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西安小吃的英文翻译钟楼         Bell tower 大雁塔       Big wild goose pagoda 兵马俑       Emperor Qin's terra-cotta warriors and horses 回民街       HUI minority street 羊肉泡馍     cruded pancake in mutton soup 凉皮         cold rice noodles 汤圆         sweet dumpling 肉夹馍       chinese hamburger 烧饼     Clay oven rolls 油条     Fried bread stick 韭菜盒    Fried leek dumplings 水饺     Boiled dumplings 蒸饺     Steamed dumplings 饭团     Rice and vegetable roll 皮蛋     100-year egg 咸鸭蛋    Salted duck egg 豆浆     Soybean milk 糯米饭    Glutinous rice 卤肉饭    Braised pork rice 蛋炒饭    Fried rice with egg 地瓜粥    Sweet potato congee 馄饨面    Wonton & noodles 刀削面    Sliced noodles 麻辣面    Spicy hot noodles 麻酱面    Sesame paste noodles 米粉     Rice noodles 炒米粉    Fried rice noodles 鱼丸汤    Fish ball soup 紫菜汤    Seaweed soup 酸辣汤    Sweet & sour soup 馄饨汤    Wonton soup 糖葫芦    Tomatoes on sticks 长寿桃    Longevity Peaches芝麻球    Glutinous rice sesame balls 麻花     Hemp flowers豆花     Tofu pudding 牡蛎煎    Oyster omelet臭豆腐    Stinky tofu (Smelly tofu) 油豆腐    Oily bean curd麻辣豆腐   Spicy hot bean curd 虾片     Prawn cracker虾球     Shrimp balls 春卷     Spring rolls蛋卷     Chicken rolls 碗糕     Salty rice pudding 红豆糕    Red bean cake 绿豆糕    Bean paste cake 糯米糕    Glutinous rice cakes 萝卜糕    Fried white radish patty芋头糕    Taro cake 肉丸     Rice-meat dumplings豆干     Dried tofu 火锅     Hot potThe Huaqing Hot springGood morning, ladies and gentlemen. Now we are in the famous imperial park- Huaqing Hot spring. It is located at the foot of Mt. Lishan, about 35 kilometers east of Xi’an. Because it was a natural hot spring, it became a very famous scenic spot.Ahead of us is the Mt. Lishan, a branch of Qinling range. It is covered with pines and cypresses and looks very much like a dark green galloping horse from a long distance. In ancient China, a black horse was called “Li”, and this is how it got its name- Li shan mountain.Have you noticed the little tower on the top of this hill? This is the famous Remains of a beacon tower from the western Zhou dynasty over 3000 years ago. There are two famous sayings related with it: “a single smile costs 1000 pieces of gold” and “the sovereign rulers are fooled by the beacon fire”.Well, let’s come back to the Huaqing Hot spring. Historically, during the western Zhou Dynasty, a stone pool was built and was given the name of Li shan tang. The site was enlarged into a bigger palace during the Han Dynasty, and was renamed Li Palace. During the Tang Dynasty, Emperor Xuanzong had a walled palace built around the Li Hill. It was known as Huaqing Place.As