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国际音标入门教程-完整版.doc

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国际音标 入门教程 完整版
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国际音标入门教程---完整打印版目 录第一章 英语字母与读音第二章 发音器官4第三章 元音音素——单元音5第一节 前元音5第二节 中元音(央元音)8第三节 后元音11第四章 元音音素——双元音14第一节合口双元音14第二节 集中双元音17第五章 辅音音素19第一节 爆破音20第二节 摩擦音22知识总结:26第三节 破擦音26第四节 鼻音28第五节 舌侧音30第六节 半元音31第六章 发音规律33附录 国际音标表46第一章 英语字母与读音语音相关材料 1. 学习语音的意义 语言是交流思想的工具,是有声的。人们通过有声的语言,达到交流思想的目的。英 语语音中的每个音素都有区别词义的作用,发音不准确会导致词义的误解,如把 sheep /Si:p/读成了/Sip/,就会将“绵羊”误解为“轮船”。因此,要想能正确流利地说英 语,必须掌握好每个音素的发音。 2. 音素和音标 (1)字母、音素和音标: 字母是语言的书写形式,共26个。音素是音的最小单位,共44个。音标是音素的书写形式。字母比音素少,说明一个字母有时有好几种读法。 (2)英语的音标和音素: 英语的音素 英语的音素共44个,其中元音音素20个,辅音音素24个。 元音音素可分单元音和双元音两大类,单元音又可分为短元音和长元音: 单元音 短元音 /Z/ /e/ /i/ /C/ /V/ /u/ /E/ 长元音 /i:/ /C:/ /E:/ /u:/ /A:/ 双元音 /ei/ /ai/ /Eu/ /au/ /Ci/ /iE/ /XE/ /uE/ 单元音按发音时舌的活动范围分,可分为前元音、中元音和后元音: 前元音 /i:/ /i/ /e/ /Z/ 中元音 /E:/ /E/ 后元音 /A:/ /C/ /C:/ /u/ /u:/ /V/ 辅音音素共24个(一般不将/ts/ /dz/ /tr/ /dr/单独列为音标),按声带是否振动可分为清辅音和浊辅音两类,其中有16(20)个是成对出现的: 清辅音 /p/ /t/ /k/ /f/ /s/ /O/ /S/ /tS/ (/ts/) (/tr/) /h/ 浊辅音 /b/ /d/ /G/ /v/ /z/ /D/ /W/ /dW/ (/dz/) (/dr/) /m/ /n/ /Y/ /l/ /r/ /w/ /j/ 按发音的方法可分为: 爆破音 /p/ /b/ /t/ /d/ /k/ /G/ 气流从口腔冲出,送气有力 磨擦音 /f/ /v/ /s/ /z/ /O/ /D/ /S/ /W/ /r/ /h/ 气流发发音器官的缝隙,发生磨擦而发音 破擦音 /tS/ /dW/ (/ts/ /dz/ /tr/ /dr/) 是爆破音和磨擦音的结合 鼻辅音 /m/ /n/ /Y/ 气流从鼻腔通过 旁流音 /l/ 气流从舌的两旁空隙处流过 半元音 /w/ /j/ (这两个也属磨擦音) 像元音一样,气流直接从口腔通过,但又像辅音一样,气流通过时与发音器官稍有磨擦 3. 音素的读音 (1)元音音素的读音: 1.短元音:短元音的发音特点是短促、有力,它们的发音要领如下: /Z/ 舌端抵下齿,前舌稍高,双唇向两边伸张,稍扁,牙床近乎全开,双唇间可容纳两个手指,喉头肌肉紧张。 /e/ 舌端抵下齿,前舌抬起,双唇稍扁,牙床半开,双唇间可容纳一个手指,喉头肌肉不紧张。其发音与普通话“耶”(ye)的后半部分相似,注意不要与汉语拼音字母e(鹅)混淆。 /i/ 舌中部抬高,舌端抵下齿,双唇自然张开,牙床半合,喉头肌肉松弛。其发音与普通话“一”(yi)近似,但比yi短,且前舌要放低。 /C/ 后舌微微抬起,双唇收圆,是圆唇音,牙床全开,喉头肌肉较紧张。 /Ci/ 从/C/滑动到/i/,是合口双元音,双唇从圆到扁,牙床从开到合,喉头肌肉不紧张。 /iE/ 从/i/集中到/E/,是集中双元音,双唇自然张开,牙床从全开到半开,喉头肌肉松弛。 /XE/ 从/X/滑动到/E/,是集中双元音,发音时双唇自然张开,牙床从开三分之二到半开,喉头肌肉不紧张。/X/并不是一个独立的音素,它只在双元音/XE/中出现,/X/是前元音,发音介于/Z/和/e/之间,牙床开口比 /Z/小,比/e/大,双唇间可容纳一个半手指。 /uE/从/u/滑动到/E/,是集中双元音,双唇从圆到自然张开,牙床从半合到半开,喉头肌肉不紧张。 (2)辅音音素的读音: 多数辅音音素的读音与汉语拼音近似,可以通过对比学习,所不同的是,汉语拼音字母的读音都带韵母(如b读作bo,p读作po),而英语的辅音音素不带元音。另外,英语中有一些辅音音素是汉语拼音中没有的,有一些则与汉语拼音读音有较大区别,学习 时要加以注意。 /O/和/D/ 这是一对清浊辅音。舌尖平放两齿间,不断发/s/音,即为/O/音,用同样的方法不断发/z/音,即为 /D/。 /S/和/W/ 这是一对清浊辅音。/S/音和汉语拼音的sh相似,发/S/音时舌身较平,双唇稍圆,而发sh音时舌端稍卷,接近齿槽后的硬颚,双唇自然张开。发/S/音时声带振动即可发出/W/音。 /tS/和/dW/ 这是一对清浊辅音。/tS/是/t/和/S/的结合,发音部位与/S/完全相同,同样,/dW/是/d/和/W/的结合,发音部位与/W/完全相同。 /Y/ 发音与汉语拼音的ng基本相同。 /j/ 发音与汉语拼音的y相似,即与普通话“耶”(ye)的前半相同。 /r/ 发音与汉语拼音的r略相似,但发 /r/音时舌端要抬向齿槽后部,舌向后面 的硬颚弯曲,是卷舌音,且双唇较圆。而汉语拼音的 r音则舌面较平,且双唇不收圆。 