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高一英语考点总结分析.doc

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英语 考点 总结 分析
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.高一英语知识点总结☆重点句型☆1. Cell phones, or mobile phones make it possible for us to talk to anyone from anywhere. it 作形式宾语的用法2. I don't dare to use the phone in school. dare 的用法3. The answer seems to be that we have a need to stay in touch with friends and family no matter where we are or what we are doing.no matter + 疑问词引导的让步状语从句4. The cell phone helps her do whatever she wants to do.whatever 引导的名词从句5. We human beings could not survive without all plants and animals around us. 表双重否定6. We may be able to take measures before it is too late.before 的译法7. Steve Jones tries to keep animals and plants from becom- ing endangered. 表示“阻止某人做某事”☆重点词汇☆1. agreement n. 一致,协定2. absolutely adv. 绝对地,完全地3. press vt. & vi. 按,压,逼迫4. teenager n. (13--19岁的)青少年5. throughout prep. 遍及,贯穿6. add vt. 增加,添加,补充说7. 1atest adj. 最近的,最新的8. calendar n. 日历9. appointment n. 约会,指定10. behaviour n. 行为,举止11. obey v. 服从12. emergency n. 紧急情况13. dial vt. 拨号14. unexpected adj. 想不到的15. particular adj. 特别的,个别的16. succeed v. 成功17. force n. & vt. 力量,强制18. wonder n. 奇迹19. defeat vt. & n. 击败,失败20. department n. 部,局,系21. interview vt. & n. 接见,会见22. environmental adj. 环境的23. common adj. 共同的,普遍的24. valuable adj. 有价值的25. reduce vt. 减少26. respond vi. 回答,响应27. material n. 材料,原料28. attractive adj. 吸引人的29. organize vt. & vi. 组织30. amount n. 数量☆重点短语☆1. keep / stay in touch with 与……保持联络2. call for 要求,需要3. in case of 假设,万一4. according to 根据,据……所说5. take over 接收,接管6. break down 毁掉,坏掉7. in danger 在危险中8. die out 灭绝,逐渐消失9. as a result of 作为(……的)结果10. lead to 导致某种结果11. take measures 采取措施12. adapt to 适应13. make a difference 有关系,有影响14. devote...to 献身于……,专心于……15. at present 现在,目前16. set free 释放17. in the wild 在自然环境下18. throw away 扔掉19. on the go 忙个不停,四处奔走20. remind...of... 使人想起……21. dream of 梦想22. come up with 提出23. first of all 首先24. make money 赚钱25. depend on 依靠☆短语闯关☆下列短语都是这两个单元学过的重要短语,请你根据汉语在横线上填入一个正确的词,每个词5分,80分才能过关,你一定能过关,做好了闯关的准备吗?那么我们就开始吧?1. stay in ____ with 与……保持联络2. call ____ 要求,需要3. ____ case(of) 假设;万一4. according ____ 按照;根据……所说5. take ____ 接收;接管6. break ____ 毁掉,坏掉;中止7. ____ danger 在危险中;垂危8. die ____ 灭绝;逐渐消失9. ____ a result of作为(……的)结果;由于10. lead ____ 导致某种结果11. ____ measures 采取措施12. adapt ____ 适应(新环境等)13. make a ____ 有关系;有影响14. devote ____ 献身于……;专心于……15. present ____ 现在;目前16. ____ free 释放17. ____ the wild 在自然环境下18. throw ____ 扔掉;浪费19. ____ the go 忙个不停;四处奔走;跑来跑去20. turn...inside ____ 把……翻过来☆交际用语☆1. I can't agree with you on this point.2. That's the point.3. Well, it depends.4. Does anyone share David's opinion?5. I absolutely agree.6. That's how I see it.7. Why can't we drink the water in our rivers and lakes? Because the water is polluted.8. Cars and factories cause air pollution. As a result of air pollution, many people get sick.9. People get sick because of air pollution. It follows that we must do something about it.