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【可编辑】南京农业大学2016年博士研究生入学考试英语试题.doc

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南京农业大学2016年博士研究生入学考试英语试题考生答题须知:1. 所有题目(包括填空、选择、图表等类型题目)答题答案必须做在考点发给的答题纸上,做在本试题册上无效。请考生务必在答题纸上写清题号。2. 评卷时不评阅本试题册,答题如有做在本试题册上而影响成绩的,后果由考生自己负责。3. 答题时一律使用蓝、黑色墨水笔或圆珠笔作答(画图可用铅笔),用其它笔答题不给分。4. 答题时不准使用涂改液等具有明显标记的涂改用品。PART I Vocabulary (15points)Section ADirections: Choose the word that is the closest synonym to the underlined word.1. The government slated new elections in the spring, largely as a result of the public clamor.A. demand B. view C. request D. opinion2. The most prolific writer is not necessarily the best.A. written-about B. productive C. artful D. religious3. Imagine my vexation when they said they would come to dinner and then didn't show.A. enlightenment B. astonishment C. annoyance D. contrariness4. Any troop of wild animals should be approached warily.A. fearlessly B. confidently C. silently D. prudently5. There is little learning involved when one is reprimanded two or three months after the deed.A. recommended B. reproached C. recompensed D. reversed6. Archaeologists are interested in pottery, figurines and other vestiges of ancient civilizations.A. traces B. shards C. products D. artifacts7. Packaging is designed so as to encourage impetuous shopping.A. extravagant B. careful C. impotent D. impulsive8. Pan of his general thrift is to be meticulous in verifying monthly expenses.A. painstaking B. dilatory C. meretricious D. gaudy9. The jurors came to a deadlock in the defendant's trial for murder.A. a decision of guilty B. a decision to punish by electrocutionC. an impasse D. an unusual verdict10. Among the lowest of the judicial ranks, justices of the peace nevertheless frequently exercise jurisdiction over a variety of misdemeanors.A. guidance B. sovereignty C. authority D. suzerainty11. A mistake is rarely atoned for by a single apology, however profuse.A. extravagant B. produced C. divergent D. repetitious12. Her office in the First National Bank building is provisional.A. permanent B. temporary C. corrupt D. craven13. The burglars ransacked the room taking anything of value they found.A. demolished B. took over C. inhabited D. thoroughly searched14. The whole of the endowment was used to refurbish the school gymnasium.A. millionaires B. endorsements C. governments D. donations15. The massacre of innocent people cannot ever be condoned.A. overlooked B. praise C. condemned D. satisfiedSection BDirections: Choose the answer that best completes the sentence.16. When he realized the true nature of the proposal, he ________ all communication with the group.A. convert B. averted C. severed D. make17. The worsening financial situation made it obvious that an economic depression was _____.A. attainable B. remote C. imminent D. eminent18. All of the dental instruments need to be _______ before the next patient is seen.A. heated B. scalded C. sterilized D. burned19. Rock climbing is so popular now that many people are able to ________ the steepest face with great agility.A. scale B. surpass C. overcome D. mount20. If you call the 911 emergency number, they will ________ firemen, policemen, and paramedics immediately.A. assign B. detach C. attach D. dispatch21. His evident _______ to his wife despite her indiscretion proved him to be a man of integrity.A. personality B. character C. fidelity D. morality22. I don't know why he has been given ________. It wasn't his accomplishment but his wife's.A. acclaim B. confidence C. reimbursement D. robustness23. After a concert tour in Asia, Canada and the U. S., he will _______ work on a five-language opera.A. confine B. indulge C. resume D. undergo24. When Ph. D candidates ________ their impending professorships, they consider housing benefits offered by the prospective universities.A. anticipate B. assume C. apply D. demand25. My supply of confidence slowly ________ as the deadline approached.A. withdrew B. eliminated C. exterminated D. diminished26. The battle is of great significance when viewed in the ________ of the progress of the war.A. prospective B. respective C. perspective D. prescriptive27. It has long been known that total sleep ________ is 100 percent fatal to rats, yet, upon examination of the dead bodies, the animals look completely normal.A. deposition B. destruction C. deprivation D. reduction28. In that country, hospital doctors don't go sightseeing very often because their work ________ almost all their time.A. takes up B. takes off C. takes apart D. takes over29. According to the law of that country, the Parliament will have to be ________ before the General Election.A. decomposed B. dispersed C. dissolved D. disintegrated30. He failed to carry out some of the provisions of the contract, and now he has to ________ the consequences.A. answer for B. run into C. abide by D. step intoPART Ⅱ Grammar (15 points)Section ADirections: Choose the letter that indicates the error in the sentence.31. Switzerland is best known for its majesty mountain range and thousands flock to the Alps A B C each year to take advantage of their ideal skiing conditions. D32. Police were sent to disperse the crowds but ended up by shooting down protesters and it A B was in this chaos that the seeds of political liberation were sown. C D33. Even today, through the hustle and bustle of Nevsky Prospect, St Petersburg's main street, A B the classical beauty of the city mesmerizes the eye. C D34. She is furious of her son's grades in school, which explains why Mark is jealous of Julia's high A B C marks on