26个英文字母及发音音标如下: A a [ei] B b [bi:] C c [si:] D d [di:]E e [i:] F f [ef ] G g [di:] H h [eit]I i [ai] J j [dei] K k [kei] L l [el]M m [em] N n [en] O o [u] P p [pi:]Q q [kju:] R r [] S s [es] T t [ti:]U u [ju:] V v [vi:] W w [′dblju:] X x [eks] Y y [wai] Z z [zi:][zed]第二章 发音器官第三章 元音音素——单元音元音音素可分单元音和双元音两大类,单元音又可分为前元音中元音和后元音:单元音:发音时舌位、唇形、开口度始终不变的元音音素,英语中单元音共12个双元音:两个单元音混合在一起的元音因素,英语中双元音共8个本章主要介绍单元音第一节 前元音/i:/ Part 1发音秘诀牙床:上下齿分开,距离能容纳一根火柴舌位:舌部及下颚肌肉紧张,舌尖抵下齿,舌前部向硬腭尽量抬起唇形:上下唇微开,口型扁平发音长短:发音时要尽量拉长,让它超过两秒,就像古人喝醉酒以后饮食的感觉小提示:嘴角尽量往两边拉,像微笑的样子,所以说英语国家的人拍照喜欢说“cheese”Part 2常见字母和字母组合E e be /bi:/ me /mi:/ he /hi;/ evening/i:vning/ she / f i:/ea tea /ti:/ sea /si:/ seat/si:t/ easy /i:zi/ eat /i:t/ eesee /si:/ feet /fi:t/ cheese /tfi:z/ teeth /ti:0/ green /gri:n/ ie thief /0i:f/ piece /pi:s/ niece /ni:s/ ey key /ki:/ Part 3:Try to Readsheep leave please dream speak secret chinese bee read Part 4精品句练习There’s a bee in the tree.Seeing is believeing.The chinese is a great people./I/Part 1发音秘诀牙床:上下齿分开,距离能容纳一个小指尖舌位:舌尖抵下齿,舌向硬腭抬起,但舌位比/i:/稍低、稍后唇形:上下唇微开,口型扁平口腔肌肉:舌部及下颚肌肉比/i:/松弛发音长短:短小提示:发好这个引得秘诀是一定要收小腹Part 2常见字母和字母组合e pretty reply repair remember isit history little missubusy bussiness ymarry januaryeymonkey moneyPart 3 Try to ReadEnglish gift guitar ticket difficult chick hill ticket Part 4精品句练习I want to have a ticket to the moon.She is always as busy as a bee.I’m sick of this weather.This guita is cool.I love it./e/ Part 1发音秘诀牙床:上下齿分开,距离能容纳一个中指舌位:舌尖抵下齿,舌部稍微抬起,舌位比短衣音/i/低唇形:嘴唇向两边微分,比短衣音/i/少松开,口型扁平发音长短:短元音,急促小提示:发音时下巴逐渐向下移动,直至上下嘴唇张开的角度大约呈45度,同时发出声音Part 2常见字母和字母组合a any anybody e desk very American bed ea bread dead ready healthai saidPart 3 Try to ReadRespect parent sweater friend bell never friend head elephant gorget better restPart 4 精品句练习More jelly ,please .Make the bed yourself.Never let your parents down.We have a test next Wednesday.I’d better study./æ/ Part 1发音秘诀牙床:介于开和半开之间,上下齿距离能容纳食指加中指尖舌位:舌尖轻触下齿,舌前部微微抬起,但舌位比/e/低,发音时逐渐压低舌头和下颚,尽可能夸张唇形:双唇向两边平伸,张开嘴,嘴唇放松小提示:越夸张越到位,美国味越浓Part 2常见字母和字母组合a flage face black plan fat chat Part 3 Try to ReadMap glad cape catch back passion hand handsome laugh happy familyPart 4 精品句练习Catch you latter.He’s a handsome man.Can you give me a hand?The fat cat has a backpack.第二节 中元音 /ɜ:/Part 1发音秘诀牙床:介于开和半开之间舌位:舌端离下齿,舌尖轻触下齿,舌中部微微抬起,舌位介于低和中低之间,整个舌身在口腔里处于低平状态唇形:双唇扁平Part 2常见字母和字母组合er her herself nervous mermaid ir birthday third skirt bircage or word work world worm ur turn hurt fur purseear earth learn earlyPart 3 Try to ReadThursday shirt perfume bied turtle dirty first nurse Part 4精品句练习Sh bought a small bottle of French perfume.The tuetle can’t bear the bird.Girls