☆单词聚焦☆1. adapt vt. 使适应;使配合(1) adapt + n. + to + n. 使……适应,使……适合He could not adapt his way of life to the school. 他的生活方式无法适应学校的要求。(2) adapt (oneself) to 适应……She quickly adapted to new circumstances. 她能够很快地适应新环境。/ I suggested he should adapt himself to his new conditions. 我建议他应该调整自己,以适应新的环境。2. add vt. & vi. 增加,加入,补充说If the tea is too strong, add some more water. 如果茶太浓,再加些水。/ Many words have been added to this edition of the dictionary。这一版字典增加了很多词。/ The bad weather only added to our difficulties. 恶劣的天气只会增添我们的困难。/ "And I hope you will realize it one day." he added. 他接着说:“我希耀你总有一天会明白这一点。” / I should like to add that we are pleased with the result. 我想补充一句,我们对这个成果感到高兴。[短语]add...to... 在……中加上…… add to 增加,增添add up 加起来 add up to 总计,总共有……Your carelessness added to our difficulty. 你的粗心增加了我们的困难。/ The money he spent added up to no more than £1,000. 他花的钱总计1000英镑。3. add 的用法▲ 构词:① addition n. 加,加起来,增加物,增加,加法② additional adj. 外加的,附加的,另加的▲ 搭配:① add sth in 算人;包括② add A to B 把A加到B上,往A里添加B③ add to 增加,加到④ in addition 加上,又,另外⑤ in addition to 加上,除……外,又⑥ add sth up 把……加起来,总计⑦ add up (to…)总计共达;表示,等于说。意味着;总而言之【考例】The president talked with the official for a longtime, ____ that he still trusted him.A. added B. adding C. adding up D. adding up to[考查目标] 本题考查add及其构成短语的意思。[答案与解析]B adding的意思是“补充(说)”。add up to意思是“加起来等于”。4. amount n. 量,常与不可数名词连用“the amount of + 不可数名词”表示“……的量”。[提醒]“a large amount of + 不可数名词”后跟单数谓语“large amounts of + 不可数名词”后跟复数谓语There is a large amount of / are large amounts of coal to be sent there. 大量的煤要运往那儿。[比较] number 也意为“量”,但它指可数的事物的“数目,数量”。the number of ……的数目 / numbers of / a number of 大量的 后跟复数名词5. case的用法▲ 搭配:① as is often the case 这是常有的事② as the case stands 在目前的情况下,就现有的情况而论③ in this / that case 如果是这样/那样的话④ in any case 无论如何,总之⑤ in case (that)-clause 假使。如果,万一⑥ in case of 万一……,如果发生……⑦ (just)in case 以防(万一)⑧ in most cases 在大多数情况下【考例】(2005广东)You'd better take something to read when you go to see the doctor ____ you have to wait.A. even if B. as if C. in case D. in order that[考查目标]考查 case 构成的短语的用法。[答案与解析]C 句意:“当你去看医生的时候最好带点东西读以防等待”。in case 意为“万一”;even if意为“即使”;as if,意为“好像”;in order that 意为“为了……”。就高考而言,除了 in case 之外,意为“以防万一”的引导词还应掌握-,for fear that 和lest。6. defeat 的用法▲ 构词:defeatist n. 失败主义者▲ 搭配:suffer a defeat战败;遭受挫败▲ 辨析:defeat;beat;conquer 这组动词的一般含义是“打败”。defeat 的含义是“打败”,但被打败者不一定服输。例如:The public bet a lot of money on Mendoza, but he was defeated. 公众为门杜萨下了一大笔赌注,但是他被击败了。beat则表示彻底“打败”,而且被打败者完全服输了。例如:It was not until his third match in 1790 that he finally beat Humphries and become Champion of England. 直到1790年第三次比赛时,他才最后打败汉弗莱斯,而成为英国的冠军。conquer 更可强调“把对方征服”,而且被征服者或被征服的国家为征服者所有,可以任意支配,特别指“获得对人、物或感情的控制。例如:Some countries may be defeated but can never be conquered. 有的国家可能被打败,但决不能被征服。【考例】-- Who ____ the team from No. 2 Middle school? -- I'm not sure. Perhaps the team from the nearby county.A. defeated B. won C. beat D. gained[考查目标]本题考查defeat的常见用法。[答案与解析]A defeat 意思是“打败”,后面跟的是表示“人”或“组织”的名词或代词。7. depend 的用法▲ 搭配:① That depends. 要看情况而定。② It (all) depends. 要看情况而定。