we know, the Huaqing Hall was destroyed at the end of the Tang dynasty, and what is open to the public today, was rebuilt afterwards according to the Tang dynasty style on the original site. You see all the construction here was rebuilt in 1959, so it looks new.Entering from the west gate ,we see the nine dragon pool.In front of it is the frost flying hall. In Tang dynasty , emperor Xuan Zong and his favorite concubine lady Yang used to make their home here since it was cold in the capital Chang’an . It was said that the steam went straight up, when it met the cold air, it turned into frost. Then you can see the frost flying in the wind very beautiful. Therefore, it got its name---the frost flying Hall.Now let’s look at the second part-Huaqing Imperial pool museum which was discovered in April, 1982. As you see, the ruins of the 5 imperial pools are the Crabapple pool, the Lotus flower Pool, the Shang Shi Pool the Crown Prince Pool and the Star Pool. The Crabapple Pool was the private bathing pool for lady Yang herself. And the lotus flower pool was the private bathing pool for emperor XuanZong himself. Shangshi Pool, was the public bathing pool for the high ranking officials in the court. As for the Star Pool, it was said that emperor Tai zong, liked to bath here very much. The spring water contains lots of minerals, which makes it suitable for bathing and is helpful for curing some diseases. So people all like it very much and maybe this is the reason why many rulers chose this place as a capital in winters.Huaqing Hot Spring is not only famous for its ancient history, but also for its modern history.Now please follow me to the five-room hall where the Xi’an Incident took place. The Xi’an incident happened on December 12, 1936, the two great generals, Zhang xueliang and Yang hucheng, took armed remonstrance to force jiang jieshi , China Nationalist’s leader,to fight against the Japanese invaders when China was in danger. This is the famous Xi’an incidents.In the third room Hall, you can also see some pictures and the contemporary newspapers ,they well described the details about the Xi’an Incident.Please look at that pavilion halfway up Li Hill. That was built by one of Chiang’s favorite generals in order to commemorate this incident. Originally, this pavilion was named Justice Pavilion. After 1949, it was renamed Catching-Chiang Pavilion. Now it has the name “the Remonstration Pavilion”. Iron chains and rings are available all the way up to the crevice east of the pavilion by which visitors can climb up and take a look at his shelter.After