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江苏省南京市、盐城市2018届高三一模英语试卷(Word版本,有解析)2018.01.18第二部分 英语知识运用(共两节,满分 35 分) 第一节 单项填空(共 15 小题:每小题 1 分,满分 15 分) 请认真阅读下面各题,从所给的 A、B、C、D 四个选项中,选出最佳选项,并在答 题卡上将该项涂黑。 21. They all sat together at table, laughing andstories after many years‟ separation.A. circulatingB. swappingC. spreadingD. plotting22. The movie Coco wraps twothemes --- pursuing dreams, and how we remember loved ones --- in a colorful, culturally specific package.A. contemporaryB. religiousC. historicalD. universal23. --- Father always instructs me to do kind acts and bring more joy into the world around us.--- That‟s great. Smallcan often create huge blessings.A. gesturesB. impactsC. schemesD. concepts24. It is difficult for one tothe manners of another world when he doesn‟t know what they are.A. see toB. tend toC. amount toD. subscribe to25. --- What about a self-drive trip to Tibet this winter vacation?--- It soundsmarvellous, but I won‟t be available at that time.A. simplyB. equallyC. firmlyD. merely26. , you need to be failing more if you are expected to succeed in the end.A. Strange as might it seemB. As it might seem strangeC. As strange it might seemD. Strange as it might seem27. --- When do you think I can access Blackberry App World on my computer?--- Not until youyour device password correctly.A. enteredB. will enterC. have enteredD. will have entered28. White snowthe small village after a big snowfall, tourists found themselves stepping into a fantastic fairyland.A. blanketingB. blanketedC. being blanketedD. to blanket29. The best books are treasures of good words and golden thoughts,_, remembered and cherished, become our constant companions.A. thatB. whichC. whereD. where30. During my first year abroad, I was so busy studying and meeting new people that I did not phone my parents as often as.A. shouldB. wouldC. should haveD. would have31. ---David has beensince he got the offer in this company.---He has to. You know, the boss is a fault-finder.A. facing the musicB. crying for the moonC. walking on eggshellD. waking a sleeping dog32. Men who stay fit can lower their risk of dying from a heart condition by 30% as compared with those who are.A. out of orderB. out of placeC. out of shapeD. out of control33. Most people have to get to a point where they don‟t have a choicethey will change something.A. sinceB. beforeC. whileD. once34. Our hearth iswe make of it—give it attention and it improves; give it none and it weakens.A. whatB. whetherC. howD. who35. ---Making a computer program is a Herculean task for me. Can you give me a hand?---Oh,. Turn to Jackson, who is an expert in it.A. it counts for nothingB. it‟s not the caseC. it doesn‟t hurt to askD. it‟s all Greek to me第二节 完形填空(共 20 小题:每小题 1 分,满分 20 分) 请认真阅读下列短文,从短文后各题所给的 A、B、C、D 四个选项中,选出最佳选 项,并在答题卡上将该项涂黑。 When Katherine and her daughter drove past Katherine‟s beloved old home, she would say, “I‟d like to have that house back.” On her 90th birthday, that wish came true.All Katherine wanted for her 90th birthday was to36her childhood home. Her daughter, Emily wasn‟t so37on the idea. And, as the old saying goes, you can 38really go home again. However, the mom and daughter often drove from their 39town to cruise past Katherine‟s beloved old home.One day, as Emily visited her local craft store, inspiration 40 her: Her mother could have her house back---in replica(复制品) 41 . Emily connected with Ray Meyers, a local retired dentist with a 42 for woodworking. Ray took precise measurements and 43 details with the help of the current homeowners.The replica home and the amazing story behind it deserved a special _44 . Emily arranged a surprise party at which the replica and Katherine would be 45 . But keeping Katherine in the 46 _ was a painful task.“Ray would ask me questions about the house,” Emily says of the planning47. “I couldn‟t remember everything48the last time I was inside was when I was a teenagerI would 49 Mother and start a conversation where I would say, „Oh, by the way, do you remember…‟ and ask her something about the house. She would give details from her memory about the 50 and the color. She would tell me 51 what something looked like or where it was in the house.”On the very day, Emily went to 52 Katherine to her house. “When we went inside, I was just 53 .” Katherine says. “There was a house load of people singing„Happy Birthday‟ to me.” Emily presented Katherine with the carefully54replica home.