③ depend on / upon 依靠;由……而定.取决于;从属于;依赖其维持【考例】[2004江苏]-- How long are you staying? -- I don't know. ____.A. That's OK B. Never mindC. It depends D. It doesn't matter[考查目标]考查depend在交际场合的用法。[答案与解析]C it depends 意思是“看情况。不能确定”。8. devote vt. 投入于;献身devoted 忠实的;献身……的;专用的devote one's time / life / energy / oneself to (doing) sth. 致力于……;献身于…… = be devoted to...致力于……;献身于……;忠实于…… After that, he devoted his entire energy to these studies. 从那以后,他全力以赴从事这些研究工作。/ He is very devoted to his wife. 他很忠实于他的妻子。9. devote 的用法▲ 构词:① devotion n. 献身;奉献;忠诚;热心,专心② devoted adj. 忠诚的;挚爱的;喜欢的③ devotedly adv. 忠实地,一心一意地▲搭配:① devote...to 把……献给;把……专用于② devote oneself to 致力于,献身于;专心于③ be devoted to 专心于,忠于▲ 友情提示:各搭配中to均为介词。【考例】[2004全国卷IV] First of all, I respected his ____ to teaching.A. attention B. introductionC. relation D. devotion[考查目标] 本题考查 devote 派生词的词义和用法。[答案与解析]D devote的名词形式是devotion,也应该和介词 to 搭配。10. force n. [U][C]力量,势力,暴力 vt. 强迫,促使,强制 He didn't use much force. 他没怎么用力。/ They refused to bow before force. 他们拒绝向暴力低头。/ They have come to know the forces of nature. 他们终于知道了大自然的力量。[注意]the forces 可表示“军队,兵力”。[拓展]force sb. to do sth.;force sb. into doing sth.;force sb. / sth. + 形容词 / 副词 / 介词短语 I was forced to leave. 我被迫离开。(= into leaving) / The strong man forced himself into the empty room. 那个身体强壮的男子强行进入了那个宅房间。[短语]by force 靠武力,强行 be in force 生效come / go into force 生效 put in / into force 使生效force one's way 强行前进或进入11. hurry 的用法▲ 构词:① hurried adj. 匆忙的② hurriedly adv. 仓促地.慌忙地▲ 搭配:① in a hurry 匆忙地② in no hurry 不忙,有充分的时间;不急于③ no hurry 不忙.不必着急,有充裕的时间④ hurry up 快点,赶紧做;催促(快点)▲ 辨析:hurry; haste; speed 均含“动作上的快速”的意思。hurry 指“动作不轻松、不自然的快,有时表示不必要的快”,并且常有“忙乱仓促”的意思。例如:In her hurry she forgot to leave her address. 在匆忙中,她忘了留下地址。haste 着重“想办法赶快”的意思,并常表示“匆忙的动作。有时动作过分仓促而不能得到预期的结果”。例如:All his haste was of no use. 他白忙了。/ Haste makes waste. 欲速则不达。speed 指“人(物)快捷(速)的动作”。例如:It is dangerous to corner at speed. 高速转弯是危险的。【考例】[2004湖南] When l there ____ I apologized for being late, and told him I'd come as quickly as I could,...A. went B. ran C. walked D. hurried[考查目标] 考查几个与“走”有关的近义词的区别。[答案与解析]D 从上下文看,当时,是”匆忙”的。12. lie的用法▲构词:liar n. 说谎者▲搭配:① lie down 躺下;磨洋工;停止战斗② lie in 在于;位于③ tell a lie = tell lies 撒谎【考例】[2002北京] I would ____ very still so that the "enemy" would not discover me.A. lay B. hide C. rest D. lie[考查目标]本题考查lie,lay等几个相近词的区别。[答案与解析]D lie是动词原形,意思是“躺”或“撒谎”。在本句中是“躺”的意思。13. measure 的用法▲ 搭配:① make sth to sb's measure 按某人的尺寸制作某物② take measures 采取措施 ③ beyond / above measure 无法估量地;无限的,极度地,非常,极为【考例】[2004天津] I realized strength and courage aren't always ____ in medals and victories, but in the struggle we overcome.A. measured B. praised C. tested D. increased[考查目标] 本题考查measure的意思。[答案与解析]A measure的基本词义是“衡量,量”。14. press vt. & vi. 按,压,夹 n. 压力,印刷机,新闻界 Press this button to start the engine. 按下这个按钮启动发动机。/ My shoes presses my toe. 我的鞋挤脚趾。/ The power of the press is very great. 舆论的力量是巨大的。[拓展] pressure n. 劳累,紧张;pressing adj. 