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Introduction of Xi’anXi’an CityXi'an (Chinese: 西安), is the capital of Shaanxi Province, People's Republic of China. It is located in the center of the Guanzhong Plain in Northwestern China. One of the oldest cities in China, Xi'an is the oldest of the Four Great Ancient Capitals, having held the position under several of the most important dynasties in Chinese history, including Western Zhou, Qin, Western Han, Sui, and Tang. Xi'an is the starting point of the Silk Road and home to the Terracotta Army of Emperor Qin Shi Huang.西安,是陕西省的省会,中国人民共和国。它位于关中平原的中心在中国西北。中国最古老的城市之一,西安是最古老的四大古都,是多个历史上最重要的朝代的首都,包括西周、秦、西汉、隋、唐。西安是丝绸之路的起点,皇帝秦始皇的兵马俑。Since the 1990s, as part of the economic revival of inland China especially for the central and northwest regions, the city of Xi'an has re-emerged as an important cultural, industrial and educational center of the central-northwest region, with facilities for research and development, national security and China's space exploration program. As of 2015 Xi'an has a population of 8,705,600 . It is the most populous city in Northwest China, as well as one of the three most populous cities in Western China.自1990年代以来,随着经济复苏的一部分内陆中国尤其是中部和西北地区,西安的城市再度成为一个重要的文化,central-northwest地区的工业和教育中心,为研究和发展设施,国家安全和中国的太空探索计划。2015年西安有8705600人口。它是中国西北地区人口最多的城市,以及一个在中国西部人口最多的三个城市。The two Chinese characters "西安" in the name Xi'an mean "West, Peace". 两个汉字“西安”在西安这个名字的意思是“西方,和平”。Xi'an lies on the Guanzhong Plain in the south-central part of Shaanxi province, on a flood plain created by the eight surrounding rivers and streams. The city has an average elevation of 400 meters above sea level. The Wei River provides potable water to the city.西安位于陕西省关中平原中南部的部分,在泛滥平原由八个周围的河流和小溪。这座城市海拔平均海拔400米。渭河提供饮用水。The city borders the northern foot of the Qin Mountains (Qinling) to the south, and the banks of the Wei River to the north. Hua Shan, one of the five sacred Taoist mountains, is located 100 km away to the east of the city. Not far to the north is the Loess Plateau.城市边界的北脚秦山脉南部(秦岭),和银行的渭河。华山,五道教名山之一,位于100公里以外的东部的城市。北不远是黄土高原。Xi'an has a temperate climate that is influenced by the East Asian monsoon. The Wei River valley is characterized by hot, humid summers, cold, dry winters, and dry springs and autumns. Most of the annual precipitation is delivered from July to late October.西安气候温和,受东亚季风的影响。渭河流域的特点是热,潮湿的夏天,寒冷干燥的冬天,干燥的春天和秋天。大部分的年降水量从7月到10月下旬交付。Xi’an was chosen to host the 2011 World Horticultural Exposition, from April 28 to October 28, 2011. 西安被选为主办2011年世界园艺博览会,从4月28日到10月28日。1. Fortifications of Xi'an (Xi'an City Wall)The city is surrounded by a well-preserved city wall which was re-constructed in the 14th century during the early Ming dynasty and was based on the inner imperial palace of Tang dynasty.这个城市的周围是一个保存完好的城墙改造在14世纪早期明朝,是基于唐代的内在皇宫。The fortifications of Xi'an (Chinese: 西安城墙), also known as Xi'an City Wall, in Xi'an, an ancient capital of China, represent one of the oldest, largest and best preserved Chinese city walls. It was built under the rule of the Hongwu Emperor Zhu Yuanzhang as a military defense system.西安的防御工事,也被称为西安城墙,在西安,一个古老的中国的资本,代表了最古老的之一,中国最大和保存最完整的城墙。它建于法治洪武皇帝朱元璋的军事防御体系。