discussed at the meeting.过去分词短语常用作状语, 修饰谓语, 很多都说明动作发生的背景或情况.Guided by these principles, they went on with the work,Delighted with her work, they made her the general manager.过去分词短语也可作状语表示原因, 相当于一个表示原因的状语从句.Influenced by his example, they performed countless good deeds.有时也可说明动作发生的时间, 相当于一个表示时间的状语从句.This method, tried in areas near Shanghai, resulted in a marked rise in total production.间或也可表示一个假设的情况, 相当于一个条件从句.Given closer analysis, we can see this is totally wrong.偶尔也可用来代替一个“让步”状语从句.Picked 20 years a year, it grows tired only after 40 or 50 years.独立结构: 在用分词短语作状语时, 它逻辑上的主语一般必须与句子的主语一.致. 但有时它也可以有自己独立的逻辑上的主语, 这种结构称为独立结构, 一般表示一种伴随的动作或情况.He rushed into the room, his face covered with sweat.有时可以表示时间:Late that autumn, his work finished, he prepared to return to his institute.表示原因:Her eyes dimmed with tears, she did not see him enter.条件:All things considered, her paper is of greater value than yours.Ⅲ 虚拟语气that从居中:wish, would rather (sooner), had better:I wish I were as strong as you.I wish I had paid more attention to our pronunciation.I wish I remembered the address.I would rather they came tomorrow (you had gone there too).I had rather (that) you told him than I did.suggest, order, demand, propose, command, request, desire, insist 等动词后的宾语从句:The commander ordered that all civilians (should) be evacuated.He asked that he be given an opportunity to try.She urged that he write and accept the post.it is desired, it is suggested, it is requested, it was ordered, it was proposed, it is necessary, it is important, it has been decided 等结构后的主语从句中.It was arranged that they leave the following weekIt will be better that we meet some other time.suggestion, motion, proposal, order, recommendations, plan, idea等后面的表语从句和同位语从句:His sole requirement is (was) that thy system be adjusted.在某些句型中it is time thatIt is time that we went (或should go) to bed.It is high time we (should) put an end to this controversy.as if (though) 引起的从句:They talked (are talking) as if they had been friends for years.It seems as if it was (were) spring today.He acts (acted) as if (though) he were (was) an expert.以lest, for fear that 和 in case 引起的从句(这时谓语多用 should +动词原形):He took his raincoat with him lest it should rain.He put his coat over the child for fear that (或lest) he should catch cold.I’ll keep a seat for you in case you should need it.以whatever, whoever, no matter what这类代词或词组引起的从句(这时, 谓语多用may加动词原形构成):Whatever defects he may have, he is an honest man.Come what may, we will go ahead.不管发生什么情况, 我们都要干下去.I accept that he is old and frail; be that as it may, he’s still a good politician.我承认他年老体衰, 然而尽管如此, 它仍是优秀的政治家.条件句虚拟条件句主要有下面两类:表示现在及将来情况(表示纯然假设或实现的可能性不大的情况):谓语主要形式如下(be多用were这个形式):从句主句过去式would + 动词原形If I were you, I wouldn’t lose heart.How nice it would be if you could stay a bit longer.表示过去情况的虚拟条件句(与事实完全相反的假设情况), 谓语主要形式如下:从句主句had + 过去分词would have + 过
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