紧迫的,恳切的[短语] be pressed for time / money 缺时间/钱;press on 加紧赶路,奋力前进;in the press 正在印刷15. reduce vt. & vi 减少,缩减,减化reduce prices 降低价格reduce air pollution 减少空气污染reduce one's weight 减肥reduce noise 减少噪音[注意]reduce 作不及物动词时,仅作“减肥”讲。I must reduce to get into that dress. 我必须减肥才能穿上那条裙子。[拓展]reduce...to 使……陷入不良状况;把……归纳成;把……降职为(to为介词) He was reduced to begging for food. 他沦落到讨饭的地步。[短语] order 使……恢复秩序;整理 reduce...to silence使安静,使沉默下来tears 使哭了起来16. remind(1) vt. 提醒① remind sb. of / about sth. 提醒某人某物;提醒某人注意某事Be sure to remind her of the meeting she has to attend. 务必提醒她要参加那次会议。② remind sb. to do sth. 提醒某人做某事Please remind me to post the letter. 请提醒我寄那封信。③ remind sb. that-clause 提醒某人…… She reminded me that I hadn't written to mother. 她提醒了我,我还没给妈妈写信。(2) vt. 使(人)想起,使记起① remind sb. of sb. / sth. 使……想到某人或某物 He reminds me of his father. 看到他使我想起他的父亲。② remind sb. that-clause 使人回忆起…… The sight of the clock reminded me that I was late. 看到钟使我想起我已经晚了。【考例】[2000上海春招]what you said just now ____ me of that American professor.A. mentioned B. informed C. reminded D. memorized[考查目标] remind基本用法。[答案与解析]C remind表示“提醒;让……想起”。17. wonder v. 惊奇,惊叹,对……感到惊奇,想知道[C] 奇迹,奇观奇事I wondered that he couldn't answer such an easy question. 他竟然回答不出这样简单的问题,真让我感到奇怪。/ I don't wonder at her refusing to marry him. 她拒绝嫁给他,对此我一点也不奇怪。/ It is really a wonder that he can recover from the SARS. 他能从非典型性肺炎中康复真是一个奇迹。▲ 构词:wonderful adj. 令人惊奇的.奇妙的,极好的,令人愉快的▲ 搭配:① what a wonder! 多么令人惊异!真想不到!② It is a wonder that... 奇怪的是……③ (It's) no / little / small wonder (that…) 难怪…,…并不奇怪It's no wonder that you are so happy. 难怪你这么高兴。④ do / perform / work wonders 创造奇迹,取得惊人成就【考例】(2005湖北) He hasn't slept at all for three days. ____ he is tired out.A. There is no point B. There is no needC. It is no wonder D. It is no way[考查目标] 考查 wonder 的词义。[答案与解析]C “他已经三天没有睡觉了,现在筋疲力尽也不足为奇。”根据句意,答案选C。 no wonder 表示“不足为奇的”;no point 表示“没有意义”;no need表示“没有……的必要”;no way 表示“决不”。[牛刀小试1]用所给单词的适当形式填空:(lie, remind, case, depend, add, measure, hurry)1. The Smiths said they would take ____ to repair the windows by themselves.2. There's plenty of time left; No ____.3. The policemen rushed into the bedroom, only to find the couple ____ on the bed, dead.4. -- Would you like to go swimming with Jack and Jim? -- That ____.5. The heavy storm ____to our trouble in the long marching, besides we were too tired.6. When I couldn't remember the exact words, my brother ____ me of them.7. I know there's no need to take so much money with me, but still I want to bring some in ____.☆短语归类☆1. 含 as 的短语① as usual 像平常一样② as if / as though 好像③ as long as 长达……;只要④ as soon as possible 尽可能早地,尽快⑤ as well 也,又,同样地⑥ as often as 每次.每当⑦ as a / the result of 作为……的结果⑧ as well as 也,还,和……一样好⑨ as soon as 一……就…….和……一样快⑩ as far as 和……一样远,就……,尽……⑪ may / might as well 不妨⑫ as a result 结果,因此[例句] As if unsure of where she was, she hesitated and looked around. 她仿佛茫然不知身在何处,犹犹豫豫向四周张望。/ As long as it doesn't rain tomorrow, we'll go fishing. 只要明天不下雨,我们就去钓鱼。/ The flight was delayed as the result of fog. 因为有雾该 航班误点。/ She is a talented musician as well as being a photographer. 她不但是摄影师还是个天才音乐家。