the exam. D35. Smog-choked Southern California demands them. It's a car for people who never want to go A to a gas station again. But the fact is, for all the talk, selling gas-less machines has been a B C hard-sell. D36. People thought: Hey, eat a carp and you will be taking in what it is that gives you these fish A B their long life-span. Of course, it hasn't done a lot of good for these carp. C D37. In deciding to undertake dangerous pursuits, people usually strive for their maximum A personal ability rating, when they are challenged but can he victorious, rather than merely B C surmounting the mediocre. D38. In proposing such philanthropic donations, the director of the company certainly spoke fromA B a genuine concern for the needy and not any desire for personal accolades. C D39. The armor, infantry and other military forces were held up by the enemy counter attack, A B C thus caused the delay in the advance. D40. Just as children the world over like Christmas rooming, adults so like Christmas evening A B C when peace and calm return to the household. D41. Each employee with a modicum of intelligence would be able to undertake such a basic process. A B C D42. The economic situation will improve given that there is forecast to be less unemployment A B and closures than in previous years. C D43. The three most important issues of concern to citizens today are prison reform, A B abusing children and toxic waste. C D44. I was on the verge of incurring Mr. Rochester's wrath by not listening to his prohibitions, A B while a ray once more shone almost imperceptibly on the hallway wall and I heard his muffled C D step on the carpet.45. The above is the most important aspect which apes can be told from more primitive socialA B C D groupings.Section BDirections: Choose the answer that best fills in the blank.46. ________ that the earth was flat?A. Used it to be thought B. Did it used to be thoughtC. Was it need to being thought D. Does it used to be thought47. It is most inappropriate ________ in the college VIP lounge.A. for any students to be there B. for there to be any studentsC. to be any students there D. to have there any students48. She ________ much more accurate responses now, had she taken more pains in devising the questions.A. got B. would have got C. had got D. would be getting49. An extensive foundation in the basic sciences should be required of all science students, ________.A. whether they are future physicists or chemists.B. be they future physicists or chemists.C. they are future physicists or chemists. D. they should be future physicists or chemists.50. The general opinion is that he is ________ to complain.A. so much a milquetoast B. too a milquetoastC. too much of a milquetoast D. so much of a milquetoast51. Although of course there are exceptions, it seems reasonably dear that in certain countries - Rwanda, Somalia and parts of the former Yugoslavia come to mind-hunger is less a result of an absolute food shortage, ________ a policy decision or the political situation.A. than of B. rather than C. but the result of D. than is52. The ozone layer plays as great a role in the suability of spaceship Earth as ________ the waters of its lakes, ponds, oceans, rivers, and streams.A. do B. does C. play D. are53. Perhaps I should not have done so, but I changed my mind about the new job even though I was ________ last week.A. to be started B. to have started C. to have been starting D. start54. Despite an overlay of quasi-literary French vocabulary stemming from the Norman Invasion of 1066, the daily vocabulary of English remained Germanic, _______ its grammatical structure.A. the same are B. and so are C. as did D. and so were55. Although money is always useful, it isn't all ________.A. what there is to life B. to which there is in life C. there is to life D. that is in life56. ________ ever so humble, there's no plane like home.A. It be B. Be it C. It was D. Was it57. ________ all customs, no matter how sacrosanct, are essentially learned reactions appropriate, perhaps only to the holders thereof is a basic assumption of anthropologists.A. Nearly B. It is nearly C. That nearly D. When nearly58. Although women cluster to him like moths around a flame, he is none ______ happier for it.A. but B. the C. match D. any59. The major reason why Americans enjoy an abundant food supply is that the arable land at their disposal for food production is ________.A. three times more the world average B. three times as much the world averageC. three times the world average D. the world average is three times60. The sound of the roaring of a tiger is ________ heard by jungle dwellers ________ feelings of unease, for a year does not elapse without victims falling to the tiger's ferocity.A. always...with B. ever...without C. ever...with D. never...withoutPART Ⅲ Clone test (10 points)Directions: Choose the word that best completes the meaning.One of the basic characteristics of capitalism is the private ownership of the major means of production-capital. The ownership of large amounts of capital can bring __61__ profits, as well as economic and political power. Some recent theorists, 62 have argued that our society has moved to a new stage of 63 _that they call "postindustrial" society. One important change in such society is that the ownership of 64 amounts of capital is no longer the only or even the most important 65 of profits and influence; knowledge as well as 66 capital brings profits and influence.There are many 67 with the thesis above, not the least of 68 is that wealthy capitalists can buy the experts and knowledge they need to keep their profits and influence. But this does not 69 the importance of knowledge in an advanced industrial society, as the 70 of some new industries indicates. 