love skirts.The earth is our home.We should care about her. /ə/ Part 1发音秘诀牙床:半合,与/E/类似舌位:舌端离下齿,舌中部微微抬起,舌位中低唇形:嘴唇少松开,口型略扁平发音长短:短一点,弱一点小提示:带r出现在词尾时常卷舌Part 2常见字母和字母组合a ago breakfast arrive sofa e open happen o collect computer or inventor actor er letter order sweater ruler sweaterour colour ure picture naturePart 3 Try to ReadWater mother doctor Saturday matter better aboard workers banana panda paper moment the breakfast future dinner cinema potato Part 4精品句练习See you on ssturday.What’s the matter with you?My mather is the bet in the world!You’d better drink more water.Let’s go to the cinema.Would you please open the door?The policeman is a hero./ʌ/Part 1发音秘诀牙床:介于开和半开之间舌位:舌端离下齿,舌尖轻触下齿,舌中部微微抬起,舌位介于低和中低之间,整个舌身在口腔里处于低平状态唇形:双唇扁平短促Part 2常见字母和字母组合o love come mother money u must lunch lucky underoo blood flood ou country enough touch cousinPart 3 Try to ReadCup sun run bus butterfly hurry stydy enough monkey flood touchPart 4精品句练习Amy goes to school by bus every day.Don’t touch the machine.It’s dangerous.I stydy English just for fun.Monkeys like to run and jump.第三节 后元音 /ɑ:/ Part 1发音秘诀口张大,舌舌头压低后缩,舌尖不抵下齿。长元音,发音不要太短,长度比短元音长两倍多,发音时声带振动。就像汉语中发“啊”一样Part 2常见字母和字母组合a father after fast classar card farm party bar (卷舌)al half calm au aunt laugh Part 3 Try to ReadGlass water March parking arm ask car Part 4精品句练习The farm seems so far in the darkness.He who laughs last laughs best.They can’t start the party until dark.The park is far from the farm./ɔ:/ Part 1发音秘诀舌后伸,舌后部抬起,舌尖不抵下齿。双唇呈中圆形,并向前突出。长元音,发音时声带振动。就像汉语中发“喔”一样Part 2常见字母和字母组合al walk talk call wall or forty corn sport morning (卷舌)au fault autumn aw paw law ar war quarter (卷舌)oor floor (卷舌)our fourth pour (卷舌)augh daughter ough bought Part 3 Try to ReadHorse ball door your short floor story four story short born more Part 4精品句练习Open the door,please.The short daughter is reading books.I saw forty horses./ʋ/ Part 1发音秘诀口自然张开,舌后伸,舌后部抬起比/c:/略低。双唇呈中圆口形,比发/c:/时稍大,向前微伸,不要太突出。短元音,发音时声带振动。短促有力Part 2常见字母和字母组合a want watch wash quarrel o song pot job bodyPart 3 Try to ReadBox stop cock lot frog fox hot dog pot holiday knockPart 4精品句练习Thanks a lot.He lost his wallet and his job.He got a job at a coffee shop./u:/Part 1发音秘诀舌后伸,舌后部向软腭高高抬起双唇呈小圆口形,并向前突出。长元音,发音时声带振动肌肉始终保持紧张状态。就像汉语中发“乌”一样Part 2常见字母和字母组合O move shoe do whose u ruler june oo school tooth noon noodle ui fruit juice ou group you soup ew drew grew Part 3 Try to ReadGoose pool zoo cool blue food Part 4精品句练习What can I do for you ?It is very cool in the zoo. /ʊ/ Part 1发音秘诀舌后伸,舌后部向软腭高高抬起,但比/u:/略低双唇收圆,稍向前突出。短元音,发音时声带振动,肌肉尽量放松。