/ His parents supported him as far as they could. 他父母竭尽全力抚养他。/ As often as I tried to phone him, the line was engaged. 每次我给他打电话都占线。【考例】(2003北京) ____ I know the money is safe, I shall not worry about it. A. Even though B. Unless C. As long as D. While[考查目标]此题主要考查四个单词或短语的意思及用法。[答案与解析]C even though / if 即使;unless 如果不;as long as 只要;while 当……时候。本句话意思是“只有我知道这些钱是安全的,我就不担心了”。【考例】(2005湖南) The more I think about him, the more reasons I find for loving him ____ I did. A. as much as B. as long as C. as soon as D. as far as[考查目标]此题主要考查四个短语的意思及用法。[答案与解析] A A项as much as (和……一样多)符合题意:“我越想他就越发现有更多的理由让我像从前一样地爱他。”2. at present 目前;presently 副词,相当于soon,意思是“不久”;for the present 眼下,暂时 (= for the moment)。At present, he is on holiday. 目前,他在度假。 / I will finish the work presently. 我就要完成这个工作。/ He is busy writing a book for the present. 他眼下正忙于写书。 另外,be present at 到场,出席,反义词 be absent from 缺席;present 还作后置定语,意思是“到场的,在座 的”;present 用作名词“礼物,赠品”。All but one were present at the meeting last night. 除了一人外,大家都出席了昨天晚上的会议。Present at the meeting were the leading members of the departments concerned. 有关部门的负责人出席了会议。11. come up with 提出,找到(答案);赶上 He came up with a new suggestion. 他提出一项新建议。 Let's go slowly so that the others may come up with 咱们慢慢走,好让其他人赶上来。 [注意]come up 意为“被提出”,主语是物。 Some practical suggestions came up at the meeting. 会上提出了一些可行性建议。3. die out绝种,灭种 Elephants would die out soon if men were allowed to shoot as many as they wish.如果允许人们随心所欲地射杀大象,那么它们不久就会灭绝。 [拓展] die out 还可表示“熄灭;(风俗、习惯等)逐渐消失”。Many old customs are dying out. 许多古老的风俗正逐渐消失。 [链接] die off 一个个死掉 (或枯死) / die away 渐消;平息 / die down 平息;变弱 / die for 急切想要 / die from 因……致死,死于(外因) / die of 死于(内因)4. 含“in + 名词”构成的短语① in fact 事实上② in case (of) 假使,以防,万一③ in surprise 惊讶地,惊奇地,吃惊地④ in general 一般,大体上⑤ in total 总共⑥ in all 总共⑦ in future 从今以后⑧ in particular 尤其,特别是⑨ in trouble 处于困境⑩ in time 及时,总有一天⑪ in a hurry 匆忙地⑫ in front of 在……前面⑬in the open air 在户外,在野外⑭ in front 前方,正对面⑮ in the future 将来⑯ in the end 最后⑰ in the day 在白天⑱ in danger 在危险中,垂危⑲ in the wild 在自然环境中⑳ in ruins 成为废墟,遭到严重破坏⑳ in a word 总之[例句] No one believed it, but in fact, Mary did win the prize. 没有人相信,但的确玛丽获奖了。/ Do you think we can get there in time for the first act? 你认为我们能赶上看第一幕吗? / When he was in trouble, he always turned to me for help. 他有困难时。总是向我求助。/ In common with many people, he prefers classical music to pop. 和许多人一样,他喜欢古典音乐胜过流行音乐。/ If you keep on doing so, you will regret in time. 如果你总是这样做,总有一天你会后悔的。/ In general, her work has been good, but his essay is dreadful. 总的说来,她的作品不错,不过他的文章糟透了。/ The whole meal was good but the wine in particular was excellent. 整顿饭都很好,尤其是葡萄酒更好。/ In case he arrives before I get back, please ask him to wait. 万一他在我回来前到达,请让他等我。【考例】(NMET 2000) I don't think I'll need any money but I will bring some ____. A. at last B. in case C. once again D. in time[考查目标] 此题主要考查四个短语的用法。[答案与解析]B at last 终于,最后;once again 再次;in time 及时,总有一天;in case 万一。本句话意思是“我认为我们不需要钱,但是为预防万一,我还是要带点”。5. in case of 是介词短语,意为“在(有坏事的)情况下”, “万一发生……”。① In case of fire, phone the police.