The Xi'an City Wall is on the tentative list of UNESCO's World Heritage Site under the title "City Walls of the Ming and Qing Dynasties". Since 2008, it is also on the list of the State Administration of Cultural Heritage of the People's Republic of China. Since March 1961, the Xi'an City Wall is a heritage National Historical and Cultural Unit.西安城墙是联合国教科文组织的世界文化遗产预备名单的标题下的“明清城墙”。自2008年以来,它也在名单上的国家文物局的中华人民共和国。1961年3月以来,西安城墙是一个国家历史文化遗产单位。The Xi'an Wall is rectangular in shape and has a total length of 14 kilometer. Along the top of the wall is a walkway, which would typically take four hours to cover. It is built in the Chinese architecture style. As a defense fortification, it was constructed with a moat, drawbridges, watch towers, corner towers, parapet walls and gate towers. The wall is 12 meters in height with a width of 12–14 meters at the top and base width of 15–18 meters. Ramparts are built at intervals of 120 meters, projecting from the main wall. There are parapets on the outer side of the wall, built with 5,984 crenels, which form "altogether protruding ramparts". There are four watch towers, located at the corners and the moat that surrounds the wall has a width of 18 meters and depth of 6 meters. 西安城墙是长方形的,总长度为14公里。沿墙的顶部是一个走道,这通常需要四个小时。它是建立在中国的建筑风格。国防防御工事,这是由一条护城河,吊桥,瞭望塔,城楼,栏杆墙壁和门的城楼。墙上是12米高12 - 14米宽的顶部和底宽15米。城墙每隔120米,预计从主墙。有护栏外的一面墙上,由5984个枪眼,形成“完全突出城墙”。有四个瞭望塔,位于角落的护城河围绕着墙宽18米和6米的深度。2. Terracotta Army (Terra-Cotta Warriors)The Mausoleum of Qin Shi Huang and his Terracotta Army are located 40 km to the east of the city center, in the city's suburbs.秦始皇的陵墓和他的兵马俑位于市中心以东40公里,在这个城市的郊区。The Terracotta Army (simplified Chinese: 兵马俑) is a collection of terracotta sculptures depicting the armies of Qin Shi Huang, the first Emperor of China. It is a form of funerary art buried with the emperor in 210–209 BCE and whose purpose was to protect the emperor in his afterlife.兵马俑是一家集Terracotta雕塑描绘了秦始皇的军队,中国的第一个皇帝。这是一种艺术与皇帝埋在公元前210 - 209年,其目的是为了保护皇帝在他的来世。The figures were discovered in 1974 by local farmers in Lintong District, Xi'an, Shaanxi province. The figures vary in height according to their roles, with the tallest being the generals. The figures include warriors, chariots and horses. Estimates in 2007 were that the three pits containing the Terracotta Army held more than 8,000 soldiers, 130 chariots with 520 horses and 150 cavalry horses, the majority of which remained buried in the pits nearby Qin Shi Huang's mausoleum. Other terracotta non-military figures were found in other pits, including officials, acrobats, strongmen and musicians.兵马俑被发现于1974年由当地农民在临潼地区,陕西西安。兵马俑的角色不同,高度也不同,最高的是将军。包括战士,战车和马匹。这三个包含兵马俑坑了8000多名士兵,战车130辆和520匹马和150骑兵马,其中大部分仍埋在坑附近的秦始皇的陵墓。其他非军事人物被发现在其他坑,包括官员、杂技演员、强人和音乐家。The tomb appears to be a hermetically-sealed space roughly the size of a football pitch (c. 100 x 75 m). The tomb remains unopened, possibly due to concerns over preservation of its artifacts. For example, after the excavation of the Terracotta Army, the painted surface present on some terracotta figures began to flake and fade. The lacquer covering the paint can curl in fifteen seconds once exposed to Xi'an's dry air and can flake off in just four minutes.墓似乎是一个密封的空间大约一个足球场的大小(100 x 100m)。坟墓依然未开封,可能由于担心保存的工件。例如,在兵马俑的发掘,油漆表面出现在一些秦俑开始剥落和褪色。漆覆盖油漆可以在15秒内旋度一旦接触到西安的干燥的空气和能剥落在仅仅四分钟。