Part 2常见字母和字母组合U pull push sugar butcher oo foot stood bookshop classroomou should couldPart 3 Try to ReadPut full look woman cook book wood Part 4精品句练习Look before you leap.Should we put some sugar in the milk?That’s a good question.第四章 元音音素——双元音双元音:两个单元音混合在一起的元音因素,英语中双元音共8个 /ei/ /ai/ /əu/ /au/ /ɔi/ /iə/ /eə/ /uə/第一节 合口双元音/ei/Part 1发音秘诀口型由/e/向/i/滑动,下颚向上合拢,舌位随之抬高发声时声带振动,/e/音响亮清晰,较长,/i/音轻弱模糊,较短Part 2常见字母和字母组合a make snake name face ai mail pain paint gain rain wait ay day play way May ey they hey eigh eight weightPart 3 Try to ReadCake same train table plane lake say mistake great Part 4精品句练习It’s a great day today.Don’t be late./ai/ Part 1发音秘诀舌尖抵住下齿从舌位低、口型大的/a/向舌位高、口型小的/i/滑动发声时声带振动,饱满圆润/a/音响亮清晰,较长,/i/音轻弱模糊,较短Part 2常见字母和字母组合i fine nice knife ridey shy why dry sky ie die pie ye bye igh high light night Part 3 Try to ReadBike kite right time white fly high ice eye tie Part 4精品句练习All right A cat has nine lives.What dose she look like.?Never say die!try!Try!Try!Mike likes riding a bike/əu/ Part 1发音秘诀由/E/向/u/滑动,双唇由扁平变为收圆,口型从半开到合拢发声时声带振动,/E/音响亮清晰,较长,/u/音轻弱模糊,较短Part 2常见字母和字母组合O post old open olympic oa boat road ou soul shoulder ow slow know ough though although Part 3 Try to ReadNote home hope coat rose smoke hole window bowl Part 4精品句练习I’d like a bowl of soup.I want to go home It’svery late.There ‘s a hole in my coat.I hope I can go swimming tomorrow./au/ Part 1发音秘诀由/a/向/u/滑动,口型由大到小,舌位由低到高,双唇逐渐合圆并稍向前突出发声时声带振动,/a/音响亮清晰,较长,/u/音轻弱模糊,较短Part 2常见字母和字母组合ou about around south hour ow how bow Part 3 Try to ReadShout out mountain down mouth power flower allow sound cloud mouse Part 4精品句练习I won’t let you down.There is a mouse on a cow.How about going downtown now?Knowledge is power!What beautiful flowers!/ɔi/Part 1发音秘诀由/c/向/i/滑动,由圆唇变为扁唇,口型从开到合发声时声带振动,/c/音响亮清晰,较长,/i/音轻弱模糊,较短Part 2常见字母和字母组合Oy enjoy roy Oi boil point noise Part 3 Try to ReadChoice boy oil voice toilet toy noise join coin Part 4精品句练习I lose my voice.Join our game,and you’ll enjoy it.The boy is playing with his toys.He has great joy.Enjoy yourself.The other boys joined in the noise.第二节 集中双元音/iə/ Part 1发音秘诀由/i/向/E/滑动,由扁唇变为半开的中唇,发声时声带振动,注意不要把/i/发成/i:/Part 2常见字母和字母组合ea real ear hear beard tear eer deer pioneer Part 3 Try to ReadDear idea here year ear near clear beard tears beer year clear hear Part 4精品句练习Wall have ears.Is there a post-office near here?Do you live near here?Dry your tears.cheer up./eə/Part 1发音秘诀由/e/很快向/E/滑动,舌位由舌前改为舌中,口型由中常改为扁平发声时声带振动,前重后轻前长后短Part 2常见字母和字母组合are dare careful air hair stair ear wear pear eir their Part 3 Try to ReadWhere pear chair air care