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高中英语语法大全.doc

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高中 英语语法 大全
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.高中英语语法系统全解第1章动词时态第2章被动语态第3章虚拟语气第4章情态动词第5章动词不定式第6章动词的ing形式第7章过去分词第8章独立主格结构第9章名词性从句第10章定语从句第11章状语从句(一)第11章状语从句(二)第12章直接引语和间接引语第13章倒装第14章强调第15章省略第16章主谓一致动词时态--一般时第1章 动词时态(一)在英语中,不同时间发生的动作或存在的状态,要用不同的动词形式来表示,这就叫做动词的时态。一、一般时一般时包括一般现在时、一般过去时、一般将来时和一般过去将来时。A.一般现在时1.一般现在时的构成一般现在时主要用动词原形来表示。主语是第三人称单数时,动词后面要加-s或-es。They want good jobs.他们想要好的工作。The coat matches the dress.外衣和裙子很相配。This work does not satisfy me.这项工作我不满意。Do you understand?你懂了吗?2.一般现在时的用法①一般现在时的基本用法a.表示现在习惯性的动作或存在状态He always takes a walk after supper.晚饭后他总是散散步。Everyone is in high spirits now.现在大家都情绪高涨。b.表示客观事实或普遍真理The sun rises in the east and sets in the west.太阳从东方升起在西方落下。Sound travels faster through water than it does through air.声音在水中的传播速度要比在空气中快。Time and tide wait for no man.时间不等人。c.表示主语的特征、能力和状态This cloth feels soft.这布摸上去很软。I love classical music.我喜欢古典音乐。The President still seems able to find time to go fishing.看来总统仍能有时间去钓鱼。d.表示按计划或安排将要发生的动作The meeting begins at 7:00.会议七点钟开始。We leave here at 8:00 sharp.我们八点整离开这里。e.在时间、条件、让步状语从句中表示将来动作When you come next time,bring me some magazines.你下次来时,给我带几本杂志。If time allows,we shall go there tomorrow.如果时间允许的话,我们明天去那里。Whether he agrees or not,I will stay at home.不管他同意与否,我都会待在家里。②一般现在时的特殊用法a.用于新闻标题或图片说明中China Declares Manned Spaceflight Successful中国宣布载人航天飞行圆满成功Laura Bush Arrives in Moscow劳拉·布什抵达莫斯科b.用于体育运动、表演等实况报道中Francis slips past,passes the ball to Yao Ming,who jumps,catches and shoots it into the basket.弗朗西斯穿过去,把球传给姚明,姚明跳起来,接住球投进篮里。Now,look,I press the button and turn on the machine.现在,看,我按下按扭,打开了这台机器。c.表示告诫或劝说You mind your own business.你不要管闲事!If he does that again,he goes to prison.如果他再那样的话,他就会进监狱的。d.表示现在瞬间的动作Here comes the bus.汽车来了。There goes the bell.铃响了。B.一般过去时1.一般过去时的构成一般过去时是用动词的过去式来表示。His words fetched a laugh from all present.他的话使在场的人都笑了。I did not sleep well last night.我昨晚没睡好。Did you direct the tourist to the hotel?你告诉这位游客去旅馆的路了吗?2.一般过去时的用法①一般过去时的基本用法a.表示过去某个特定时间发生的动作或存在的状态He suddenly fell ill yesterday.昨天他突然生病了。The engine stopped because the fuel was used up.发动机因燃料用光而停机了。注意:在一般过去时的句子中,通常都要有表示过去的时间状语。【误】I visited the Palace Museum.(在没有上下文的情况下,应避免这样说)【正】I visited the Palace Museum last year.去年我参观过故宫博物院。【正】I have visited the Palace Museum.我参观过故宫博物院。b.表示过去经常发生的动作或存在的状态I wrote home once a week at college.我上大学时每周给家里写一封信。He was already in the habit of reading widely in his boyhood.他童年时就养成了广泛阅读的习惯。提示:表示过去的习惯性动作,除了用过去式外,还可以用used to或would来表示。She used to study late into the night when she was in Senior Three.她上高三时经常学习到深夜。He would sit for hours doing nothing.过去他常常一坐几个钟头什么事也不做。c.表示过去连续发生的一系列动作She entered the room,picked up a magazine and looked through it carefully.她走进房间,拿起一本杂志,认真地翻阅了起来。The students got up early in the morning,did morning exercises and then read English aloud in the open air.学生们很早起床,做早操,然后在室外朗读英语。