visiting the five room hall, here we are in the Pear garden. This is the birthplace of Chinese operas. Over 1300 years ago, emperor xuanzong-the great musician and Lady Yang---the great dancer established Jiao Fang---the imperial music and dance school right here. They not only taught the boys and girls music and dance , but also composed music and practiced dances by themselves. It’s so beautiful and elegant that even today it’s still popular for young and old, men and women. Emperor Xuanzong and Lady Yang were greatly devoted to Chinese music and dance.Tonight, you will enjoy some music and dances they created at that time---the recreated Tang Dynasty Show. I’m sure you will enjoy urself very much. Ok, ladies and gentlemen. So much for the Huaqing Hot spring Palace. Next, it’s your time.you can walk around and take some pictures. Enjoy yourself and watch the step please. Thank you for listening.~女士们、先生们:   大家好!现在我们来到了著名的皇家园林——华清池。这里山清水秀,风景迷人,历史悠久。华清池作为历代帝王的离宫别苑和游览胜地,已经有近3000年的历史了。相传周幽王曾在这里建造骊宫;秦始皇时砌石起宇,改名为“骊山汤”;盛唐时期的唐玄宗李隆基又加宫殿大加扩建,起名为“冬宫”。每年冬天十月李隆基带杨玉环来华清宫避寒,直到第二年春天才回到都城长安。目前,华清宫占地面积130亩,仅相当于唐代的核心部分。按它的区域划分,大致可分为三个区:东边是沐浴区,西边的风景名胜区,南边是文物保护区。  大家现在所处的就是华清宫的风景名胜区。眼前的湖叫做“九龙湖”,为什么叫它九龙湖呢?大家看远处的长堤下有八条小龙,再往上看,还有一条老龙,关于这九条龙有一个传说,据说在大禹治水时期,关中发生了大旱,玉帝便派八条小龙为人间普降甘露。当旱情刚刚缓解后,众小龙贪玩,导致旱情再度加剧。玉帝一怒之下将八条小龙压在长堤之下,长堤两边各压晨旭亭和晚霞亭;将老龙压在龙吟榭下,让他监视着八条小龙终日口吐清泉,为民灌田。我们都知道“骊山晚照”是关中八景之一,每当夕阳西下,晚霞亭上的琉璃瓦在落日的余晖下闪闪发光,异常美丽。由于九龙湖的面积比较小,所以皇帝不可能在上面划船,因此他修建了一个石船停靠在岸边,叫做“石龙舫”,在上面举行歌舞表演和宴饮活动。  李隆基和杨玉环在华清宫里整整呆了13个冬天,他们居住的地方就是我们身后这座非常雄伟的仿唐建筑飞霜殿。为什么叫飞霜殿呢?因为每年冬天的时候,雪花漫天飞舞,银装素裹,唯有飞霜殿前落的是白霜,这是因为殿前的九龙湖整日热气腾腾,气温较高;又因为天子的寝室里有御寒设施,使室内的温度较高,不积雪,只化为白霜。现在飞霜殿里唐代的遗物已荡然无存,已经改为接待外国元首和重要领导的接待室了。   看完飞霜殿后,请大家转过身来看我们对面这座苍翠的山。这座山的名字叫“骊山”。骊山的得名有两个原因:第一,从远处看这座山像一匹青黑色的骏马。古代的黑马称为“骊”,因此它取名叫“骊山”;第二个原因是 ,当时在这座山脚下是骊戎国的所在地,所以它得名“骊山”。骊山主要由三个峰组成:第一峰,也就是最高峰,它是烽火台的所在地。在那里,曾发生过“褒姒一笑失天下”的故事;第二座峰,也就是骊山索道通往的地方,那是骊山老母殿所在地。骊山老母就是捏黄土造人,炼五彩石补苍天的神话人物——女娲。人们为了纪念她,专门修了老母殿,把她工蜂在里面;第三峰,是朝元阁遗址,也就是老君殿。当年就是在老君殿中出土了珍贵的道教雕塑老子像。唐代的时候道教非常兴盛,原因是道教的始祖是老子,俗姓李,唐代的皇帝都姓李,他们认为老子是他们的远祖,自己是老子的后裔,因此在第三峰修建了老子庙,便于供奉和祭祀。  “悠悠弯汤六千年,周秦汉唐多骊宫,李堂天宝称鼎盛,五代宋元紧替更。”御汤遗址是于1982年在温泉水源北侧施工的时候而发觉的一处大型遗址。占地面积1800平方米,1990年正式对外开放。我们现在所看到的仿唐建筑是为了保护御汤池遗址专门修建的。它的主要设计者是梁思成的关门弟子张锦秋女士。主施单位是西安市第三建筑公司。它的建筑工期只用了116天,因此也是建筑速度史上的一个典型。  现在我们就去看一下当年杨贵妃沐浴的海棠汤。大家看它的样子就像是一多盛开的海棠花,所以得名“海棠汤”。它是李隆基送给杨玉环的爱情信物,也就是唐代大诗人白居易《长恨歌》中所描绘的“春寒赐予华清宫池,温泉水滑洗凝脂”的好地方。贵妃池东西长3.6米,南北宽2.9米,池深1.2米,小巧别致。池身用24块青石砌筑,精雕细刻。池底正中有一个直径为10厘米的原形进水孔,大家仔细观察进水孔的周围残留与直径0.3毫米的圆砌凿线,它是安装莲花喷头的位置。池的边缘是弯曲弧形,池面恰似一朵盛开的海棠花,池正中的莲花喷头恰海棠花蕊。可以想象得出,当时池中的水花四溅,飞珠走鱼,蒸汽袅袅,人仿佛置身于半云半雾之中,确有飘飘欲仙之快。大家从海棠汤的断墙遗址可以看出,唐代的海棠池是砖和土垒起来的,并不是用柱子支撑起来的大殿,而且规模也不是很大。  