万一发生火灾,就给警察打电话。② The match will be put off in case of rain. 万一下雨,比赛就延期。 [拓展] in case单独使用时,可用作状语,也可引起从 句,意为“以免,以防”。 ③ Take a taxi in case you are late for the meeting. 坐出租车吧,以防开会迟到。 ④ I'll keep some of these unused in case. 这些不用的东西我要留一些,以防万一。 [注意]in case 引起的从句表示条件,所以从句中不用将来时态,但可用should,might。⑤ Take your raincoat in case it should rain.带上雨衣以防下雨。 [相关短语] in no case 决不(置于句首,句子用倒装) / in any case 无论如何,不管怎样 / in that case 如果那样 ⑥ In no case should you give up. 你绝不应该放弃。/ ⑦ In any case, do it better. 无论如何,要尽力而为。/ ⑧ In that case he would have telephoned the restaurant. 那样的话他本来会给餐馆打电话的。 [提示]case可表达多种意义:⑨ That isn't the case with Peter. 彼得的情况并不如此。(情况,情形) ⑩ The worst cases have been sent to hospital.情况最严重的患者已被送往医院。(患者,病人) ⑪ The case will be tried in the court next week. 下周要审这个案子。(案情,案例)6. in danger在危险中 [短语]in danger of有……的危险 out of danger 脱离危险 full of danger 充满危险的 a danger to society 社会的危险人物/事物 [拓展]dangerous 危险的,指给别人造成危险 The boy is seriously iIl and his life is in danger.那个男孩病得很重,生命垂危。He has been very ill. The doctor says that he is now out of danger.他一直病得很厉害,医生说他现在已脱离了危险。7. make a difference 造成差别,有影响 make a big difference = make much difference 造成很大差别 make no / little difference 没有差别 make some / any difference 有些差别 Who will win makes no difference to me.谁将获胜对于我来说没什么两样。= It makes no difference to me who will win. / Does it make any difference whether he will come? 他来不来会有差别吗?8. stay in touch with = keep in touch with 与……保持联系(状态) The salesman stays / keeps in touch with the office by phone. 推销员通过电话与办公室保持联系。 [短语]be in touch with 和…有联系(状态);get in touch with 和…取得联系(动作) ;lose touch with 和…失去联系(动作);be out of touch with 和…失去联系(状态)9. take measures (1) measure ① 名词“措施,办法”,take measures to do something 采取措施做某事;②名词“最度,尺寸” make clothes to one's own measure 根据某人的尺寸做衣服;名词“计量单位”。We must take necessary measures to solve these problems one by one.我们必须采取必要的措施逐个解决这些问题。/ I went to the tailor's to make a suit to my own measure last week. 上周我去裁缝店量体做一套衣服。/ A meter is a measure of length. 米是长度单位。 (2) measure 既可以用作及物动词也可以用作不及物动词,意思是“量,测量”。 My mother is measuring me for clothes. 我妈妈在给我量尺寸做衣服。/ It measures easily if spread on the table. 要是把它铺在桌子上,量起来可更容易些。 [注意]表示“采取措施做某事”还可以用do something / things to do something。We must do something to prevent SARS. 我们必须采取措施预防非典型性肺炎。/Have you done anything to deal with that problem? 你采取措施解决那个问题了吗?10. 含介词 to 的短语(1) according to 根据……所说(2) adapt to 适应(3) come to oneself 苏醒,恢复知觉(4) devote...to 献身于……,专心于……(5) get to 到达(6) give birth to 生(孩子)(7) lead to 通向,导致(8) listen to 听(9) make one's way to... 往……走(10) make a contribution to 贡献给,捐赠(11) on one's way to 在……途中(12) owe...to...把……归功于……(13) point to 指向……(14) prefer...to... 喜欢……胜似……;宁愿干……而不愿 干……(15) to one's surprise 令(某人)惊讶(16) say goodbye to 告别,告辞(17) thanks to 由于,多亏(18) get down to 着手(19) belong to 属于(20) pay attention to 注意(21) stick to 坚持(22) object to 反对(23) be opposed to 反对(24) refer to 参阅,涉及[例句]Everyone should make a contribution to a charity collection. 每个人都应该给慈善事业捐赠。