d.在时间、条件状语从句中表示过去将要发生的动作We would not leave until the teacher came back.老师回来我们才会离开。She told me she would not go if it rained the next day.她告诉我如果第二天下雨的话,她就不去了。②一般过去时的特殊用法a.在虚拟语气中表示现在或将来时间的动作或状态It's time we went.是我们该走的时候了。I wish I were twenty years younger.但愿我年轻20岁。I would rather you didn't do anything for the time being.我宁愿你暂时先不要采取什么措施。b.在口语中,一般过去时往往显示委婉客气。I wondered if you could give me a hand.我想请你帮个忙。Might I come and see you tonight?我想今晚来看你,好吗?3.一般现在时和一般过去时的比较一般现在时要和现在时间相联系,而一般过去时和说话的“现在”不相联系。His father is a film director.他父亲是电影导演。(他现在还是)His father was a film director.他父亲曾是电影导演。(他现在不是)How do you like the novel?你觉得这部小说怎么样?(还在看小说)How did you like the novel?你觉得这部小说怎么样?(已看完小说)C.一般将来时1.一般将来时的构成一般将来时是由“will/shall+动词原形”构成的。shall只限于第一人称,主要见于英国英语,现在的趋势是第一、二、三人称的单复数形式均用will表示。在口语中,shall和will常缩写成“'ll”,紧接在主语之后。其否定式shall not和will not常简略为shan't和won't。I'll go and shut the door.我去关门。When will you know your exam results?你什么时候能知道考试结果?I can see you're busy,so I won't stay long.我看得出你很忙,所以我不会呆太久的。提示:在you and I或both of us等短语后,只用will,不用shall。You and I will arrive there next Monday.我和你下周一都要到达那里。Both of us will graduate from middle school next year.我们俩明年中学毕业。2.一般将来时的用法①表示将要发生的动作或存在的状态I shall be free this afternoon.我今天下午有空。There'll be no chemistry classes tomorrow.明天没有化学课。They will probably go to Shanghai for their holiday.他们可能去上海度假。注意:在口语中,常用will/shall+be doing结构来代替will/shall+动词原形,以表示生动。I'll be seeing a friend off at the airport.我要去机场给一个朋友送行。He'll be going with us tomorrow.他明天和我们一起去。②表示将要反复发生的动作My uncle will come to see me every Saturday.我叔叔每个星期六都会来看我。The students will have five English classes per week this term.本学期学生们每周要上五节英语课。③表示同意或答应做某事That bag looks heavy.I'll help you with it.这个包看起来很重,我来帮你提。I won't tell anyone what happened,I promise.我保证不告诉别人所发生的事。④表示一种倾向或推测Flowers will die without water.没有水花会枯死的。Water will change into ice at 0℃.水在零摄氏度就会结冰。This will be your sister,I guess.我猜想这是你姐姐。3.一般将来时的常用结构①用于“I expect,I'm sure,I think,I wonder+宾语从句”中Don't worry about the exam.I'm sure you'll pass.不要担心这次考试,我确信你会通过的。I wonder what will happen.我不知道将会发生什么事。I don't think the test will be very difficult.我想这次测验不会太难。②用于“祈使句+and+陈述句”中Work hard and you will succeed.如果你努力,就会成功的。Go at once and you will see her.马上去,你就会见到她了。③与表示时间或条件的状语从句连用I'll let you know as soon as he arrives.他一到我就通知你。If you ask him,he will help you.如果你请他,他会帮助你的。We shall go unless it rains.除非下雨,否则我们是要去的。4.将来时间的其他表达法①be going to+动词原形“be going to+动词原形”这一结构常用于口语中。a.表示决定或打算要做某事I'm going to buy a new coat this winter.今年冬天我打算买一件新大衣。Are you going to play basketball after class?下课后你去打篮球吗?He is going to be a doctor when he grows up.他长大后要当医生。What are you going to do today?今天你打算做什么?b.表示有迹象即将要发生什么事Look at those black clouds.It is going to rain.瞧那乌云,天要下雨了。The car is going to turn over.汽车要翻了!There is going to be a snowstorm.将有一场暴风雪。比较:“be going to+动词原形”与“will/shall+动词原形”的区别1.be going to通常表示很快就要发生的事,而will/shall既可表示不久的将来,也可表示长远的将来或不确定的将来。She is going to get better.