我们现在要去看的另一个汤池要比这个大的多,这就是供应唐玄宗基李隆基沐浴的汤池——莲花汤。这个汤池是杨贵妃的干儿子安禄山为了讨好玄宗皇帝而专门为他修建的。这个池子是由38块青石砌成,两层台式,东西长10.2米,容水量达100立方米,是海棠汤的六倍。这个汤池当时雕刻好后非常的漂亮和豪华,它是用北京运来的汉白玉雕刻而成,主要是一些花鸟虫鱼的形象。池子修好后,皇帝急于下池沐浴,当脚刚刚伸入池中,由于水波的荡漾,池中的动物就像活了一般,张开大嘴要把皇帝吞掉。唐玄宗李隆基一怒之下,下令工匠把它们全部打磨掉了,只留了两个圆形的并蒂莲花。为什么要留这两朵并蒂莲花呢 ?因为据说杂器七敲节时,有就是牛郎与织女相会的七月七,李隆基与杨玉环在骊山半山腰的长生殿内山盟海誓:“在天愿做比翼鸟,在地愿为连理枝。”所以只留了两朵并蒂莲花,以表示李隆基对杨玉环爱情的忠贞。莲花汤中的水为骊山温泉水,岁为骊山温泉却不冒热气。我们现在就去看一下温泉水源。  骊山是一个死火山,地下水自然形成了温泉。这里是2号水源口,我们可以看一下温泉水的清澈度,再感受一下它的温度,刚好适合我们大家洗澡用。华清池共有这样的温泉泉眼4处,平均每小时流量达112吨,现在主要供于临潼的宾馆与疗养院沐浴洗澡用。温泉水含有多种矿物质,如:碳酸钙,石灰,硫酸钠等元素,适用于沐浴疗养,能治风湿病,关节炎,肌肉痛,消化不良等症及其它皮肤病,而且养颜美容。这里是骊山温泉最古老的一处水源口,也就是母系氏族时期姜寨先民所开发和使用的。2200多年前这里流下了“始皇温泉戏神女”的传说;到了盛唐,李世民将这口泉利用起来以后,在这里建造了一所御汤供他们洗澡,沐浴。我们现在去看一下当年李世民沐浴的汤池——星辰汤。  星辰汤建于唐贞观十八年,是唐太宗李世民沐浴的地方。当年这个汤池是一个天然的汤池,皇帝晚上在这里沐浴时可看到日月星辰,因此叫做“星辰汤”。星辰汤是一个不规则的长方形,是所有汤池中面积最大的一个,进水孔也特别大,直径为1米左右,所以当时水就像小溪一样流进来。星辰汤的旁边还有一个便殿遗址,是供皇帝休息和更衣的小房间,在那里发现了我们国家最古老的暖气遗址。在这个遗址处,我们可以看到几个正方形的柱石基础,而且周围有几个环行的凹道把便殿砸横整包围了一圈。通过这个凹道把星辰汤那边的温泉水引过来,绕着这个凹道循环不停的流动,水蒸汽就隔着轻轻的薄纱把房间烘热了。因此可以说它就是我们国家最早的取暖设施。  最后一个有建筑保护的汤池叫做“尚食汤”。“尚食”是古代官员的一种称谓。这个汤池也是等级最明显的一个汤池,因为它分为大间和小间,中间有石墙相隔。小间的地势比较高,是供等级高的官员沐浴的地方;大间就是等级低一些的官员沐浴的地方。在右边台阶下面有6个十分规整的小石坑,这些小石坑是做什么用的呢?书上没有记载。根据考古学家推测,这6个小石坑是古代官员的一种按摩工具。尚食汤的官员就是我们现在俗话所说的给皇帝做饭的御厨们,他们成天跑来跑去侍侯皇上用膳,脚上已经磨了一层厚厚的茧子。但是皇帝明文规定:“他们的手是用来给我做饭的,因此不能用手去动其它的地方,更不能用手去搓脚后跟的厚茧了”。脚上长了厚茧,非常难受,怎么办呢?他们就在洗澡的时候坐在台阶下面,自己挖了6个小石坑,把脚后跟与脚前掌放入石坑里面进行按摩,洗澡的时候就舒服多了。  在挖掘这些汤池的同时,也出土了大量的文物,都陈列在这里的文物陈列厅中,并分期、分室展出。史前时期主要出土了一些劳动工具和生活器皿。主要有石斧,骨针,石锉和骨簇。他们都是6000多年以前姜寨先民所使用过的劳动工具和生活器皿。最具特色的要数这个尖底瓶,它属于新石器时代母系氏族公社时期的一种文物。这两个石质管道是秦时的两个管道,距今已有2000多年,它们都是用完整的石头凿刻而成的。当时的温泉水就是用这种管道输送的。我们经常说到“秦砖汉瓦”,这里就陈列着寒带的两个大瓦当。瓦当有两个作用:一个保护椽头,防止雨水侵蚀和腐朽;第二个是起装饰作用。从这片瓦当,我们可以想象到当时皇家建筑的宏伟高大。隋唐时期是我国的鼎盛时期,因此这个展室的文物就有所不同了。  我们首先看到的这件文物是从莲花汤池出土的唐三彩龙头。唐三彩是唐代文物的一大代表,“三彩”一词并不专指三种颜色,而是指带有多种色釉的陶器。这个龙头是从御汤九龙殿中挖掘出土的,也代表皇帝就是真龙天资。我们现在看到的这个奇形怪状的东西,就是龙生九子的三儿子——蛮吻。因为喜欢站在高处眺望,所以人们把它建在屋脊上,这里有一组最具特色的浴具,大的叫陶翁,小的叫陶涧。陶翁是用来盛水的,陶涧是用来洗澡的,是专供太子洗澡的浴盆。这里还有一块石头,上面写了许多文字,但是有一个字最明显,写的是“杨”字,这块石头是从海棠汤中挖掘出土的,进一步证明了海棠汤就是杨贵妃当年沐浴的长堤。我们现在看到的这组壁画是唐代的《打马球图》,它形象地再现了唐代马球比赛时紧张拼搏的场面。马球运动起源于波斯,唐时传入,风行于宫廷。上至皇帝,小至文物百官,甚至连妇女都喜爱此项运动。唐代的宫廷禁苑都建有马球场,有些贵族官僚还有自己的马球场。唐代以后马球运动遍流行全国,直到明朝末年才衰败失传。  石刻碑室部分陈列的都是文人墨客和大师描写一些赞美华清池和温泉水源的颂词。最著名的一块碑石就是温州刺史元苌书写的 温泉颂碑 .元苌当时来华清池向皇帝启奏一些政事,有一个大臣赐他在温泉中沐浴,当时那时的等级不是很高.但是当他洗过以后,感觉非常好,马上写下一篇<温泉颂>刻在碑石上便于保存.此碑距今已有1370年的历史,被列为我国132块禁拓碑之一.御汤博物馆的参观我们到这里就结束了,转瞬之间我们就走过了史前时期,秦,汉,隋,唐的鼎盛时期。我们用感官感觉到了历史的沉重和我们中华民族的伟大.下面我们就去看一下震惊中外的”西安事变”发生时蒋介石曾住过的五间厅。  在参观五间厅之前我们先来了解一下“西安事变”。“西安事变”发生于1936年的12月12日,因此也称为“双十二事变”。“九、一八”事变后,日本侵占了我国东北三省,并不断向我华东进攻。在中华民族生死存亡的紧要关头,蒋介石去不顾民族危亡,顽固推行他“攘外必先安内”的错误主张,把以张学良为首的东北军调往西北与杨虎城为首的西北军合并,并进攻我陕甘宁边区。