there share chair there fair care bear pair wear square Part 4精品句练习Where there is a will ,there is a way.The air is fresh here./uə/Part 1发音秘诀由/u/很快向/E/滑动,舌位由拱到平,口型由圆到扁发声时声带振动,注意不要把/u/发成/u:/Part 2常见字母和字母组合oor moore poor ure assure sure Part 3 Try to ReadUnsure insure tourist tour pure endure secure europe yourPart 4精品句练习My grandma has a poor memory.She’s always losing things.Take your time.第五章 辅音音素辅音音素共24个(一般不将/ts/ /dz/ /tr/ /dr/单独列为音标),按声带是否振动可分为清辅音和浊辅音两类,其中有16(20)个是成对出现的:清辅音 /p/ /t/ /k/ /f/ /s/ /O/ /S/ /tS/ (/ts/) (/tr/) /h/ 浊辅音 /b/ /d/ /G/ /v/ /z/ /D/ /W/ /dW/ (/dz/) (/dr/) /m/ /n/ /Y/ /l/ /r/ /w/ /j/ 按发音的方法可分为: 爆破音 /p/ /b/ /t/ /d/ /k/ /G/ 气流从口腔冲出,送气有力 磨擦音 /f/ /v/ /s/ /z/ /O/ /D/ /S/ /W/ /r/ /h/ 气流发发音器官的缝隙,发生磨擦而发音 破擦音 /tS/ /dW/ (/ts/ /dz/ /tr/ /dr/) 是爆破音和磨擦音的结合 鼻辅音 /m/ /n/ /Y/ 气流从鼻腔通过 旁流音 /l/ 气流从舌的两旁空隙处流过 半元音 /w/ /j/ (这两个也属磨擦音) 像元音一样,气流直接从口腔通过,但又像辅音一样,气流通过时与发音器官稍有磨擦 本章将逐一介绍。第一节 爆破音/p/ 和/b/Part 1发音秘诀口型相同双唇紧闭,然后突然分开,气流冲出口腔,发出爆破的声音Part 2常见字母和字母组合/p/ p pen put cap zip pp happy apple /b/ b bird boat table crab Bb rabbit Part 3 Try to ReadHope map picture pupil plane pig book bed basket box bus big pick piece paper people park popular bank black brother beef baby believe Part 4精品句练习It’s as pretty as a picture.Plese pass the slippers.He lost his basketball./t/ 和/d/ Part 1发音秘诀口型相同舌尖紧贴上齿龈形成阻碍,然后突然放开,气流冲出口腔,发出爆破的声音Part 2常见字母和字母组合t tell tall eat water tt little litter pretty d doll good blind bad dd middle daddy Part 3 Try to ReadShort goat late time tiger post doctor hand bed dog door dance rest letter cost idea good day down tooth table shiet bottle tomato study decide dance Part 4精品句练习I’ll keep that in mind.Diamond cut diamond.Mary is good at dancing.There is a bottle on the table.Time flies.Don’t be late for school.That’s a good idea./k/和/g/Part 1发音秘诀口型相同舌后部抬起,紧贴软腭,形成阻碍,然后舌后部突然离开,气流冲出口腔,发出爆破的声音Part 2常见字母和字母组合k dark keep cook c cool can cry ck quick back g go get gay gu guest guess guy Part 3 Try to ReadCock desk duck clever car park dog game glass ground bag girl care clock like gate great game kind muzic forgive begin language glad hungry queenPart 4精品句练习Let’s go together.It’s very kind of you..Good luck.第二节 摩擦音/f/ 和/v/Part 1发音秘诀口型相同下唇轻触上齿,气流由唇齿间的缝隙间通过,引起摩擦成音Part 2常见字母和字母组合/f/ f food fire half Ph phone photo gh cough enough rough /v/ v five move visit Part 3 Try to ReadLaugh fat fish family face fox vory save love save live eleven feel farmer leave Part 4精品句练习I’m very well.Love me,love my dogs .Tell me who is both fat and foolish./s/和/z/Part 1发音秘诀口型相同舌端靠近上齿龈,气流由舌端与齿龈间泻出,形成摩擦音Part 2常见字母和字母组合/s/ s sun school us ss class pass boss ce face rice se horse house /z/ s as his is Z zone zebra Part 3 Try to ReadSister skirt sea sit sky desk zero zoo easy Chinese close rise busy close sing dance Sunday Part 4精品句练习He’s not stupid,just lazy.I’m busy with my homework.What did you say?The sun rises in the east.Zip your lips,please!