她的病要好了。(有恢复健康的迹象)She will get better.她的病会好的。(认为最终会恢复健康的)2.will表示将来,通常是指事先无计划的意图,是临时决定的;be going to则表示事先有计划的意图,是经过考虑的。—George phoned while you were out.你外出的时候乔治打电话来的。—Ok.I'll phone him back.好的,我给他回电话。(临时决定)—Matthew phoned while you were out.你外出的时候马修打电话来了。—Yes,I know.I'm going to phone him back.是的,我知道了。我准备给他回电话。(早有安排)但在正式文体中,要用will来表示事先安排的动作。The meeting will begin at 10:00 a.m..会议将在10点开始。Coffee will be served from 9:30 from today onwards.从今天起9:30开始供应咖啡。3.表示有迹象显示将要发生某一动作时,要用be going to,不用will或shall。I feel terrible.I think I'm going to be sick.我觉得不舒服,我想我要生病了。4.be going to可用于条件句,表示将来时间,will则不能。If you are going to attend the meeting,you'd better leave now.如果你要出席会议,你最好现在就动身。②be+动词的-ing形式“be+动词的-ing形式”表示根据现在的计划或安排,预期将会发生某事,这种安排不容随意改变。在这一结构中,动词-ing形式通常是表示位置转移的动词,如arrive,come,go,leave,move,start,stay,get以及eat,meet,see off,die等,并与表示将来的时间状语连用。如果没有时间状语,则所表示的动作有即将发生之意。He is leaving for Xinjiang in a few days.他几天后要动身去新疆。I am dining out tonight.今晚我将出去吃饭。The plane is taking off soon.飞机马上就要起飞了。The old man is dying.那位老人快要死了。比较:“be+动词的-ing形式”和“be going to+动词原形”的异同1.表示按计划发生的动作时,两者可互换。We are moving to a new flat tomorrow.我们明天就要搬到新房子里去了。We are going to move to a new flat tomorrow.我们明天就要搬到新房子里去了。2.表示由于客观因素而产生的将来动作或状态时,用be going to结构,不用be+动词的-ing形式。You are going to fall if you climb that tree.如果你爬树的话,你会摔下来的。(不可说You are falling if...)Be careful.You are going to break that chair.当心!你会把那张椅子弄坏的。(不可说You are breaking that chair)③be+动词不定式这一结构中的be,只有现在式(am,is,are)和过去式(was,were)两种形式。a.表示按计划或安排将要发生的动作The highway is to be open to traffic in May.这条公路将在五月份通车。Am I to take over his work?我是不是要接管他的工作?b.用于条件句中强调按计划或安排将要发生的动作If we are to take the 5:00 train,we must leave now.如果我们乘坐5点的火车的话,那我们现在就得出发。c.表示命令或吩咐等。否定形式常表示“禁止”或“不许”。You are to be back before 10 p.m..你必须在10点前回来。You are not to go out alone at night.晚上你不能单独出去。比较:“be+动词不定式”与“be going to+动词原形”的区别1.“be going to+动词原形”侧重说话人个人的意图和打算,“be+动词不定式”侧重受别人的指示或安排要做的事。I'm going to try my best to write this article well.我将尽力把这篇文章写好。Am I to wait here till their arrival?我要在这儿一直等到他们抵达吗?2.表示由于客观因素或不受人控制的将要发生的动作时,只用“be going to+动词原形”,不用“be+动词不定式”。It's going to rain.天要下雨了。(不说It's to rain.)Rachel is going to faint.雷切尔要晕倒了。④一般现在时一般现在时可以用来表示将来时间,主要用法有:a.表示由于日历或时刻表的规定而固定不变的或比较不易变更的将来时间发生的动作。Tomorrow is Friday.明天是星期五。What time does the next train leave for Paris?下一班开往巴黎的火车几点出发?b.在时间状语从句或条件状语从句中,用一般现在时表示将来时间的动作或状态。I'll give the book to you after I finish it.我看完这本书就给你。If he arrives,we must go and meet him at the railway station.如果他到了,我们就得到火车站去接他。c.在hope,suppose等后面的宾语从句中常用一般现在时表示将来动作或状态。I hope all is well with him.我希望他一切都好。Suppse we go hiking tomorrow.我们明天还是去远足吧。D.一般过去将来时1.一般过去将来时的构成一般过去将来时是由“should/would+动词原形”构成的。He asked me yesterday when I should leave for Paris.昨天他问我什么时候动身去巴黎。They wanted to know how they would finish the homework earlier.他们想知道怎样才能早一点儿完成家庭作业。2.一般过去将来时的用法一般过去将来时间的出发点是过去,即从过去某一时刻看以后要发生的动作和状态。a.一般过去将来时常用于间接引语中He said they would arrange a party.他说他们将安排一个晚会。I asked if he would come and fix my TV set.