“I just couldn‟t believe it,” Katherine says. “I have 55 memories of that house. I have had several family dinners where we eat around it. I now turn on the tiny lights within it. It‟s so pretty.” For Katherine, it turned out that it is possible to go home again.36. A. accessB. decorateC. buildD. own37. A. keenB. softC. dependentD. hard38. A. generallyB. sometimesC. frequentlyD. never39. A. primaryB. temporaryC. currentD. permanent40. A. overcameB. struckC. failedD. amazed41. A. appearanceB. patternC. outlineD. form42. A. basisB. preferenceC. talentD. hunger43. A. composedB. compiledC. committedD. compared44. A. mentionB. analysisC. researchD. inspection45. A. congratulatedB. appreciatedC. exhibitedD. honored46. A. backB. shadowsC. cloudsD. dark47. A. expectationB. processC. advanceD. destination48. A. becauseB. tillC. as ifD. so that49. A. visit withB. stick withC. deal withD. hold with50. A. managementB. equipmentC. arrangementD. measurement51. A. brieflyB. partlyC. thoroughlyD. vaguely52. A. fetchB. joinC. welcomeD. receive53. A. embarrassedB. shockedC. inspiredD. confused54. A. sortedB. wrappedC. foldedD. restored55. A. recentB. distantC. fondD. selective第三部分 阅读理解(共 15 小题:每小题 2 分,满分 30 分) 请认真阅读下列短文,从短文后各题所给的 A、B、C、D 四个选项中,选出最佳选项,并在答题卡上将该项涂黑。AInspired by the USA’s recent solar eclipse(日蚀)? These equally impressive events and activities will inspire your desire for a visit.Witness a desert superbloomOccasionally, the normally dry Mojave Desert, Sonoran Desert, and Chihuahuan Desert will burst into a carpet of yellow, purple, and pink flowers in spring. This is a surperbloom, and it happens if there’s significant rainfall between September and November. There’s one wildflower bloom every 5.3 years on average, and a superbloom on average once every11.2 years.WHERE TO GO: Death Valley National Park, California, the USA WHEN TO GO: February—MarchWatching rockets launchingEvery launch is very impressive and exciting because you don’t know what will happen until the last moment. You hear the fire and fury for several minutes—seeing a launch in person is a billion times better than watching on TV. The current hot ticket, though, is going to watch a SpaceX reusable rocket launch, then land back at Cape Canaveral.WHERE TO GO: Wallops Fights Facility, Virginia or Kennedy Space Center, Florida BEST TIME TO GO: Check www.kennedyspacecenter.com or www.nasa.govEnjoy a never-ending lightning stormThink lighting never strikes twice? The odds are more generous over the mouth of the Catatumbo River at Lake Maracaibo, Venezuela, which hosts lighting storms for up to 297 nights a year, thanks to its unique geographical location. “Watching the Catatumbo lightning is an experience you will get nowhere else,” says Jonas Piontek, a German photographer who has travelled there twice to capture the storms. “You are basically isolated from everyone no network, no Internet, no real civilization around. It’s just you and nature, and one of the best shows on Earth.”WHERE TO GO: Catatumbo Camp, Venezuela WHEN TO GO: October—November56. what causes a superbloom to happen in the desert?A. Steady rainfall in a year.B. Occasionally rainfall in winter.C. Heavy rainfall in spring.D. Abnormal rainfall in autumn.57. If you want to escape from reality, you can go to.A. Mojave DesertB. Wallops Flight FaacilitiesC. Catatumbo CampD. Death Valley National ParkBIf every public interaction were filmed, would the world be a better place? Common sense suggests it would, and to some extent, we already live in such a world, with closed-circuit television cameras everywhere and smart phones in every pocket.However, the routine filming of everyday life is about to go to the next level. A number of countries are rolling out body cams for police officers and other public-facing agencies such as school.Private citizens are getting in on the act too: cyclists increasingly wear headcams as an insurance against aggressive drivers. As camera technology gets smaller and cheaper, it isn‟t hard to foresee a future where we‟re all filming everything all the time, in every direction. Would that be a good thing?The available evidence suggests that it discourages behavior such as police brutality. Another upside is that it would be harder to get away with crimes or to escape blame for accidents. But a world on camera could have subtle negative effects. The flood of data we pour into the hands of Google, Facebook and others has already proved a mixed blessing. Those companies would no doubt be willing to upload and store our body-cam data for free,probably with the assistance of machine learning algorithms(算法)---but at what cost toprivacy and freedom of choice? Body-cam data could also create a legal mine field. Disputes over the validity and interpretation of police footage(执法镜头)have already surfaced.Eventually, events not caught on camera could be treated as if they didn‟t happen, like a tree falling in the forest. Alternatively, footage could be faked or doctored to escape blame or incriminate others.Of course, there‟s always the argument that if you‟re not doing anything wrong, you have nothing to fear. But most people have done something embarrassing, or even illegal, that they regret and would prefer hadn‟t been