/ At first I couldn't see anything when l stepped out of the room,but my eyes adapted to the dark bit by bit. 我刚走出房间时,起初什么也看不到,但是慢慢地我的眼睛适应了漆黑的环境。/ Thanks to the arrival of the police, the murderer was caught. 由于警察的赶到凶手才被捉住。/ We owe our great achievements to the correct leadership of the Party. 我们把取得的伟大成就归功于党的正确领导。/ After I graduated from university, l continued to devote myself to research. 我大学毕业后继续进行研究。/ Too much work and too little rest often leads to illness. 劳动量大且休息得很少经常导致疾病。【考例】(2004湖北) Once a decision has been made, all of us should ____ it. A. direct to B. stick to C. lead to D. refer to[考查目标]此题主要考查四个短语的用法。[答案与解析]B direct to 指引,指导;stick to 坚持;lead to 通向,导致;refer to 提到,谈到,参考。本句话意思是“一旦做出决定,就应该坚持”。【考例】(2005浙江) The president spoke at the business meeting for nearly an hour without ____ his notes. A. bringing up B. referring to C. looking for D. trying on[考查目标]此题主要考查四个短语的意思及用法。[答案与解析]B refer to 意为“参照,提到”;bring up意为“抚养,养育”;look for 意为“寻找”;try on 意为“试穿”。题意“主席在商务会议上做了将近一小时的发言没有看稿。”[牛刀小试2]句子改错,每句仅一处错误。1. In generally, most teenagers now listen to rock music. However, Jonah prefers classical music.2. I suppose Robert is fit the job in case he can put his mind to it.3. Eat too much fat can lead to heart disease and cause high blood pressure.4. He has devoted his whole life to benefit mankind.5. Tom's interests include basketball, bowling, and surfing the Web as good as studying his favorable subjects.☆词语比较☆1. spend, cost, take, pay, pay for (1) spend的主语必须是“人”,宾语可以是钱、精力、时间等,其后用on+名词或用in(可省略) + 动名词形式,不接不定式。He spends much money on books. 他平时将很多钱用在买书上。/ He spent a lot of money (in) buying a new car. 他花很多钱买一辆新车。 (2) cost的主语必须是“物”或“事”,表示“费用”、“耗费”,后接life,money,health,time等,侧重于“花费”的代价。The book cost him one dollar. 这本书用了他一美元。/ Making experiments like this costs much time and labor. 做这样的实验要花很多时间和劳力。 [注意]cost后不能与具体的时间长度连用,只能与表示抽象概念的时间短语连用。如:some time, much time, ten years of hard work 等。可说It cost him ten years of work. 不可说It cost him ten years to work.(3) take 表示“花费”时,其主语一般是“一件事”,有时主语也可以是人,它说明事情完成“花费了……”。 It took me ten minutes to go to the post office.到邮局用去了我十分钟时间。/ The producer took two years to make the film. 制片商用了两年时间拍这部新影片。 [说明] take...to do sth. 句型侧重完成该动作花费的时间,而spend...doing sth. 有时并不说明动作的完成。It took him an hour to read the book.他用一小时读完了这本书。/ He spent an hour (in) reading the book.他用了一小时读这本书。(是否读完并未说明) (4) pay 的基本意思是“支付”,作为及物动词,宾语可 以是“人”、“钱”。He paid the taxi and hurried to the station. 他付了出租车的钱,急忙向车站赶去。We'll pay you in a few days. 几天后我们会给你钱。 (5) pay for的宾语为“物”、“事”,for 表示支付的原因。 You'll have to pay me ten dollars a week for your meals.你得每周付给我十美元饭钱。 [注意](1)下面两句中pay for的意义不同。Of course we have to pay for what we buy.当然我们买东西得付钱。Don't worry about money. I'll pay for you. 别担心钱,我会替你付的。 (2) pay the bill 付账;pay taxes 纳税;pay wages 发工资 以上pay后不能加for2. agree with, agree to, agree on (1) ① agree with 的意思是“同意”,“赞成”。后面常接表示人或意见(看法)的名词或代词作宾语。Does she agree with us? 她同意我们的意见吗? ② agree with 还有“与……一致”,“(气候、食物等)适 合”的意思。His words do not agree with his actions.他言行不一致。Too much meat doesn't agree with her.