我问他是否来帮我修电视机。b.一般过去将来时可用来表示非真实的动作或状态If I had a chance to study abroad,I would study at Cambridge University.如果我有机会出国学习的话,我就会去剑桥大学。I wish he would go with me to the cinema tonight.今晚他能和我一起去看电影就好了。3.过去将来时间其他表达法a.was/were going to+动词原形He said that he was going to live in the country when he retired.他说他退休后要住在农村。They thought it was going to rain.他们认为天要下雨了。b.was/were+动词的-ing形式Nobody knew whether the guests were coming.没人知道客人们是否要来。I was told that the train was leaving in a few minutes.我被告知火车几分钟后就要开了。c.was/were+动词不定式She said she was to clean the classroom after school.她说她放学后要打扫教室。It was reported that another bridge was to be built across the Yangtse River.据报道长江上将要再建一座大桥。提示:“was/were going to+动词原形”或“was/were+动词不定式完成式”可表示未能实现的过去将来时间的动作。Last Sunday we were going to visit the Great Wall,but it rained.上星期天我们本想去游览长城的,但却下雨了。(没有去成)I was to have helped with the performance,but I got flu the day before.我是打算帮忙演出的,但前天我感冒了。(没有帮上忙)d.was/were about to do“was/were about to do”表示说话的瞬间就会发生的动作。I felt something terrible was about to happen.我觉得有可怕的事要发生了。e.was/were on the point of doingI'm glad you have come.I was on the point of calling you,but you've saved me the trouble now.很高兴你来了。我正准备给你打电话,现在你省去我这个麻烦了。提示:“be about to do”和“be on the point of doing”结构一般不与表示将来的时间状语连用,但后面可以接when引导的分句。I was about to start when it suddenly began to rain.我正要动身天突然下雨了。进行时二、进行时进行时表示动作正在进行,这个动作是暂时的,也是未完成的。进行时包括现在进行时、过去进行时和将来进行时。A.现在进行时1.现在进行时的构成现在进行时是由“am,is,are+现在分词”构成的。I'm reading the evening newspaper.我正在看晚报。Now it isn't snowing outside.现在外面不在下雪。Are they playing soccer in the playground?他们正在操场上踢足球吗?2.现在进行时的用法①现在进行时的基本用法a.表示说话的此刻正在进行的动作通常由表示“此刻”的时间状语(now,at this moment),或通过Look/Listen!这两个提示语来表明此时此刻动作正在进行。She is making a fire now.她正在生火。Listen!Mary is singing an English song in the classroom.听!玛丽正在教室里唱英文歌。b.表示现在时间段中正在进行的动作They are planting trees on the hill these days.这几天他们正在山上种树。I don't really work here;I am just helping out until the new secretary arrives.我并不在这儿工作,我只是在新秘书来之前帮帮忙罢了。c.表示按计划或安排将要发生的动作能这样用的动词并不多,通常是arrive,begin,come,do,drive,fly,go,leave,stay等表示位置转移的动词。这种用法比较生动,给人以一种期待感。Jane and Betty are going on holiday in a few days.几天后简和贝蒂将出去度假。Where are you staying in Guangzhou?你到广州后准备住在哪里?②现在进行时的特殊用法a.表示一种重复的动作,带有“厌恶”、“赞叹”等感情色彩现在进行时往往与constantly,always,forever等状语连用,给现在的动作披上一层感情色彩。She's constantly complaining.她不停地抱怨。My brother is always leaving things about.我弟弟总是乱丢东西。He is forever thinking of doing more for the students.他总是想着为学生多做些事情。b.表示某一具体动作或心理状态的发展过程The house is falling down.房子正在倒下。The weather is changing for the better.天气慢慢转好了。注意:有时表示一个动作刚刚开始。I'm forgetting my English.我的英语开始忘了。Food is costing more.食品贵了起来。c.强调动作的重复The train is arriving late almost every day this summer.这个夏季火车几乎天天晚点。Someone is knocking at the door.有人不断地在敲门。The boy is jumping with joy.那男孩高兴地跳个不停。d.表示两个动作是同一动作He who helps others is helping himself.帮人就是帮自己。If you insist on doing it,you are doing a foolish thing.如果你坚持做这件事,你就是在干傻事。e.be动词的进行时态be动词一般不用于进行时态。