在我党“停止内战,一致抗日”的政策感召下,张杨两将军向蒋介石提出了联共抗日的要求,哪知蒋介石非但无理拒绝,而且亲自来陕西布置剿共。当时蒋介石就下榻在五间厅中。因为它有五间房子,所以称为“五间厅”第一间是蒋介石的秘书长肖乃华的办公室,也就是他的秘书室;第二间是蒋介石的卧室。发生西安事变的时候,由于情况紧急,他一听到枪声,就赶忙从后窗跳出。由于他逃跑的时候比较匆忙,连假牙都没有戴。当时东北军有一个战士叫孙铭玖,他冲进五间厅时,摸了一下蒋介石的被子,发现被褥尚有余温,猜想他肯定没有跑远,便立即搜山。终于在上午八点的时候把蒋介石从虎斑石处带下来,送往西安;第三间是蒋介石的办公室。在办公室的左窗上还留有当时“西安事变”时留下的弹痕;第四间是蒋介石的会议室。它也是一个秘密军事会议室;最后一间是他的待从室。在五间厅的旁边还有一个小型的建筑叫“三间厅”。它是当时将孝宣的办公室。1980年将其改名为文史资料室。当时,由于东北军是从左面冲上来的,因此这边的战斗先打响。我们从“三间厅”的玻璃和墙上可以找出当时的弹痕。大家可以进去看一下里边的照片与文史资料。  “西安事变”能够和平解决,我们敬爱的周总理有着不可磨灭的功绩。“西安事变”发生以后,我党应张学良和杨虎城两将军的邀请,派周恩来同志为首的中共中央代表团亲临西安。代表团到达西安以后,坚决执行党中央和毛主席提出和平解决“西安事变”的重要指示,为和平解决“西安事变”做了大量的工作,终于迫使蒋介石在12月25日那天,在“停止内战,一致抗日”的协议书上签字。12月26日护送蒋介石回南京,“西安事变”得到了和平解决。“西安事变”的和平解决结束了国共十年内战的局面,促进了抗日民族统一战线的形成和发展,也是现代历史上的伟大转折点。今天,海峡两岸的炎黄子孙祈求祖国统一,骨肉团聚的呼声也是历史的趋势和必然。“西安事变”发生以后,国民党的高级将领胡宗南为纪念蒋介石在此蒙难,修建了一个灰白色的水泥亭子。开始时亭子取名为“总统蒙难亭”,后又改为“民族复兴亭”,也叫做“正气亭”。当地的老百姓称其为“捉将亭”。但是为了缓和海峡两岸的关系,1986年正式更名为“兵谏亭”。  好了,今天我们华清池的参观就到此结束了。谢谢大家! Huaqing Pool is situated about 35 kilometres east of the city of Xi’an. Historically, the Western Zhou dynasty saw the construction of the Li Palace on the spot. In the Qin dynasty a pool was built with stones, and was given the name Lishan Tang (the Lishan Hot Spring). The site was extended into a palace in the Han dynasty, and renamed the Li Palace (the Resort Palace). In the Tang dynasty, Li Shimin (Emperor Tai Zong) ordered to construct the Hot Spring Palace, and Emperor Xuan Zong had a walled palace built around Lishan Mountain in the year of 747. It was known as the Huaqing Palace. It also had the name Huaqing Pool on account of its location on the hot springs.  Huaqing Pool is located at the foot of the Lishan Mountain, a branch range of the Qinling Ranges, and stands 1,256 metres high. It is covered with pines and cypresses, looking very much like a like a dark green galloping horse from a long distance. So it has the name of the Lishan Mountain (Li means a black horse).  The Tang dynasty Emperor Xuan Zong and his favourite lady, Yang Gui Fei used to make their home at Frost Drifting Hall in winter days. When winter came, snowflakes were floating in the air, and everything in sight was white. However, they came into thaw immediately in front of the hall. It owed a great deal to the luke warm vapour rising out of the hot spring. This is the Frost Drifting Hall that greets us today.  