71 , genetic engineering and the new computer technology have 72 many new fines and made some scientists quite rich. In 73 with criticism of the postindustrial society thesis, however, it must also be 74 that those already in control of huge amounts of capital (i.e., major corporations) soon 75 to take most profits in these industries based on new knowledge.Moving down from the level of wealth and power, we still find knowledge increasingly 76 . Many new high-tech jobs are being created at the upper-skill, low-paying service 77 . Something like a caste line is emerging centered around knowledge. Individuals who fall too far behind in the 78 of knowledge at a young age will find it almost impossible to catch up later, no matter how hard they try. Illiteracy in English language has been a severe 79 for marry years in the United States, but we are also moving to the point when computer illiteracy will hinder many more people and 80 them to a life of low-skill and low-paid labor.61. A. quantitative B. extensive C. comprehensive D. sophisticated62. A. moreover B. however C. therefore D. nevertheless63. A. aggression B. proficiency C. productivity D. evolution64. A. dominant B. impressive C. magnificent D. significant65. A. source B. factor C. component D. element66. A. adequate B. profitable C. material D. spiritual67. A. advantages B. consequences C. problems D. potentials68. A. them B. those C. which D. that69. A. deny B. refuse C. admit D. acknowledge70. A. emergence B. innovation C. extinction D. discovery71. A. In addition B. For example C. Above all D. In short72. A. produced B. created C. improved D. facilitated73. A. line B. need C. doubt D. match74. A. idealized B. recognized C. supervised D. summarized75. A. stepped in B. settled down C. leaned over D. mined out76. A. accessible B. important C. popular D. abundant77. A. enterprises B. employment C. professions D. industries78. A. control B. mastery C. search D. pursuit79. A. handicap B. penalty C. inconvenience D. shortcoming80. A. enforce B. punish C. confine D. condemnPART Ⅳ READING OOMPREHENSION (30 points)Directions: Answer all questions based on the information in the passages below.Passage 1Let us assume, for the moment, that labor is not prepared to work for a lower money-wage and that a reduction in the existing level of money-wages would lead, through strikes or otherwise, to a withdrawal from the labor market of labor which is now employed. Does it follow from this that the existing level of real wages accurately measures the marginal disutility of labor? Not necessarily. For, although a reduction in the existing money-wage would lead to a withdrawal of labor, it does not follow that a fall in the value of the existing money-wage in terms of wage-goods would do so, if it were due to a rise in the price of the latter. In other words, it may be the case that within a certain range the demand of labor is for a minimum money-wage and not for a minimum real wage. The classical school has tacitly assumed that this would involve no significant change in their theory. But this is not so. For if the supply of labor is not a function of real wages as its sole variable, their argument breaks down entirely and leaves the question of what the actual employment will be quite indeterminate. They do not seem to have realized that, unless the supply of labor is a function of real wages alone, their supply curve for labor will shift bodily with every movement of prices. Thus their method is tied up with their very special assumptions, and cannot be adapted to deal with the more general case.Now ordinary experience tells us, beyond doubt, that a situation where labor stipulates (within limits) for a money-wage rather than a real wage, so far from being a mere possibility, is the normal case. Whilst workers will usually resist a reduction of money-wages, it is not their practice to withdraw their labor whenever there is a rise in the price of wage-goods. It is sometimes said that it would be illogical for labor to resist a reduction of money-wages but not to resist a reduction of real wages. For reasons given below, this might not be so illogical as it appears at first; and, as we shall see later, fortunately so. But, whether logical or illogical, experience shows that this is how labor in fact behaves.Moreover, the contention that the unemployment which characterizes a depression is due to a refusal by labor to accept a reduction of money-wages is not clearly supported by the facts. It is not very plausible to assert that unemployment in the United States in 1932 was due either to labor obstinately refusing to accept a reduction of money-wages or to its obstinately demanding a real wage beyond what the productivity of the economic machine was capable of furnishing. Wide variations are experienced in the volume of employment without any apparent change either in the minimum real demands of labor or in its productivity. Labor is not more truculent in the depression than in the boom-fax from it. Nor is its physical productivity less. These facts from experience are a prima facie ground for questioning the adequacy of the classical analysis.81. "Labor is not prepared to work for a lower money-wage". The sentence means ________.A. a fall in the value of the existing money-wage would lead to a withdrawal of laborB. a