但有时可用“am,is,are+being+形容词”结构表示暂时或故意如此。The boy is being naughty.这孩子有点儿淘气。I don't think you are being fair.我认为你不公平。He is being modest.他现在很谦虚。比较:You are not polite.你不讲礼貌。(一贯如此)You are not being polite.你可有点儿不礼貌了。(暂时的现象)3.不用进行时态的动词①表示状态的动词这类动词有seem,look,appear,have,belong to,own,hold等。This backpack belongs to me.这背包是我的。He seems rather angry with you.看起来他很生你的气。②表示知道、信念、理解、推测、怀疑、希望等含义的动词这类动词有know,remember,understand,see,think,believe,suppose,hope,doubt等。I don't think he will come tomorrow.我想他明天不会来。I still remember the days when we studied together.我还记得我们一起学习的那些日子。提示:有时这些动词的进行时态可表示心理状态的缓慢发展过程。She's understanding you better now.她越来越了解你了。③表示要求、心愿等意义的动词这类动词有want,wish,need,desire等。Your clothes need washing.你的衣服需要洗了。How I wish I were a bird!我多希望我是一只鸟啊!④表示继续或持续含义的动词这类动词有continue,keep,last,go on等。She still continues in poor health.她仍然身体很差。Every day after finishing his homework,he goes on to do some reading.他每天做完作业后,都会继续看会儿书。⑤表示感觉的动词这类动词有see,hear,smell,taste,feel等。The apples taste good.这些苹果尝起来不错。This flower smells nice.这花闻上去很香。Your suggestion sounds reasonable.你的建议听上去有道理。注意:如果这些动词表示一种有意识的行为,则可用进行时态。She is tasting the apple.她正在尝苹果。The dog is smelling the footprints.狗正在嗅脚印。The bell is sounding for dinner.晚饭铃响了。4.现在进行时和一般现在时的比较①暂时性动作和经常性动作The computer is working perfectly.计算机运转得很好。(暂时)The computer works perfectly.计算机运转很好。(一直如此)②持续性动作和短暂性动作The bus is stopping.车停了下来。(渐渐地)The bus stops.车停了。(迅速)③暂时性动作和永久性动作She is living in the country.她现在住在农村。(暂时)She lives in the country.她住在农村。(永久)④有感情色彩和没有感情色彩He is doing well at school.他在学校表现很好。(赞扬)He does well at school.他在学校表现很好。(一般事实)B.过去进行时1.过去进行时的构成过去进行时是由“was/were+现在分词”构成的。I was doing my homework at this time yesterday.昨天的这个时候我正在做作业。Were you expecting him yesterday?你昨天一直在等他吗?They were not talking when I came in.我进来的时候他们没在说话。2.过去进行时的用法①过去进行时的基本用法a.表示在过去某一时刻正在发生的动作或该动作与过去的另一动作同时发生I was having supper at 7:00 yesterday evening.昨天晚上7点我正在吃晚饭。She was playing the piano while I was reading the newspaper.她弹钢琴时我在看报。提示:当句子意思很清楚时,我们也可以把两个动词都换成一般过去时。We listened closely while the teacher read the text.老师读课文时,我们都仔细地听着。b.表示过去一段时间内正在进行的动作We were talking about you the whole morning.我们整个上午都在说你。He was watching TV at home from 3:00 to 5:00 yesterday afternoon.昨天下午从3点到5点他一直在看电视。c.表示按计划、安排过去将要发生的事He told me that he was going soon.他告诉我他很快就要走了。She said she was leaving for New York the next month.她说她下个月动身去纽约。②过去进行时的特殊用法a.表示故事发生的背景It was snowing as the medical team made its way to the front.那支医疗小组往前线行进时天正下着雪。Tom slipped into the house when no one was looking.汤姆乘没人注意时溜进了房间。b.表示一个新的动作刚刚开始过去进行时可用来引出一个新的动作,这种用法颇有点儿像镜头转换。Five minutes later,he was standing at the door,smoking.5分钟后,他已站在门口抽着烟。The baby was crying hard,and suddenly the crying stopped.这婴儿在大声啼哭,突然,哭声停止了。c.用来陈述原因或用作借口She went to the doctor yesterday.She was having a lot of trouble with her heart.她昨天去看病了。她患了很严重的心脏病。I haven't finished my homework because I was helping my mother at home all day yesterday.我作业没做完是因为我昨天一直帮妈妈在家干活。