The terracotta figures are life-sized. They vary in height, uniform, and hairstyle in accordance with rank. Their faces appear to be different for each individual figure, scholars however have identified 10 basic face shapes. There are however many variations in the uniforms within the ranks. There are also terracotta horses placed among the warrior figures.真人大小的陶俑。他们在高度不同,制服,按照等级和发型。脸上似乎为每个单独的图不同,然而学者发现了10个基本脸型。然而有许多变化中的制服。在兵俑间还有一些马匹。A collection of 120 objects from the mausoleum and 12 terracotta warriors were displayed at the British Museum in London as its special exhibition "The First Emperor: China's Terracotta Army" from 13 September 2007 to April 2008. Other exhibitions were held in Barcelona, USA.3. Bell Tower & Drum TowerThe Bell Tower of Xi'an (Chinese: 西安钟楼), built in 1384 during the early Ming Dynasty, is a symbol of the city of Xi'an. The Bell Tower also contains several large bronze-cast bells from the Tang Dynasty. The tower base is square and it covers an area of 1,377 square meters. The tower is a brick and timber structure and close to 40 meters high.西安的钟楼,在明代初建于1384年,是这个城市的象征之一的西安。钟楼也包含来自唐朝的几个钟。塔基础是广场,占地面积1377平方米。塔是一个砖和木材结构和接近40米高。The Drum Tower of Xi'an (西安鼓楼), along with the Bell Tower is a symbol of the city. Erected in 1380 during the early Ming Dynasty, it stands towering above the city center and offers incredible view of Xi'an. The Drum Tower got its name from the huge drum located within the building. In contrast to the Bell Tower, where bell was stricken at dawn, drum was beat at sunset to indicate the end of the day. On the Drum Tower's first floor, lies a hall which hangs many large drums. Each was decorated with intrinsic and beautiful Chinese writing, which symbolizes good fortune. Inside the Drum Tower there is also a drum museum, where a variety of drums are on display, some of which can be dated back thousands of years. There is a drum show performed here every day. The top of the tower commands a panoramic view of the city.西安鼓楼,连同钟楼是这个城市的象征。建立在1380年明朝初期,它高耸于城市中心,提供令人难以置信的视角西安。鼓楼因建筑物内巨大的鼓而得名。不同于钟楼在黎明时分敲钟,鼓是在日落时敲击表明一天的结束。在鼓楼的一楼,有一个大厅,挂着许多大型鼓,由许多精美的中国书法装饰着,它象征着好运。鼓楼内还有一个鼓博物馆,陈列各种鼓,其中的一些可以追溯到数千年。每天这里有一个鼓表演。塔顶可以看到城市的全景。4. Giant Wild Goose PagodaGiant Wild Goose Pagoda or Big Wild Goose Pagoda (Chinese: 大雁塔), is a Buddhist pagoda located in southern Xi'an. It was built in 652 during the Tang dynasty. The structure was rebuilt in 704 during the reign of Empress Wu Zetian, and its exterior brick facade was renovated during the Ming dynasty. One of the pagoda's many functions was to hold sutras and figurines of the Buddha that were brought to China from India by the Buddhist translator and traveler Xuanzang. The pagoda currently has seven stories, standing at a height of 64 m tall and from the top it offers views over the city of Xi'an.大雁塔,是一个佛教宝塔,坐落在西安南部。它建于652年在唐朝。结构在704年武则天统治期间重建,和它的外墙砖外墙翻新在明朝。宝塔的许多功能之一就是佛经和佛的雕像,它们被佛教翻译和旅行者玄奘从印度带到中国。宝塔目前为七层,64米高,从它上面可看到西安市全景。The Giant Wild Goose Pagoda and Small Wild Goose Pagoda are both spectacular towers and both are well over 1,000 years old and have survived great earthquakes. They protected Buddhist writings in the past.大雁塔和小雁塔都是壮观的塔,都是超过1000岁,经历了大地震。过去它们用来保存佛教著作。