caught on film. People already inspect their social media feeds---or avoid doing anything inadequate in public---for fear of damaging their reputation. Would widespread application of body cams have a further frightening effect on our freedom? The always-on-camera world could even threaten some of the natures that make us human. We are natural gossips and backbiters, and while those might not be desirable behavior, they oil the wheels of our social interactions. Once people assume they are being filmed, they are likely to shut up. We are nowhere near that point yet where everyone will feel they need one as an insurance policy, but we should think hard about whether we really want to say lights, body cam, action.58. What is the benefit of filming to average people?A. Promoting the widespread use of smart phones in public.B. Fighting crimes or bad behavior by providing solid evidence.C. Guaranteeing cyclists and pedestrians more safety on roads.D. Encouraging better performance of the police and teaching staff.59. In the author‟s view, the data flooding into tech giants is fairly.A. comfortingB. puzzlingC. worryingD. satisfying60. Certain undesirable behavior is important because if.A. functions as an insurance policyB. warns us not to be caught on filmC. prevents inadequate social behaviorD. motivates human daily communicationCA so-called “smart drug” intended to improve cognitiv(e to protect the brain from altitude sickness.认知的)performance also seemsEven more people are visiting high-altitude sites for work, sport, religious pilgrimages and military can lead to cognitive effects, including memory loss and attention difficulties.There‟s little you can do to prevent these symptoms other than acclimatize—but this takes time and doesn‟t always work. A drug called oxiracetam might be the answer.ShengLi Hu at the Third Military Medical University, Chongqing, China and her colleagues studied the performance of male military personnel at altitude. All lived in towns around 1800 meters above sea level. During the study, they spent eight days at this altitude and then climbed for three days to reach 4000 meters, where they stayed for up to a month.Twenty participants took oxriacetam three times a day for the first 15 days of the study, while another 20 received no intervention. The man did tests of attention and memory at the start and end of the study and 20 days in, by which time they had been at 4000 meters for nine days.While all the participants experienced a drop in cognitive ability at 4000 meters, those who took oxiracetam showed a much smaller decline than the control group.Blood flow measurements indicated that at high altitude, parts of the brain‟s cerebral circulatory system contracted and dilated(扩张)in a way that promoted blood flow to the brain stem. This isn‟t surprising, since the brain stem plays a critical role in the maintenance of basic vital signs.The team also found that the brain stem received blood at the expense of areas responsible for more advanced cognitive functions. But in people who took oxiracetam, more arteries dilated, so blood flow throughout the brain rose. This may be how the drug seems to lessen cognitive problems liked with low oxygen.It isn‟t yet known whether diverting blood in this way could have negative effects in the long run.“The results are striking and imply that oxiracetam may be beneficial for helping to relieve cognitive deficits caused by altitude,” says Timothy Hales at the University of Dundee, UK.Oxiracetam is not licensed for medical use globally, but it is known to be a mild stimulant, says Hales. “Coca leaves have been used by native Andeans for centuries to overcome altitude sickness and this is attributed to their modest cocaine content. So perhaps it is not surprising that benefit can be derived from another, though mild, stimulant.”61. The underlined word “acclimatize” in Paragraph 3 is closest in meaning to.A. adaptB. interactC. existD. object62. What does the experiment done in China reveal?A. The higher altitude you are at, the slower your brain will be.B. At 4000 meters, the two subject groups show no difference.C. Memory tests are beneficial to relieving attention difficulties.D. “Smart drug” largely counters negative effects of altitude sickness.63. According to the passage, the root cause of the cognitive effects lies in.A. physical tirednessB. low oxygen contentC. cognitive trainingD. extreme high altitude64. What is the best title for the passage?A. Fight high anxietyB. Oxiacetam—a magic drugC. Keep sharp at altitudeD. Problems on high-altitude sitesDIf you read The Fault in our stars only to find a young adult romance of Hazel Grace and Augustus Waters, then you definitely underestimate the power of sophisticated symbolism, emotions, and literature John Green offers. I remember someone saying “You