d.与always,constantly等词连用,表示感情色彩The girl was always changing her mind.这女孩老是改变主意。In the past he was constantly asking me for money.过去他总是向我要钱。3.过去进行时与一般过去时的区别①一般过去时往往表示某一动作已经完成,而过去进行时却表示动作在持续或未完成。She wrote a letter to her friend last night.她昨晚给朋友写了封信。(信写完了)She was writing a letter to her friend last night.她昨晚一直在给朋友写信。(信不一定写完)②一般过去时表示只做一次动作,而过去进行时却表示动作反复地进行。She waved to me.她朝我挥了挥手。She was waving to me.她不断地朝我挥手。The boy jumped up and down.这男孩跳了一下。The boy was jumping up and down.这男孩不停地跳着。C.将来进行时1.将来进行时的构成将来进行时是由“shall/will+be+现在分词”构成的。Don't phone me between 8:00 and 10:00.We'll be having classes then.8点到10点之间不要给我打电话,我们那时正在上课。Will you be using your bicycle this evening?今晚你用自行车吗?She won't be having a meeting in her office at 8:00 tomorrow.明天8点她不在开会。2.将来进行时的用法①将来进行时的基本用法a.表示在将来某一时间正在进行的动作I'll be taking my holiday soon.我不久就去度假了。They will be meeting us at the station.他们会在车站接我们的。b.在口语中代替will/shall doI hope you will be coming on time.我希望你按时来。I'll be seeing Mr.Smith tomorrow.我明天将见到史密斯先生。The minister will be giving a speech on international affairs.部长将就国际事务发表演讲。②将来进行时的特殊用法a.表示原因、结果或猜测Please come tomorrow afternoon.Tomorrow morning I'll be having a meeting.请你明天下午来吧。我明天上午有个会。(表原因)Stop the child or he will be falling over.抓住那个孩子,要不他会掉下去的。(表结果)You will be making a mistake.你会出错的。(表推测)b.用在问句中,表示委婉礼貌Will you be reading anything else?你还要看点儿什么吗?When shall we be meeting again?我们什么时候再见面?c.表示稍后一点儿的安排The students aer studying Unit 3 this week,and next week we'll be studying Unit 4.这星期我们学第三单元,下周我们将学第四单元。My duties will end in July and I will be returning to Shanghai.我的任务在7月结束,之后我会回上海。完成时三、完成时完成时是用来表示动作的完成与未完成的情况。完成时包括现在完成时、过去完成时和将来完成时。A.现在完成时1.现在完成时的构成现在完成时的构成形式是“have/has+过去分词”。现在完成时常被称为“与现在有联系的过去”,因此它不能与明确的过去时间状语连用。Someone has broken the window.有人把窗户打破了。I haven't seen much of her lately.我最近不常见到她。How long have they been married?他们结婚多长时间了?2.现在完成时的用法①表示结果的现在完成时现在完成时着眼于过去的动作对现在产生的结果或影响。这是现在完成时的“已完成”用法,表示动作或过程发生在说话之前就已完成,并与现在有联系。这种联系实际上就是“过去的动作”对现在的影响或产生的结果。I have bought a pen.我买了一支笔。(结果:I have a pen now.)The temperature has increased by 10℃.温度上升了10摄氏度。(结果:It is quite hot now.)Air pollution has taken the lives of many people.空气污染已经夺去了很多人的生命。(结果:Air pollution is very serious now.)注意:现在完成时的上下文所指的时态必须呼应。【误】I have bought a pen but I have lost it now.(have bought表示你现在已经有笔了,这和后面的have lost有矛盾)【正】I bought a pen but I have lost it now.我(过去)买了一支笔,但我已经把它丢了。【误】I have lost my pen but I have found it now.(have lost强调你现在已经没有笔了,与后面have found的意思有冲突)【正】I lost my pen but I have found it now.我丢了一支笔,但现在已经找到了。②表示经历的现在完成时强调过去某一时刻到说话时这段时间中的经历。Have you ever been to the Great Wall?你去过长城吗?I have visited Beijing at least ten times.北京我至少访问过十次了。She has never spent a holiday at the seaside.她从未到海滨度过假。③表示延续的现在完成时这是现在完成时的“未完成”用法,表示一个动作或状态从过去某时开始,持续到现在,可能要继续下去。He's loved fishing for a long time.他爱好钓鱼为时已久。(他现在仍爱好钓鱼)I have lived here for more than thirty years.我已在这儿住了三十多年了。(也许还会继续住下去)注意:现在完成时的“未完成”用法既可用于动态动词(主要是持续动词),也可用于状态动词,但它一般不适用于表示短暂动作或位置转移的动词,如:open,break,go,come,arrive,leave等。