小提示:规则名词的复数是名词后面字母加s,如books和bags。book [buk]词末是清辅音[k],字母s因受清辅音[k]的影响而读成清辅音[s];bag [bæg]浊辅音[g]的影响而读成浊辅音[z]。可以看出,规则名词的复数词末s的读音总是受到名词词末清、浊辅音的影响。/θ/ 和/ ð /Part 1发音秘诀口型相同舌尖轻抵上齿背或放在上下齿之间,气流由舌齿间缝隙泻出,形成摩擦音Part 2常见字母和字母组合Th /θ/ tooth health think / ð / brother leather those Part 3 Try to ReadMouth thank birthday three other there together thief thick north throw this there feather they month weatherPart 4精品句练习I don’t think so.I’m thirsty.Better late than never.My brother and I go to school together.规则提示:th什么时候发「θ」什么时候发「ð」Ʒ(1) th位于词首时,可以从词性上判别其应有的读音。在名词、动词、形容词和数词中th发清辅音。如:thing, theatre, thunder, thermos, Thursday, theory, theme, throat, thread, think, thank, thrive, thicken, thirteen, thirty, third, thousand, thick, thirsty, thoughtful, thorough 在代词和一些功能词中th发浊辅音.如: them, their, theirs, there, the, than, then, though, thus, therefore, they。只有介词through是个例外。 (2) th位于词尾(或音节之尾)时,其读音多数是清辅音,如:bath, breath, tooth, 等。只有在少数单词中,如:with, smooth 中读浊音。 (3) th在词中并且后面接er时,或者最后一个字母是不发音的e时,通常也发浊辅音。例如:feather, weather, whether, leather, further, father, bathe, breathe, southern, northern, either等。在其他情况下发清辅音。例如:author, faithful, method, nothing, anything, healthy, wealthy。 试读下列单词: mother, father, another, brother, health, wealth/ʃ/ 和/ ʒ /Part 1发音秘诀口型相同双唇稍收圆并向前突出,舌尖和舌端向上齿龈后部抬起靠近,但不要贴住,形成狭长通道,气流由此通道通过,形成摩擦音Part 2常见字母和字母组合/ʃ/ s sure sugar ch machine sh she shame /ʒ/ s usually ge garage Part 3 Try to ReadShirt short shop sheep shout fresh pleasure television treasure decision machine fresh Part 4精品句练习Shall we go fishing?She can speak good English.It’s my pleasure.规则提示:s c t 后接 ia ie io 时发/ʃ/音/r/ Part 1发音秘诀舌尖向上龈后部卷起靠近(但不要贴住),舌前部下陷,略成凹形,舌身两侧收拢,双唇略突出,气流由舌面与硬腭间摩擦而出,声带振动。Part 2常见字母和字母组合r rock right rice rr worry sorry carry wr write wrong Part 3 Try to ReadRed read rat repair ready report ruler river run rich Part 4精品句练习Are you ready.When in Rome,do as the romans do./h/Part 1常见字母和字母组合h have hero hide wh who whose whole Part 2 Try to ReadHigh house head hate head hurry hole happy help home horse house Part 3精品句练习Here you are.I have a happy home.小提示:这个音只出现在元音前,与后面的元音组成音节。知识总结:在摩擦音后加爆破音/p//t//k/所构成的三个辅音联缀,即/sp//st//sk/,他们中的/p//t//k/不送气,读音相当于汉语普通话中的不送气清辅音bdg的本音。这三个辅音连缀时,第一个辅音/s/发音要短促(不要用劲一带而过),随即迅速过渡到第二个辅音(要用劲),要把注意力集中在第二个辅音上。