5. Tang ParadiseTang Paradise (simplified Chinese: 大唐芙蓉园) is a large theme park in the city of Xi'an. The park features numerous buildings, squares, and gardens, all incorporating features of traditional Tang Chinese architecture, such as eaves and cornices. Some features are named after historical sites or buildings.大唐芙蓉园是一个大型主题公园,位于西安。公园功能众多建筑、广场和花园,将所有功能的传统中国唐代建筑,屋檐和飞檐等。历史遗址命名的某些特性或建筑物。In the evening the many thousands of visitors are treated to a spectacular Lake Show, featuring Lasers, video projection onto water screens, fountains and other special effects.在晚上,成千上万的游客来此游览,壮观的湖,激光、视频投影屏幕,水喷泉和其他特殊效果。6. Shaanxi History MuseumThe Shaanxi History Museum has a large collection of artifacts both modern and ancient, which is one of the first huge state museums with modern facilities in China and one of the largest. The museum houses over 370,000 items, including murals, paintings, pottery, coins, as well as bronze, gold, and silver objects. The modern museum was built between 1983 and 2001 and its appearance recalls the architectural style of the Tang Dynasty.陕西历史博物馆收藏了大量的工件现代和古代的第一个巨大的国家博物馆与现代设施在中国最大的一个。博物馆收藏超过370000件,包括壁画、油画、陶器、硬币,以及铜、金和银对象。现代博物馆建于1983年和2001年之间,其外观回忆说唐朝的建筑风格。Shaanxi was the ancient imperial capital of China, having been the seat of more than 13 feudal dynasties, including the Zhou, Qin, Han, and Tang dynasties. The province is rich in cultural relics. With the completion of the Shaanxi History Museum, it collected over 370,000 precious relics which were unearthed in Shaanxi Province, including bronze wares, pottery figures, and mural paintings in Tang tombs.陕西是中国古代帝国的首都,已经超过13个封建王朝的首都,包括周、秦、汉、唐王朝。有丰富的文物。陕西历史博物馆建成后,收集370000年陕西出土的珍贵文物,包括青铜器、陶器的数据,并在唐墓壁画的绘画。Since the opening of the museum, it has followed the policy of collecting, conservation, publicizing, education, and scientific research, using its many historical relics, and conducted various types of display. The relics have also been exhibited overseas in cities in Japan, France, the United States, the United Kingdom and Germany.博物馆的开放以来,它遵循的政策收集、保护、宣传、教育和科学研究,利用其许多历史文物,进行各种类型的显示。许多文物也在海外进行过展览,包括日本,法国,美国,英国和德国。7. Huaqing PoolHuaqing Pool (Chinese: 华清池) or the Huaqing Hot Springs are a complex of hot springs located in an area characterized by mild weather and scenic views at the northern foot of Mount Li, one of the three major peaks of the Qin Mountains. The Huaqing Hot Springs are located approximately 25 km east of Xi'an. It was built in 723 by Emperor Xuanzong of the Tang dynasty as part of the Huaqing Palace, using the locally-occurring geothermal heating, and is famous as the supposed scene of Xuanzong's romance with his consort Yang Guifei. This site was also the scene of the 1936 Xi'an Incident, when Chiang Kai-shek was kidnapped by former warlord Zhang Xueliang and forced to participate in a United Front with the Chinese Communist Party to oppose Japanese encroachment on China. Huaqing Pool is now an important tourist spot, classified as a AAAAA scenic area by the China National Tourism Administration.华清池或唐代温泉是一个复杂的温泉位于一个区域以温和的天气和风景的观点在北方的山,三个主要的秦山脉的山峰。唐代温泉位于西安以东约25公里。它建于723年,明宣宗皇帝唐代作为唐代宫的一部分,使用locally-occurring地热供暖,是著名的明宣宗的浪漫的场景和他的配偶杨Guifei。这个网站也是现场1936西安事变,蒋介石被绑架时前军阀张学良、被迫参加统一战线与中国共产党反对日本入侵中国。华清池现在是一个重要的旅游景点,归类为中国国家旅游局五星级景区。注:以上内容来源于维基百科(英文版),借助有道词典进行的英译汉。仅供参考。




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