如用这类动词表示“未完成”,通常只限于否定结构。I haven't seen a film for weeks.我已经好几个星期没看电影了。She hasn't written to me since September.自从9月份以来她还没给我写过信呢。3.现在完成时的时间状语①与现在完成时“已完成”用法连用的时间状语现在完成时表示的动作或状态发生在现在时间以前的某个未明确指出的过去时间内,和它连用的时间状语要与现在时间有关,不能是明确地表示过去的时间状语。a.不确定的过去时间状语:already,yet,before,recently,lately等I've seen the film before.我以前看过这部电影。Have you been there lately?近来你去过那里吗?b.频度时间状语:often,sometimes,ever,never,once,rarely等We have never heard of that.我们从未听说过这事。He has sometimes played tennis.他有时打网球。Big Ben has rarely gone wrong.大本钟很少出差错。c.包含现在时间在内的时间状语:now,just,today,this morning,this week,this year等I have just finished the letter now.我现在刚写完信。You have just missed the bus.你刚好错过公共汽车。Has he done much work today?他今天做了很多工作吗?比较:already和yet用法上的区别already常用于肯定句,置于句中。yet常用于否定句和疑问句,置于句末。但already有时也可用在疑问句中暗示惊讶的心情。She has already gone.她早就走了。Have you eaten your dinner already?你已经吃过饭了?He has not come yet.他还没有来。②与现在完成时“未完成”用法连用的时间状语与“已完成”用法一样,表示具体的过去的时间状语不能与“未完成”用法连用。与其连用的往往是指一段时间的状语以具体表示某一动作或状态持续了多久。a.since+具体时间,表示动作或状态从何时开始Since then,he has developed another bad habit.自那以后他养成了另一个坏习惯。He hasn't been home since he graduated.他毕业后就没回过家。b.for+一段时间,表示动作或状态持续了多久We have worked here for ages.我们在这里工作很久了。There has been no rain here for nearly two months.这里已经近两个月没有下雨了。c.until now,up till now,so far,up to the moment到目前为止I have not seen him so far.到目前为止我没见过他。Up to the present,everything has been OK.到目前为止一切正常。d.in/during the past/last five years在刚刚过去的5年里He has been away from school during the last few weeks.过去的几个星期里他没在学校。In the past few years they have dealt with quite a few international corporations successfully.在过去的几年中他们已经和好几家跨国公司做成了生意。e.all the while,all day一直,一整天She has been busy all day.她忙了一整天。4.现在完成时和一般过去时的区别①两者都可表示过去发生过的动作,但前者表示的是过去的动作对现在的影响,而后者则只是表示过去有这一动作的事实。He locked the door.他锁过门。(但现在门是开是锁不清楚。)He has locked the door.他把门锁上了。(现在门是锁着的。)Who turned on the light?谁开的灯?(着眼开灯的动作,不管现在灯是开是关。)Who has turned on the light?谁把灯打开了?(着眼开灯的结果,即现在灯还亮着。)②两者都可表示过去开始并延续了一段时间的动作,现在完成时表示该动作仍在继续,而一般过去时则说明该动作现已终止。He has lived in Beijing for four years.他在北京住了四年了。(现在仍住那儿)He lived in Beijing for four years.他曾在北京住了四年。(现在不住那儿了)B.过去完成时过去完成时的动作须在过去某一时间之前发生,即发生在“过去的过去”。1.过去完成时的构成过去完成时是由“had+过去分词”构成的。Soon I realized I had made a serious mistake.我很快就意识到我犯了一个严重的错误。The man sitting beside me on the plane was very nervous.He had not flown before.飞机上坐在我旁边的人很紧张,他以前从没乘过飞机。Had he gone home when you arrived?你到的时候他已经回家了吗?2.过去完成时的用法①“已完成”用法表示某一动作或状态在过去某一时间之前或过去某一动作之前已经完成。句中常用by引导的时间状语或以before,until,when,than等词引导的内含一般过去时的时间状语从句。By 5:00 yesterday morning we had done that work.到昨天早上5点钟时,我们已经做完了那件工作。He had just finished sweeping the classroom when the teacher returned from the office.老师从办公室回来时,他刚把教室打扫完。They came earlier than we had expected.他们到得比我们预料的要早。I had learnt 5000 words before I entered the university.我在进大学之前就已学了5000个单词。It rained yesterday after it had been dry for many months.旱了好几个月之后,昨天下雨了。注意:在包含before和after的复合句中,因为从句动作和主句动作发生的先后顺序已经非常明确,可以用一般过去时代替过去完成时。