第三节 破擦音/tʃ/ 和 /dʒ/Part 1发音秘诀发音口形同舌尖舌端抬起贴住上齿龈后部,形成阻碍,气流冲破阻碍,破擦而成音。Part 2常见字母和字母组合/tʃ/ t nature question picture ch chat check chees peach tch kitchen catch /dʒ/ j jump july joke just g gentle gentlemen (d)ge fridge judge Part 3 Try to ReadChick watch cheap chest church chance jeep bridge age job joy junk each Part 4精品句练习Can I take a picture with you?Watch out.You really did a good job./Good job./ts/ 和 /dz/Part 1发音秘诀发音口形同舌尖贴住上齿龈,形成阻碍,气流冲破阻碍,破擦而成音Part 2常见字母和字母组合/ts/ ts hats lots shirts Tes gates t’s let’s that’s what’s /dz/ ds beds hands fields des rides grades Part 3 Try to ReadAnts boats sports seats skirts cats card birds odds friends words heads pizza Part 4精品句练习It all depends.Put up your hands.Look at the words on the cards.He has lot of cats./tr/ 与/dr/Part 1发音秘诀发音口形同双唇略突出,舌尖抵住上齿龈形成阻碍,气流冲破阻碍,破擦而成音。Part 2常见字母和字母组合/tr/ tr trip tree trousers /dr/ dr drink dragon drive Part 3 Try to ReadTruck trade trouble train true try draw dry drug drop dream dresstravel introduce children Part 4精品句练习The little girl is in a dress.Good night.Sweet dreams.I like drawing.Can I try this shirt on?第四节 鼻音/m/ Part 1发音秘诀双唇闭拢,软颚下垂,气流从鼻腔泻出。Part 2常见字母和字母组合m milk meet warm mm summer swimmer hammer Part 3 Try to ReadMoon mouth much some time morning same autumn Part 4精品句练习Autumn is my favorite season.What time is it now.Summer holiday Made in china /n/ Part 1发音秘诀舌后部高高抬起贴住软腭,同时软颚下垂,堵住口腔通道,气流从鼻腔泻出,声带振动。Part 2常见字母和字母组合n number north run nn funny manner dinner Part 3 Try to ReadThin night sun pen name nurse dinner telephone news Part 4精品句练习I don’t understand.It is a nice night.I’m nervous about the wxam.Dinnr’s on me小提示:一些单词中有”kn””gn””pn”字母组合,其中”k””g””p”不发音,只发/n//ŋ/Part 1发音秘诀舌后部高高抬起贴住软腭,同时软颚下垂,堵住口腔通道,气流从鼻腔泻出,声带振动。Part 2常见字母和字母组合n drink pink monkey ng king thing song Part 3 Try to ReadSing thank finger English wrong long dumplings bank the girl is singing a song.Part 4精品句练习The girl is singing a song.What’s wrong with you?What are you doing?第五节 舌侧音/l/Part 1发音秘诀舌尖及舌端紧贴上齿龈,舌身向上拱起,使气流从舌的两旁泻出成音。Part 2常见字母和字母组合l left lost girl ll small ball wallPart 3 Try to ReadBlack light let glass life lift world look all Part 4精品句练习The small table is really lovely.Like father,like son.Soccer is popular among boys.第六节 半元音/w/ Part 1发音秘诀舌后部向软腭抬起,双唇收圆收小,并稍向前突出。归入浊辅音,发音时声带振动。音一经发出,立即向后面的元音滑动。单独发音时,后面需加中元音/ə/,读作/wə/Part 2常见字母和字母组合w work wit welcome wh white when while Part 3 Try to ReadWolf web wind week west window wait while water where Part 4精品句练习He always waits for me after school.Best wishes.小提示:/w/与/v/的主要区别在于发/w/是双唇是受圆收小并向前突出的,而再发/v/时则需要上齿轻咬下唇来完成发音。/j/Part 1发音秘诀舌后部向硬腭尽量抬起,双唇向旁伸展呈扁平型。