Close by the Frost Drifting Hall lies the Nine Dragon Pool. According to legend, the Central Shaanxi Plain was once stricken by a severe drought in the very remote past. Thus, by the order of the Jade Emperor (the Supreme Deity of Heaven), an old dragon came at the head of eight young ones, and made rain here. Yet when the disaster was just abating, they lowered their guard so much that it became serious again. In a fit of anger, the Jade Emperor kept the young dragons under the Jade Cause Way (玉堤), with the Morning Glow Pavilion and the Sunset Pavilion built at both ends of it respectively, to make the young dragons spout cleat water all day long to meet the needs of local irrigation. Besides, he had the old dragon confined to the bottom of the Roaring Dragon Waterside Pavilion situated at the upper end of the Jade Causeway, and obliged him to exercise control over the young.  The Nine-Bend Corridor west of the Nine Dragon Pool leads directly to the Marble Boat, which resembles a dragon boat on the water surface. In the Marble Boat lies the Nine Dragon Tang (the Nine Dragon Hot Spring where Emperor Xuan Zong used to take baths). At the head of his court ladies and hundreds of his officials, he would come to the Huanqing Palace to spend his winter days in October of the Lunar calendar and return to Chang’an City as the year drew to its close. The Nine Dragon Hot Spring was originally built with crystal jade, whose surface was decorated with the carvings of fish, dragons, birds and flowers. In it twin lotus flowers also carved with white jade could be seen as well. The spring water welled from the break of an earthen jar, and spouted up to the lotus flowers. Hence the name Lotus Flower Tang (the Lotus Flower Hot Spring).  The Gui Fei Bathing Pool was where Yang Gui Fei, Emperor Xuan Zong’s favorite lady, used to take bath. It was originally built with white jade, and in its center a blooming flower spouted water like a spring. The pool looked very much like a Chinese flowering crabapple; Hence its name the Chinese Flowering Crabapple Hot Spring or the Lotus Hot Spring..  Lady Yang used to make a stay in this pavilion to see sights or to air her hair after a bath. Therefore, it was named the Hair Airing Pavilion. Whether the sun was rising or setting, the pavilion was aglow with sunshine; hence the name the Flying Roseate Pavilion.  Southwest of the Gui Fei Bathing Pool stands a brick-built pavilion. On its head three big Chinese characters “Xi Jia Lou” (Fine Sunset-Bathed Pavilion)are inscribed according to the model of the most celebrated according to the model of the most celebrated Chinese calligrapher, Yu You Ren, here is the source of the spring water.  