rise in the price of wage-goods would lead to a withdrawal of laborC. the demand of labor is for a rise of existing money-wageD. the demand of labor is for reduction in the value of real wages82. The classical school refers to ________.A. those scholars with traditional idea B. the traditional schoolC. the experts who hold to the standard theory D. all of the above83. According to the author, the supply curve for labor depends on the ________.A. red money wages B. movement of price C. function of money-wages D. both A & B84. “Their" method cannot be adapted to deal with the more general case because they have not realized that ________.A. a fall in the value of real wages would lead to a withdrawal of the labor from market of laborB. a reduction in the existing level of money-wages would lead to a withdrawal from the labor market of laborC. the supply of labor is not a function of real wagesD. the demand of labor is only for a minimum money-wages85. How dose labor usually behave?A. Labor would stipulate for money-wage.B. Labor would violently resist a reduction of real wages.C. Labor would strenuously resist a reduction of both money-wages and real wages.D. Labor would stipulate for real wages.86. The last paragraph of thus passage indicates that ________.A. labor resisted a reduction of money-wages, which characterized the depression of the 1930s in the U.S.B. labor demanded a real wage, which characterized the depression of 1930s in the U. S.C. neither labor refusing to work for a lower money-wage nor demanding a real wage could characterize the depression of 1930s in the U. S.D. both A & BPassage 2 The law of private international tribunals with respect to conflicts of interest of arbitrators is quite extensive, albeit by no means uniform. It relates both to what will disqualify an arbitrator and to what the arbitrator must disclose during the selection process. Most national legal systems have statutory rules as to the type of interests, relationships, and experiences that disqualify an arbitrator. Not infrequently, the disqualifying factors are identical for arbitrators and judges, although they may treat domestic and international arbitration somewhat differently, and may indeed supplement the international roles with additional features. A closer look reveals that courts and arbitration agencies tend to apply the regulations relatively lightly, recognizing that arbitrators move in the highly interconnected world of affairs, and do not stand aloof from commerce as judges do. Accordingly, acquaintanceship with the parties and their counsel does not suffice to disqualify, whereas actual business or legal connections will. Inasmuch as judges do not seek more work, although arbitrators generally do, suspicions arise that an arbitrator's favor may incline to the party or counsel who has in the past and may again in the future provide employment.The uncertainty in the held is at its most troubling when arbitrators are party-appointed. Some argue that such arbitrators should fulfill he same functions and satisfy the same qualifications as third-party arbitrators, others dispute any real claim to objectivity. The latter view has had considerable currency, particularly in the United States, where courts and drafters of state laws regard such advocates as pawns of the appointers. Imposing standard of neutrality and disinterestedness on them would he futile.It follows from this dichotomy between party-appointed and non-party-appointed arbitrators that opinion on the question of their nationality is also split. A party needs to be expected to choose a fellow national. This question of nationality is acute when one party to the arbitration is a governmental agency and one or more of the arbitrators are likewise nationals; a foreign enterprise contract calling for such arbitration may be foolhardy.The slate is largely blank with respect to roles for the conduct of arbitrators outside the field of conflict of interests. Considering only the matter of ex-parte communications, American case law is astonishing lax, refusing to set aside awards where such communication obtained between an arbitrator and a party without the presence of the other party, thereby violating evidentiary rules requiring the attendance of both patties. The differences in views on this topic indicate how useful a set of guidelines might be.87. The best title for this passage is __________.A. International Arbitrators: Causes and SolutionsB. Arbitrators: Causes and SolutionsC. Arbitrators: Problems in PracticeD. International Arbitrators and Conflicts of Interests88. The expression "They may treat" refers to __________.A. arbitrators and judges B. national legal systemsC. experiences D. disqualifying factors89. Courts and agencies __________.A. do not apply their regulations strictlyB. often consider arbitrators as judgesC. understand the general relationship between business and arbitratorsD. may be described by all of the above90. A third-party arbitrator is one who is chosen __________.A. to supplement the two arbitrators chosen by the contending sidesB. to reach a final decision after the two arbitrators have submitted their decisionC. by someone not involved in the matter in disputeD. as a pawn of the appointers91. A foreign enterprises contract is a bad idea __________.A. in all casesB. when each partner picks an arbitratorC. when third party arbitrators are involvedD. when a government agency is one side of the contract92. "Ex-parte communications" refer
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