归入浊辅音,发音时声带振动。音一经发出,立即向后面的元音滑动。单独发音时,后面需加中元音/ə/,读作/jə/Part 2常见字母和字母组合y your yes yet Part 3 Try to ReadYellow yo-yo yard yesterday young year Part 4精品句练习Your yellow coat is dirty.Year in,year out .第六章 发音规律一、元音字母在重读音节中的读音元音字母读 音例 词a在开音节中[ei]name plane Jane baby cake在闭音节中[æ]bag dad hat map black backe在开音节中[i:]he these me Chinese在闭音节中[e]bed let pen desk yes egg i在开音节中[ai]bike fly drive time nice kite在闭音节中[i]fish big drink sit milk swimo在开音节中[ou]those close go hoe home no在闭音节中[]clock not box shop sock 在开音节中[ju:]student excuse duty Tuesday在闭音节中[bus cup jump much lunch在开音节中,元音字母u在辅音字母j l r s后面时读[u:]音,例如:June blue ruler super1-01 特例:vague vogue range paste plague change strange taste waste ache waste scythe opaque这些单词中的th ng gu ch st qu都被看作一个整体,都被看作一个辅音字母,其中的元音字母按开音节规则发音。和以上读音现象不同的词有:tinge[i]1-02 many[e] any[e]1-04 English[i] pretty1-05 policeman[i:] machine[i:] 以上这两个词源自法语,保留法语发音。fatigue[i:] 下面这两个词保留了古英语的发音 live[i] give[i]1-07 to[u:] do[u:] movie 1-08 woman[u] wolf[u] roller[ u] colour 1-10 put[u] Bush[u] cushion[u]二、元音字母在非重读音节中的读音元音字母读 音例 词a[ ]China another woman breakfast[i]orange comrade village cabbagee[ ]hundred student open weekend[i]chicken pocket begin childreni[ ]/[i]holiday beautiful family animal[ai]exercise satelliteo[ ]second tonight somebody welcome[ u]also zero photou[ ]autumn diffcult[ju(:)]popular congratulation January动词中的a如果处在开音节位置,a读[ei]音,例如:operateu处在开音节位置,又在辅音字母j l r s后面时,读[u(:)]音,例如:July influence February issue在非重读音节中,许多单词中的元音字母a e i 即可以读作[ ]音,也可以读作[i]音。不符合规则的词2-7 icon[ :] n.【电脑】代表所指谓的图像 robot[ :] n.机器人 alcohol[ :] n.酒精aerosol n.烟,雾 phenol n.酚苯2-11 substrate[ei] n.【生化】【半导体】基质;底物三、元音字母在重读音节中的特殊读音元音字母读 音例 词a在[w]音后面[ ]want what watch wash qualitya在f n sk ph sp ss st th前[α:] after plant graph ask grasp glass fast fatheri在-nd -ld和gh前[ai]find child light higho在-st -ld前[ou]most postcard old coldo在m n v th前[ ]come monkey love mother3-01 water[ :] wane[ei] wake[ei]n 以上几个词都是开音节词 wag[æ] 3-02 ass[æ] tomato[α:] 字母a后面是字母t,不符合3-02规则。这个词也可以按1-01规则来读 tomato[t ´meitou] banana[α:] 重读音节里的字母a后面有字母n,符合3-02规则。由于重读音节里的字母a和后面的字母n并不是处在同一音节里,所以banana也可以读成[b ´nein ]3-03 cost[ ]3-04 colour[ ] 四、-r音节元音字组在重读音节中的读音元音字组读 音例 词arar在[w]音后面[α:]car farm dark sharpener[ :]warm quarter towardsoror在[w]音后面[ :]forty morning short[ :]word worker worseer ir st1:place w:st="on">ur [ :] certainly bird Thursday辅音字母r双写时,前面的元音字母不能与r构成-r音节,而是按重读闭音节的拼读规则发音。例如: carry sorry hurry-r音节在非重读音节中通常读[ ]音,例如:dollar teacher martyr forget Saturday例外的词4-03 attorney[ :]4-04 worn[ :]
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