don’t read a great book; it reads you.” The fault in our stars is one of those books. It gives you the concept of what cancers are like, of how children in particular fight them, reveals and reminds you of your first love in life, always the youngest and the most innocent. I will resist my urge to tell you the plot and spoil the whole story, but I promise you every single page here is worth a great deal of excitement, humor and a bunch of other stuff listed down here which I think are interesting.The book gives lives to where we find deaths. The joy of living comes in when terminal cancer is nothing more than just, “a side effect of dying”, when you can laugh in the misfortunes of disease and say “ I‟m on a rollercoaster that only goes up, my friend.” The fault in our stars, however, stars with Hazel‟s “depression” like many of us starts a new day. Thus, Hazel‟s mother wants her cancer-stricken daughter to have a life, putting her in the Support Group. Later on, Issac and Augustus give her hope and something to believe in. The friendship tied by the shared intellectual curiosity and dreams. The story is so carefully plotted that even though Hazel doesn‟t go to school like other kids, her life is so in touch with ours. Everyone in a while will feel as if everything goes wrong, that it sucks at being what it‟s supposed to be. Bad grades, getting dumped, or even having a terminal disease. “The pain demands to be felt.” But after all, how long should it take us to give sufferings a break is subject to be viewed personally, since it would determine whether or not we become a type of Peter Van Houten, Hazel‟s favorite writer in the novel.John Green also cares about your dreams and ambitions. As you read through chapters, especially toward the end, you will find out Hazel and Augustus have widely different ideas of what they think is a “good life.” Here I find a reflection of my soul in Augustus‟s, with allhis desire to leave a mark on the world. Such a guy he is seeking for glories and meanings of life, fearing most oblivion. Others may find themselves, in contrast, caring not about recognition. They are like Hazel Grace, seeing heroism as an act of noticing and loving and sharing. Both ideas are beautiful and proofed to be fearless to be together despite any mental or physical challenges lying on their way to the pursuit of happiness. ①“Apparently, the world is not a wish-granting factory.” The book embraces therestless, innocent desires of young minds.② Would you care for a trip to Amsterdamwhen you‟re at the 4th stage of cancer to find out what happens after the end of your favorite book? Would you dare to love the dying, to be okay to love when you‟re dying, or to forgiveyourself for hurting those who love you in case you die?③_ In the book, you will findJohn Green mentions about how “some infinities are greater than other infinities,” whichmeans, I think, infinities can be defined, expanded and shrunk. _ ④Infinities are createdby taking chances, and if we fail while doing so, then the fault is simply in out stars, not ourselves.Funny, romantic, unputdownable and profound, The fault in our stars is definitely one of the best young adult fiction books in the century. It may touch the readers in many different ways. In here some will find humor, some will find encouragement, and some will find a book as a bond for a new love story. But if you insist that you only want to read a good love story in The fault of in our stars, that‟s fine too. It‟s an excellent book that reminds us of those who are important.65. The underlined part in Paragraph 1 implies A. readers‟ views tend to vary on the same bookB. readers choose books based on their tastesC. books are created to cater to different needsD. books can reflect readers‟ life66. According to John Green, what is the basis for the friendship between Hazel and Augustus?A. Dreaming of the same good life.B. Suffering from the common disease.C. Being curious and enterprising in life.D. Being attracted to each other for uniqueness.67. The author believes that he is somewhat like _ A. HazelB. IssacC. AugustusD. Peter Van Houten68. Where does the sentence “We can all learn a lot from how Hazel and Augustus take chances and make the best out of them.” belong?A. ①B. ②C. ③D. ④ 69. What is to blame if we fail to create infinities?A. Our luck.B. Our desireC. Our ability.D. Our identity.70. Who is the book The fault in our stars mainly intended for?A. Patients with terminal diseases.B. Kids wishing for a bright future.C. Adults recalling their golden days.D. Teenagers with some life experience.第四部分 任务型阅读(共 10 小题,每小题 1 分,满分 10 分) 请认真阅读下列短文,并根据所读内容在文章后表格中的空格里填入一个最恰当的单词。 注意:请将答案写在答题卡相应题号的横线上,每个空格只填一个单词。 