At this spa there are four hot springs. They have an hourly flow of 112 tons, and a constant temperature of 43°C. The spring water contains lime, sodium carbonate, sodium sulphate and other minerals, which makes it suitable for bathing and considerable treatment of quite a few diseases such as dermatosis, rheumatism, arthritis and muscular pain. The Fine Sunset-Bathed Pavilion marks the first source of the spring water, which was discovered some 3,000 years ago, roughly in the Western Zhou Dynasty. Its water flow averages 25 tons per hour.   Take up the steps east of the source of hot springs, you will gradually see the Five-Room Pavilion where Chiang Kaishek made a temporary stay during the Xi’an Incident.  The Xi’an Incident took place on December 12, 1936, and it is also known as the Double Twelfth Incident. After the Incident of September 18, 1936, the Japanese imperialists seized the three provinces northeast of China, and intensified their invasion of North China. This was the very moment vital to the Chinese nation. Yet Chiang Kaichek persisted doggedly in carrying out his reactionary policy “domestic tranquility is a must for the resistance against Japanese invades,” and commanded the Northeast Army and Northwest Army, respectively headed by Zhang Xueliang and Yang Hucheng, to attack the Shaanxi-Gansu-Ningxia Border Region. Inspired by our Party’s policy “let us stop the internal war and unit to resist the Japanese aggressors,” those two generals made to Chiang Kaishek the proposal of forming a united front with the Communist Party for the resistance. Not only did he reject the proposal, but flew to Xi’an to scheme the “suppression of the Communist Party.” And the slaughter of the patriotic youth. Out of patriotism, Zhang and Yang started the famous Xi’an Incident.  Very early on the morning of December 12, 1936 the Incident was impending. Zhang Xueliang, together with Yang Hucheng ordered a squad of bodyguards to surround the Huaqing Pool. They fought a fierce battle there, and wiped out Chiang’s bodyguards in one vigorous effort. The sound of firing came to Chiang Kaishek, and he was so terrified that he crept out of the window with his nightgown and slippers only. What’s more, he hurt his spinal bone, and lost one of his slippers while crossing over the back wall. He staggered up Lishan Mountain, and hid himself behind a stone in the crevice halfway on it. Those brave soldiers began to search the mountain immediately when they rushed into the Five-Room Pavilion to find that Chiang’s hat and clothes were still there and that his quilt remained warm. In the end they found Chiang Kaishek, and thus escorted him to Xi’an




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