吃太多肉食对她身体不合适。 [注意]agree with不能用于被动语态。 (2) agree to 意为“同意”,“赞成”,后面跟表示“提议”,“办法”,“计划”,“安排”等的名词或代词。Please agree to this arrangement.请同意这个安排。 (3) agree on 表示“对……取得一致意见”,指两方或多方就某个问题取得了一致的意见或是达成了某种协议。After discussion the two sides agreed on a cease-fire. 经过讨论,双方就停火问题达成了协议。3. common, ordinary, usual, normal (1) ① common“常见的,普遍的”(即“司空见惯的”意思) common names 常见的名字;common mistakes 常犯的错误;common sense 常识;common event 普通(平凡)的事件;common use 普遍用法 ② common 还有“共同的”意思。common interest 共同的兴趣;common language 共同语言;common market共同市场;common purpose 共同目标 [短语]have much / a lot in common 有很多共同之处have nothing / little in common 没有共同之处 (2) ordinary 普通的,平凡的(强调“平淡无奇”) an ordinary worker 一个普通工人;ordinary-looking 相貌平常的 (3) usual 通常的,惯常的(强调“遵循常例”) It is a usual thing with him. 这件事他习以为常。 [短语]as usual像往常一样;it is usual for sb. to do sth. (4) normal 正常的,正规的 (即“合乎标准”) normal temperature 正常体温;normal state 正常状态 [短语]above / below normal 标准以上(以下),return to normal 恢复正常4. in away, in the way, by the way, by way of (1) in a way 意为“在某种程度上”,相当于in one way, in some way。 The reforms are an improvement in a way. 这些变革从某种意义上说是一种进步。 (2) in the way 挡路 A big stone is in the way. Move it away, please. 一块大石头挡在路上,请把它搬开。 (3) by the way 顺便问一下,在途中 They stopped for a rest by the way. 他们途中停下来休息一下。 By the way, could you show me the way to the station? 顺便问一下,你能指给我去车站的路吗? (4) by way of 途经,路经(某处);作为,当作 He is travelling to Shenzhen by way of Beijng. 他经北京去深圳。 Let's go to the restaurant for supper by way of a change. 我们今天去饭店吃晚饭,换一下rJ味。5. first of all,above all,first,at first (1)first of all“首先,第一”,指按照时问顺序处于第 一位的。(强调顺序) First of all, we must check the number. 首先,我们要核对一下数目。 First of all, let me say how glad I am to be here. 首先我要说,米到这里我是多么高兴。, (2) above all“首先,最重要的足”,相当于most important of all。(强调重要性) We must work hard, and above all we must believe that each of us is able to do something well. 我们必须努力工作,尤其重要的是我们必须相信,我 们每个人都能做好一些事情。 (3) first“首先”,是从动作的先后角度来考虑的。 Beforewe go, I must first change my clothes. 在走之前我得先换衣服。 (4) at first“起初”,相当于at the beginning,含有后来 不这样了的意思。 At first I didn't like her, but now I do. 起初我不喜欢她,但现在我喜欢了。6. hurt,harm,wound,injure (I)hurt “伤害,受伤”,主要用于有生命的东西,多指 肉体方面的伤害,常伴有痛感。作借喻时常指对精 神或感情方碰的伤害。hurt作不及物动词时表示 “疼痛”。 He fell off the bike and hurt his arm. 他从自行车上跌下来伤了手臂。 (2) harm “损害,伤害”,指使有生命或无生命的东西 不再完整、美丽,或像原来那样有价值。 She's afraid that in their fight he would harm the child. 她怕他们在打架时他会伤到孩子。 (3) wound “受害,受伤”,指受袭击或暴力时所受的 伤,如刀伤,枪伤,也可以借喻为精神或感情上的创 伤。 The bullet wounded him in the leg. 子弹打伤了他的腿。 He felt wounded in his honor. 他觉得他的荣誉受到了伤害。 (4) injure2伤害,损害”,意义较广,着承指偶然事故 对人或物的容貌、内部器官、生理机能的“损害”。 John fell down from the tree and injured his back. 约翰从树上摔下来把背部摔伤lr。 I hope I didn’t injure her feelings. 我希望没有伤害她的感情。【句型归纳】【考点1】Wang Mei is one of many Chinese teenagers wholive life "on the go" and use cellphones. 跟许多中国青少年一样,王梅使用手机享受着“移动人生”。例如:This is one of the exciting matches that I have ev—er seen. 注意: “one of+名词单数”作主语,谓语动词用复数;“the (only / very) one o
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