Everything we do involves risk. In our professional lives, trying to avoid risk is itself a risk: work too cautiously, and we risk missing the chance to grow and shine, and our careers may suffer for it.We cannot avoid risk yet we often avoid thinking about it. That is a shame, because if we think strategically about risk, we can use it to increase our chances of coming through difficult situations with our goals intact. Rather than pretending risk doesn‟t exist, why not learn to manage it to our own benefit?The first step: Acknowledge the risks your projects face. Start by writing a list of the things that can go wrong. That may sound gloomy, but it‟s essential. Your list need to be very thorough, and probably never can be. But try to identify common risks-like the departure of a key colleague for a new job or the failure of a new technique upon which your project depends. The types of risks you identify will depend on the specifics of your work.Once you have a list of risks, evaluate each one in two scales:l Likelihood. Force yourself to honestly assess how likely each risk is.l Impact. Then think about how much damage could occur under each situation.Now it‟s time to draft a second, more-detailed list. Go back through your initial list and consider how you might make each potential negative outcome less likely to occur, and also how you might minimize the damage to your project if one does happen. In project-management term, this step is known as risk mitigation. A mitigation is anything that makes a risk less likely to spoil your overall goal.Once you have drafted your list of mitigations, the final step is to go down that list and think about which ones are “worth it”. Look at all the information you‟ve gathered about your risks and mitigations, and make a call about what it makes sense to do. You probably have more intuition in this area than you realize, because most of us instinctively do risk-mitigation calculations in the nonwork areas of our lives. For instance, every time you decide whether or not to buy a guarantee on a new electronic toy, you‟re doing this calculation in your head.You have probably been intuitively doing some sort of risk analysis in your work life, too. Moving to a more explicit analysis (but one that is more qualitative than quantitative-unless you like to play with numbers) can encourage you to acknowledge when you‟re making overly optimistic assumptions. And this gives you a better chance to make plans that will withstand the failure of at least a couple of those assumptions.Bringing your risk analysis out from the field of intuition can also help you overcome a tendency to overly ignore risk. It is easier to go ahead and take a big risk when you know that you have mitigations in place and a backup plan if things go wrong.Thinking about risk can be a big scary, but really, ignoring risk is the riskiest behavior ofall.Don’t Avoid Risk-Manage ItSupporting detailsRisk is 71.whatever we do.Risk is beneficial to us if we cope with it in a 72. way.Admit the risks and make a list of 73.errors. While evaluating them, make 74.for likelihood and impact.Consider how to avoid the negative outcome to the greatest75.and prevent your project from being 76. should it happen.Take advantage of your intuition to decide which risks 77. your effort by analyzing all the available information.Passage outlinellIntroductionllSteps to manage risksl79. are that you will make more realistic assumptions. Meanwhile, a backup plan will be made for you to80. up to failure.78.of riskanalysis第五部分 书面表达(满分 25 分) 81.请认真阅读下面有关公告图书馆的文字及相关图表,并按照要求用英语写一篇 150 词左右的文章。Libraries have always been at the heart of the communities they serve. They are accessible and safe spaces,providing access to huge resources of information and knowledge. Libraries have played an important role in helping generations of immigrants,young people, job seekers and readers to learn,stay connected and get ahead in life. Offering access to books,newspaper and,later,computers,they opened up a world of knowledge and ideas for millions of people. The public library transcends national and cultural boundarie — no matter where you are in the world,they are an essential part of creating and maintaining an educated and literate population.But today,public libraries are at a turning point. The way we access and consumeinformation has changed dramatically in the 21st century,and this presents major challenges and opportunities for public library systems across the world.The advent of new technologies has changed some of our reading habits. But our need for shared,community-centred spaces to find information and connect with others is unlikely to change anytime soon.98765432102014201520162017150001000050000少儿青年中年老年【写作内容】1.用约 30 个单词概述上述信息的主要内容;2.结合上述信息,简要分析公共图书馆仍受欢迎的主要原因;3.就公共图书馆如何与时俱进,应对新挑战提出你的建议(不少于两点)。【写作要求】1.写作过程中不能直接引用原文语句;2.作文中不能出现真实姓名和学校名称;3.不必写标题。【评分标准】 内容完整,语言规范,语篇连贯,词数适当。参考答案第一




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