The train(had)started before I reached the station.在我到达车站之前,列车已经开了。After he(had)arrived in England,Marx worked hard to improve his English.马克思到达英格兰之后,努力提高他的英语水平。②“未完成”用法表示一个动作或状态在过去某一时刻之前就已开始,一直持续到这一过去时间,还可能再持续下去。Up to that time all had gone well.直到那时一切都很顺利。John and Jane had known each other for a long time before their marriage.约翰和简在结婚前就认识很长时间了。She said she had made much progress since she came here.她说自从她到这儿后已取得了很大的进步。③“想象性”用法过去完成时有时表示一种未实现的愿望或想法,主要用在if引导的和过去事实相反的条件句以及wish,as if引导的从句中。If she had worked hard,she would have succeeded.要是她努力的话,她就会成功了。(事实上她没努力,也没成功。)I wish I had gone with you to the concert.我要是和你一起去音乐会就好了。The two strangers talked as if they had been good friends for many years.那两个陌生人交谈起来就像是多年的老朋友。④表示“刚刚……就……”过去完成时常用在hardly/scarcely/barely...when...,no sooner...than...等结构中,表示“刚刚……就……”。Hardly had he begun to speak when the audience interrupted him.他刚开始演讲,听众就打断了他。No sooner had he arrived than he went away again.他刚到就又走了。提示:intend,mean,hope,want,plan,suppose,expect,think等动词的过去完成时可以用来表示一个本来打算做而未做的事。I had meant to come,but something happened.我原本打算来的,但有事发生了。I had intended to call on you,but was prevented from doing so.我本打算去看你的,但没能去成。They had wanted to help but couldn't get here in time.他们原想帮忙的,但没能及时赶到这里。3.过去完成时与一般过去时的比较一般过去时表示过去时间的动作或状态。过去完成时表示的动作或状态发生在一般过去时表示的动作或状态之前,因此它表示的是“比过去更过去”。I returned the book that I had borrowed.我已归还了我借的书。He didn't know a thing about the verb,for he had not studied his lessons.他对动词一无所知,因为他没有好好学习功课。I had been at the bus stop for 20 minutes when a bus finally came.我在车站等了20分钟车才来。C.将来完成时1.将来完成时的构成将来完成时的构成是由“shall/will+have+过去分词”构成的。Before long he will have forgotten all about the matter.不久他就会全然忘记这件事的。He is somebody now.He will not have remembered his old classmates.他现在是一个有身份的人了,他可能不会记得老同学了。Will you have known Kevin for 10 years next month?到下个月你认识凯文该有10年了吧?2.将来完成时的用法①表示在将来某一时间之前已完成的动作,并往往对将来某一时间产生影响。We shall have learned 12 units by the end of this term.到这个学期末,我们将学完12个单元。By the time you get home I will have cleaned the house from top to bottom.你到家之前我将把房子彻底打扫一遍。Will you soon have finished laying the table?你会很快摆放好餐桌吗?注意:在时间状语从句中,不用将来完成时,要用现在完成时来代替。When I have finished that,I shall have done all I am supposed to do.等我做完这件事时,我就做完我该做的所有的事了。Please don't get off the bus until it has stopped.请待车停稳了再下车。②表示推测You will have heard of this,I guess.我想你已经听说过这件事了。I am sure he will have got the information.我相信他一定得到了这个信息。四、完成进行时完成进行时是完成时和进行时的结合,包括现在完成进行时和过去完成进行时。A.现在完成进行时1.现在完成进行时的构成现在完成进行时是由“have/has been+现在分词”构成的。He is ill.He's been lying in bed for three weeks.他病了,已经卧床3个星期了。Your eyes are red.Have you been crying?你眼睛红了。你刚刚哭过了吗?What have you been doing all this time?这半天你干什么来着?2.现在完成进行时的用法①表示动作从过去某时开始,一直延续到现在现在完成进行时常和all this time,this week,this month,all night,all the morning,recently等状语以及since和for引导的状语连用。I have been reading Hemingway's Farewell to Arms recently.我最近一直在读海明威的《永别了,武器》。She has been
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